Theories Essays (Examples)

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Theory Practice Of Business Psychology In Johnson & Johnson Company

Pages: 12 (3695 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:41420615

… plays a pivotal role in all organizations as a key driver in facilitating employee morale and attainment of organizational goals and objectives. Some theories can illustrate a few aspects of motivation and how it relates to the workplace setting.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Workplace Motivation
Fredrick Herzberg … company goals.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory is considered to be one of the most prevalent and noticeable theories in the area of psychology and human motivation. According to research conducted by Kreitner et al. (1999), this theory is one of the ……



Asim, M., 2013. Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance with effect of training: Specific to Education Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-9.

Heneman, H. G., & Schwab, D. P., 1972. Evaluation of research on expectancy theory predictions of employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 78(1), 1.

Herzberg, F., 1987. One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, 65, 5.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B. 1959. The motivation to work. New York. John Wiley.

Hilgert, R. L., Leonard, E. C., 2001. Supervision: Concepts and practices of management. New York: South-Western College Publication.

Johnson & Johnson., 2020. Wellness 360: 9 Innovative Johnson & Johnson Employee Benefits for Mind, Body, and Budget. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from 

Johnson & Johnson., 2020. Careers: Healthiest Finances. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from .

Johnson & Johnson. , 2018. 2018 Health for Humanity Report: Creating Unique Career Opportunities. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from

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Theories And Free Will

Pages: 2 (680 words) Document Type:Essay Document #:25852191

...Theories I agree with the theory that humans are born with innate ideas. This idea was best expressed by Plato (2010), who argued that “man must have intelligence of universals, and be able to proceed from the many particulars of sense to one conception of reason” (p. 417). Locke’s idea of the tabula rasa eliminates the idea of the transcendental—the one, the good and the true—that were at the heart of Plato’s philosophy. Plato argued that the soul had these ideals imprinted upon it from the beginning, as a result of the soul’s having passed before God. Innate ideas were what allowed one to “recollect” or acknowledge truth or goodness when it was encountered, for a sense of these things was innate or in the soul: “this is the recollection of those things which our soul once saw while following God—when regardless of that which we now call being she raised……



Plato. (2010). The Dialouges, vol. 1. Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved from

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Gestalt Theory

Pages: 9 (2559 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:29092375

… a sequence of notes and chords over time to make out a melody. Visual perception is of course another way to test the theories of Gestalt psychology. A shape is comprised of many smaller elements. Those constituent parts, such as the lines that make up a square, ……



Corey, G. (2016). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Levine, T. B. Y. (2012). Gestalt Therapy: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Woldt, A. L., & Toman, S. M. (2005). Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

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Pages: 8 (2254 words) Sources: 7 Document Type: Document #:19731108

… facing negative involvements such as victimization and bullying by anti-gay students (D’Augelli, 2006).
Reflect (i.e Identify, compare and Discuss) on at least two theories of social work practice and indicate which theory seems best suited to deal/assist with the special need of those population. B. Briefly discuss … between the LGBT Youth and Homeless Youth and the…[break]…be best suited to work with your specific population.
Based on the aforementioned social work theories, there are a number of interventions that will be best suited to work with this specific population. Specifically, when examining challenges faced by ……



Bilodeau, B. L., & Renn, K. A. (2005). Analysis of LGBT identity development models and implications for practice. New directions for student services, 2005(111), 25-39.

Cray, A., Miller, K., & Durso, L. E. (2013). Seeking shelter: The experiences and unmet needs of LGBT homeless youth. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Cunningham, M., Pergamit, M., Astone, N., & Luna, J. (2014). Homeless LGBTQ youth. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Dank, M., Yahner, J., Madden, K., Bañuelos, I., Yu, L., Ritchie, A., ... & Conner, B. (2015). Surviving the Streets of New York: Experiences of LGBTQ Youth, YMSM and YWSW Engaged in Survival Sex. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

D'augelli, A. R. (2006). Developmental and contextual factors and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. American Psychological Association.

Durso, L. E., & Gates, G. J. (2012). Serving our youth: Findings from a national survey of services providers working with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute with True Colors and the Palatte Fund.

Foss, S. (2017). A Guide to Social Work Advocacy for Transgender Adolescents and Young Adults. Texas State University.

