Agency theory is a theory explicating the relationship between the shareholders, who act as the principals, and the managers, who act as the agents. Within this relationship, the … results of the company (Tearney and Dodd, 2009).
As a result, this could give rise to agency problems for the reason that this theory encompasses the costs incurred in solving conflicts between the company principals and agents and ensuring that the interests of these two parties are … in alignment (Ballwieser et al., 2012).
The purpose of this paper is to carry out an independent review of the literature on agency theory as it applies to decision-making in accounting, describing and explaining three important ways in which agency theory might impact decisions made in a company in relation to the recording and presentation of financial information.
Agency Theory & Decision-Making in Accounting
There are important ways in which agency theory……
Ballwieser, W., Bamberg, G., Beckmann, M. J., Bester, H., Blickle, M., Ewert, R., ... & Gaynor, M. (2012). Agency theory, information, and incentives. Springer Science & Business Media.
Bou?ková, M. (2015). Management accounting and agency theory. Procedia Economics and Finance, 25, 5-13.
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.
Healy, P. M. (2005). Financial Reporting Problems at Molex, Inc.(A). Harvard Business School.
Larcker, D. F., & Tayan, B. (2007). Executive Compensation at Nabors Industries: Too Much, Too Little, or Just Right?. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Case Teaching No. CG-05.
Mitnick, B. M. (2015). Agency theory. Wiley encyclopedia of management, 1-6.
Scott, W. R., & O\\\\\\'Brien, P. C. (2003). Financial accounting theory (Vol. 3). Toronto: Prentice Hall.
Tearney, M. G., & Dodd, J. (2009). Accounting theory. H. I. Wolk (Ed.). New York: Sage.
… tool which will determine an individual's degree of each one of the personality designs within this model (Huck, 1998).
Cloninger has created personality theory as being the biopsychosocial type of character and personality, which is founded on biological, neurophysiological, mental and hereditary research. It explains the connection ……
Pincus, A. L., & Krueger, R. F. (2015). Theodore Millon\\'s contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 537-540.
Millon, T., Millon, C. M., Meagher, S. E., Grossman, S. D., & Ramnath, R. (2004). Personality disorders in modern life. John Wiley & Sons.
Rossi, G., & Derksen, J. (2015). International adaptations of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: Construct validity and clinical applications. Journal of personality assessment, 97(6), 572-590.
O’Connor, B. P., & Dyce, J. A. (1998). A test of models of personality disorder configuration. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 3.
Lecic-Tosevski, D., Gavrilovic, J., Knezevic, G., & Priebe, S. (2003). Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: Associations in civilians one year after air attacks. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 537–549.
Strack, S., & Millon, T. (2007). Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon\\'s model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI–III). Journal of Personality Assessment, 89(1), 56-69.
Bajraktarov, S., Gudeva-Nikovska, D., Manuševa, N., & Arsova, S. (2017). Personality Characteristics as Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Depressive Disorder. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 5(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.022
Framingham, J. (2018). Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). Psych Central.
Is the Theory of Utility Maximization Reliable for Rational Consumers to Make Decisions?
The article by Rothman about Johnson’s book focuses on the topic of how … not know how to quantify the pros or cons of this or that decision. Thus, it is much more difficult to apply the theory of utility maximization, which stipulates that people spend their money trying to maximize the value of every dollar they spend. The reality is … spent in the Middle East and there is no return on this investment. Thus, his decision is rational and based on value maximization theory.
Should the argument developed in the Rothman article cause us to reject standard microeconomic theories about consumer behaviour? Not at all. Just as … cause us to reject standard microeconomic theories about consumer behaviour? Not at all. Just as no two people are the same, no one theory can perfectly explain……
Rothman, Joshua. “The Art of Decision Making.” The New Yorker, 2019.
… success elsewhere. In either case, nobody is particularly motivated by higher order needs relating to personal fulfillment or actualization (McLeod, 2018). The two-factor theory reveals a similar problem. While everybody at Sanderson has their hygiene needs taken care of, there is little left to motivate people because ……
Buckman, E. (2018) Motivating and retaining non-family employees in family-owned businesses. Family Business Center. Retrieved March 23, 2019 from http://www.fambizpv.com/articles/nonfamily_managers/motivating_retaining.html
McLeod, S. (2018) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply Psychology. Retrieved March 23, 2019 from https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
MindTools.com (2019) Herzberg’s motivators and hygiene factors. MindTools. Retrieved March 23, 2019 https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/herzberg-motivators-hygiene-factors.htm
… a situation in which the net worth method could be applied to investigate this corporate fraud.
As Schwab (1961) states, the net worth theory rests upon the idea that if one’s net increase exceeds the income reported, the corporation has understated its income; additionally, “if there is … should be included in the investigation even if they do not alter from one year to the next (IRS, 2017). Cash on…[break]…Net worth theory would show that the equity of the branch was not equal to its income and that the holdings of the branch were different ……
IRS. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.irs.gov/irm/part9/irm_09-005-009
Madlinger, J. (2006). Money laundering: A guide for criminal investigators. CRC Press.
Milne, R. & Winter, D. (2018). Danske: anatomy of a money laundering scandal. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/519ad6ae-bcd8-11e8-94b2-17176fbf93f5
Schwab, R. D. (1961). The Civil Aspects of the Net Worth Method. Wm. & Mary L. Rev., 3, 65.