Higa, D., Hoppe, M. J., Lindhorst, T., Mincer, S., Beadnell, B., Morrison, D. M., ... & Mountz, S. (2014). Negative and positive factors associated with the well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. Youth & Society, 46(5), 663-687.

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Strengths And Weaknesses Of Various Organizational Behavior Theories

Pages: 14 (4343 words) Sources: 16 Document Type:Essay Document #:17367904

A Review of Organizational Behavior Theories
Because organizations are the primary means by which capital is earned and job are created, it is not surprising that there has been … real world. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current definition of organizational behavior together with a statement of three prominent theories of organizational behavior, French and Raven's Five Bases of Power, Complexity Theory and Resource Dependence Theory. An explanation concerning the fundamental concepts of … and Raven's Five Bases of Power, Complexity Theory and Resource Dependence Theory. An explanation concerning the fundamental concepts of each of these three theories is followed by an analysis of their respective importance to a business. In addition, an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of each … an analysis of their respective importance to a business. In addition, an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these three theories……



‘About Air India.’ Air India. [online] available: .

Arena, MJ ‘Understanding Large Group Intervention Processes: A Complexity Theory Perspective.’ Organization Development Journal, 27, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 49-53

Braunstein, JR and Zhang, JJ ‘Dimensions of Athletic Star Power Associated with Generation Y Sports Consumption.’ International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 6, no. 4 (July 2005): 242-245.

Buble, M and Juras, A ‘The Relationship between Managers\\' Leadership Styles and Motivation.’ Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 19, no. 1 (June 2014): 161-165.

French, JRP & Raven, B ‘Bases of power.’ In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in Social Power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1959.

Gruia, GC and Kavan, M ‘An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing Model for Solving the Maintenance Problem in the Aviation Industry.’ Global Economic Observer, 1, no. 1 (January 1, 2013): 135-140.

Hillman, AJ, Withers, MC and Collins, BJ ‘Resource dependence theory: A Review.’ Journal of Management, 35, no. 6 (2009): 1404-1427.

Jain, AK ‘Organizational Citizenship Behaviour as a Potential Source of Social Power.’ Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 45, no. 3 (January 2010): 396-401.

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Learning Theory An Assessment Of Applicability

Pages: 7 (2096 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:32370723

Learning is a complex process by which an individual acquires and modifies their knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and skills through study, instruction or experience. Theories provide a framework for understanding how learning occurs and the factors that influence its effectiveness. Learning theories are complex and comprehensive principles that explain how individual learn, develop, and progress (Rosser-Majors, 2017). They acknowledge that human beings learn differently and … progress (Rosser-Majors, 2017). They acknowledge that human beings learn differently and attempt to contextualize the learning process. Four of the most common learning theories are behaviorism, constructivism, cognitivism, and humanism. This text analyzes the learning process as portrayed by these four theories, the ideologies within each theory, and evidence-based application of learning theory to enhance learning.
Behaviorism Theory
Behaviorism theory emphasizes the role of external … environmental conditions play a role in influencing learning. However, the emphasis played on environmental stimuli as influencers of……



Al-Rawahi, N., & Al-Balushi, M. (2015). The Effect of Reflective Science Journal Writing on Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(3), 367-79.

Dotson, R. (2016). Goal-Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance. Journal of School Administration Research and Development, 1(1), 44-46.

Harasim, L. (2017). Learning Theory and Online Technologies. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of Learning: an Exploration. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.

Wan, Z., Compeau, D., & Haggerty, N. (2014). The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Processes on E-Learning Outcomes in Organizational Settings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(1), 307-40.

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Criminology Sociology And Three Theories Of Crime

Pages: 2 (570 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Essay Document #:12132142

The key assumptions underlying strain, control, and learning theories of criminal behavior are similar, which is why they are sometimes integrated or at least interrelated in criminological discourse. Strain theories evolved from Durkheim’s theory of anomie: the individual’s disregard for social norms arising from the breakdown of social cohesion (Crossman, 2019). A breakdown … strain—or psychological distress—resulting from unmet needs, especially when those needs are unmet due to sociological problems such as inequality, injustice, or disparity.
Control theories posit a set of internal and external controls on individual or even collective behavior. Social institutions are assumed to serve as mechanisms of … are assumed to serve as mechanisms of social control, also influencing individual behaviors via a series of real or perceived constraints. Like strain theories, control theories assume that social cohesion is important for normative behavior, whereas the breakdown of social cohesion leads to the disregard for the institutions……



Crossman, A. (2019). Deviance and strain theory in sociology. Thoughtco. Retrieved from: 

“Differential Association, Strain and Control Theories,” (n.d.). Retrieved from:

Rukus, J., Stogner, J. & Miller, B. (2016). LBGT novel drug use as contextualized through control, strain, and learning theories. Social Science Quarterly.

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Impact Of Agency Theory

Pages: 8 (2453 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:36993165

...Theories Agency Theory
Agency theory refers to the relationship with the principle and the agent, where the principle delegates its financial decision making to the agent. In most cases, the agent is the owner/executive of the company while the principle is the shareholder. Challenging scenario arises as there are two distinct sets of interest which cause decision making problems. Due to this complex and intricate relationship, conflicts of interest arises sometimes where the agent puts his interest before the principle’s causing problems to the principle sometimes. This is known as Principle-Agency Problem. It has long affected the key decisions related to the firm where the agent and principle both have asymmetric interest, causing any one party to suffer at an extreme case.
To remove the problem, the theory states that the goals of managers and the shareholders should be aligned and certain frameworks and practices should be adopted to overlook the……



Demsetz, R. S. (1997). Agency Problems and Risk Taking at Banks.

Heath, J. (n.d.). Uses and Abuses of Agency Theory. Business Ethics Quarterly.

Kuypers, A. (2011). How is dealt with the agency problem and what is the role of the board of directors in it?

Lumen. (n.d.). Agency and Conflicts of Interests. Lumen. Retrieved from 

Murray, I. (2016, September ). Wells Fargo and the Principle Agent Problem. Competitive Enterprise Institute.

Palia, D. (2007). “Agency Theory in Banking: An Empirical Analysis of Moral Hazard and the Agency Costs of Equity. Banks and Banks System.

Pennsylvania, W. U. (2017, August 08). Wells Fargo: What It Will Take to Clean Up the Mess. Wharton University of Pensylvannia.

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General Strain Theory Bullying Childhood Abuse

Pages: 8 (2254 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:59504241

… Theory
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. By analyzing GST, we can … research articles. General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. GST focuses on the negative ……



Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.

Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.

Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.

Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.

Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.

Study Document

Cognitive Theory Clinical Social Work Practice

Pages: 7 (2210 words) Sources: 11 Document Type:question answer Document #:73366521

...Theories 1. How does this theory fit with a clinical social work perspective?
Continuous concern with the individual in-situation is often regarded as social work’s most unique or distinguishing feature. In spite of the debate on where emphasis should be placed, both internal psychodynamics and environmental determinism are regarded as important for proper social work practice. Recent contributions made to the theoretical groundwork by cognitive-behavioral studies show that both needs can be dealt with simultaneously. Social work practice is anchored on the important, perhaps pivotal, notion that overall human behavior is usually the sum of both environmental and personal realities. Though yet to be developed thoroughly into a formal and widely accepted paradigm, the cognitive learning perspective draws from several perspectives including clinical experience, behaviorism, and cognitive psychology (Berlin, 1987).
According to the Code of Ethics published by the National Association of Social Workers (1996), there is a need to respect……



Adefolalu, A. O. (2018). Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy. South Afr J HIV Med., 762.

Bandura A. Organizational applications of social cognitive theory. Aust J Manage. 1988;13(2):275–302. [Google Scholar]

Berlin, S. B. (1987). Cognitive behavioral interventions for social work practice. National Association of Social Workers, Inc.

Gitterman, A., & Heller, N. (2011). Integrating Social Work Perspectives and Models with Concepts, Methods and Skills with Other Professions’ Specialized Approaches. Clinical Social Work Journal, 204-211.

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. (2012). Cognitive-behavioral practice and social work values: A critical analysis. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics.

National Association of Social Workers. (1996). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Nevill, D. (2014). Positive Interventions: Developing a Theoretical Model to Guide Their Development and Use. Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects.

Parks, A. C., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2013). Positive interventions: Past, present, and future. In T. Kashdan & J. Ciarrochi (Eds.), Mindfulness, acceptance, and positive psychology: The seven foundations of well-being (pp.140-165). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications

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