The documentary showed how the criminal justice system is biased towards the whites while having a huge number of African-American imprisoned. ……
Phenomenology and Grounded Theory Approaches
Both phenomenology and grounded theory are commonly used approaches to qualitative research in the social sciences. While grounded theory and phenomenology can sometimes be used simultaneously in ways that “slur” or “blur” the distinction between multiple qualitative methods, researchers in education should … attention on the best method for exploring single, focused research questions and their real-world applications (Baker, Wuest, & Stern, 1992, p. 1355). Grounded theory has been described as a “practical method for conducting research” that shows how people construct meaning about their social world (Suddaby, 2006, p. … as a “practical method for conducting research” that shows how people construct meaning about their social world (Suddaby, 2006, p. 633). Therefore, grounded theory is sociological in origin and linked to the concept of symbolic interactionism (Starks & Brown Trinidad, 2007). The methods used for grounded theory approaches to research in the social science……
Baker, C., Wuest, J., & Stern, P. N. (1992). Method slurring: the grounded theory/phenomenology example. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(11), 1355–1360.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01859.x
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. eBook.
Norton, S.M. (2013). A phenomenological investigation into the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers who have presisted in the teaching profession. Liberty University Dissertation.
Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose Your Method: A Comparison of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, and Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380.doi:10.1177/1049732307307031
Suddaby, R. (2006). From the Editors: What Grounded Theory is Not. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 633–642.doi:10.5465/amj.2006.22083020
Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2001). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(6): 1485-1492.
Yalof, B. (2014). Marshaling resources. The Grounded Theory Review 13(1).
In a world full of problems, resilience becomes essential for survival. Resilience theory is based on the premise that therapists or social workers should focus on helping clients build strengths. The goal of resilience theory is to leverage existing resources and build core strengths instead of focusing on problems. This sample essay will describe what resilience theory is, where and how it is applied, and how it is related to other theoretical orientations in professions like psychology and social work.
… where and how it is applied, and how it is related to other theoretical orientations in professions like psychology and social work.
Resilience theory began within the social work domain. Now that resilience theory is in its maturity, it has been applied to diverse fields including organizational behavior, leadership, and sociology. When resilience theory was first proposed, it was considered a “cutting edge…paradigm shift,” (Van Breda, 2018, p.……
Ledesma, J. (2014). Conceptual frameworks and research models on resliience in leadership. Sage Open 4(3): https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014545464
Moore, C. (2020). Resilience theory: What research articles in psychology teach us. Positive Psychology. Retrieved from: https://positivepsychology.com/resilience-theory/
Shean, M. (2015). Current theories relating to resilience and young people. VicHealth. Retrieved from: https://evidenceforlearning.org.au/assets/Grant-Round-II-Resilience/Current-theories-relating-to-resilience-and-young-people.pdf
Van Breda, A.D. (2018). A critical review of resilience theory and its relevance for social work.
Zimmerman, M.A. (2013). Resiliency theory. Health Education Behavior 40(4)L 381-383.
My specialty area of NP practice is family nurse practitioner. My choice of nursing theory on this front is the Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit theory. To a large extent, this happens to be one of the most popular nursing theories owing to its succinct description of some concepts … of the most popular nursing theories owing to its succinct description of some concepts of great relevance to nursing practice. In essence, the theory advances the need for individuals as well as families to further their health and wellbeing by embracing the various practices associated with not … its basic format, self-care - as White (2013) notes - incorporates the patient in his wholeness (i.e. emotionally, mentally, and physically).
The self-care theory was first introduced by Orem in the 1960s. It was, however, not until 1971 that Orem outlined the theory in one of her published works titled, Nursing: Concepts and……
Asadi, P., Ahmadi, S., Abdi, A., Shareef, O.H., Mahamadyari, T. Miri, J. (2019). Relationship between self-care behaviors and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Heliyon, 5(9), 71-83.
Blum, C.A. (2014). Practicing Self-Care for Nurses: A Nursing Program Initiative. Journal of Issues in Nursing, 19(3), 40-47.
Fawcett, J. (2016). Applying Conceptual Models of Nursing: Quality Improvement, Research, and Practice. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Gross, R. Kinnison, N. (2017). Psychology for Nurses and Health Professionals (2nd ed.). New York, NY: CRC Press.
McFarland, M.R. Wehbe-Alamah, H.B. (2018). Leininger\\\\\\'s Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research & Practice (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.
Stein-Parbury, J. (2017). Patient and Person: Interpersonal Skills in Nursing (6th ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
… calm himself but staying firm. It is when officers lose control of their own emotions that escalation happens.
Discussion 3: According to conflict theory, what is “criminal justice inequality”? Provide an example.
Conflict theory posits that there are finite resources and groups are in a struggle for power over those resources. As a result there is usually … and so on; and there is a group that does not have power that struggles to obtain it. Karl Marx, who developed conflict theory, believed the workers were an example of the latter group and that they would rise up to seize power for themselves. Criminal justice … black population incarcerated in US prisons, indicating that blacks are not receiving equal fair treatment within the criminal justice system.
Discussion4: Social Control Theory
Hirschi’s social bond theory states that crime is committed because of lack of attachment, commitment, involvement, or belief by……
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