… other groups, this phrase does not mean much. This is because they face discrimination at sentencing and other stages of the criminal justice system. For example, the poor in the United States in America are more likely to be arrested, more likely to get low-quality legal representation, … likely to get maximum sentences than the rich. The paper’s goal is to investigate sentencing discrimination and disparities in the American criminal justice system (Spohn, 2008).
Sentencing Disparities and Discrimination
Despite the increased focus on discrimination and leadership changes at the federal justice department, disparities and discrimination … focus on discrimination and leadership changes at the federal justice department, disparities and discrimination persist at different levels of the American criminal justice system. This, in no way, means that the American criminal justice system is set up to discriminate against certain populations in the United States intentionally. What it means is that……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
… worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the world’s population, but it makes up 22% of the entire planet’s prison population. 716 people for every 100,000 in the U.S. will be incarcerated; moreover, 70% of those in prison will be there simply because they cannot afford to pay for bail (ACLU, 2019). Since most people live paycheck to paycheck in the … in the U.S. The American Gulag is like that of the Soviet Gulag: people lose their entire lives once they disappear into the system, where they become basically slave laborers for the corporations working for pennies on the dollar while incarcerated (Pelaez, 2019).
Advocacy groups that support … that support bail reform are The Sentencing Project, which is a Wasington, D.C.-based national reform group that focuses on racism in the justice system and lower in the prison population; The Marshall Project, which is……
ACLU. (2019). ACLU lawsuit goes after $2 billion bail industry that profits off poor people. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-lawsuit-goes-after-2-billion-bail-industry-profits-poor-people
Drug Policy Alliance. (2019). New Jersey Judiciary Releases Annual Bail Reform Report, with Additional Key Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.drugpolicy.org/press-release/2019/04/new-jersey-judiciary-releases-annual-bail-reform-report-additional-key
Pelaez, V. (2019). The Prison Industry in the United States: Big Business or a New Form of Slavery? Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289
Ziegelheim, D. (2018). Grassroots Organizations Are Leading The Way On Criminal Justice Reform. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/social-justice/the-grassroots-organizations-leading-criminal-justice-reform
My view of criminal justice has changed completely. Before this course, I was under the impression that the criminal justice system might be flawed—but what system is perfect? Now I have a much better understanding of the nature of that system and the reasons it is not just imperfect but in major need of reform if not total re-development. The reason I say that … like law abiding citizens (i.e., life course theory), and so they end up convicted of crimes and incarcerated. Yet once they are in prison, they are treated like chattel slaves of corporations who pay pennies on the dollar for their labor (Pelaez, 2014). They are not rehabilitated. … their labor (Pelaez, 2014). They are not rehabilitated. They do not receive mental health treatment.
That is a major problem. The criminal justice system is supported by for-profit private prison that make money off incarceration. That to……
Evans Cuellar, A., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2006). A cure for crime: Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 25(1), 197-214.
Pelaez, V. (2014). The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery?. Global Research, 31, 1-2.
… on these themes. [1: Angela Y. Davis, The Meaning of Freedom (San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012), 196.]
The Rise of the prison-Industrial Complex according to Davis
Angela Davis describes the rise of the prison-industrial complex as being “accompanied by an ideological campaign to persuade us once again…that race is a marker of criminality.”[footnoteRef:2] In other words, the … complex as being “accompanied by an ideological campaign to persuade us once again…that race is a marker of criminality.”[footnoteRef:2] In other words, the prison complex is there to herd blacks into a system, whereby they are branded like cattle—marked as being lowlifes, degenerates, trouble makers—and then re-introduced into society among the “civilized” set. Upon re-introduction into … before they were arrested; at which point they are now doubly repulsive to “civilized” society: they are both black and ex-convicts. Thus, the prison complex is there to serve a purpose: it……
Davis, Angela. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012.
Gomez, Alan. “Resisting Living Death at Marion Federal Penitentiary, 1972,” Radical History Review 96 (2006): 58–86.
Prashad, Vijay. “Second-Hand Dreams,” Social Analysis 49: 2 (Summer 2005): 191-198.
Sudbury, Julia. “A World Without Prisons: Resisting Militarism, Globalized Punishment, and Empire,” Social Justice 31.2 (2004): 9-28.
Q1. In the United States there is a constant argument against “coddling” prison. This includes such “luxuries” as television and exercise/fitness programs. What are the pros and cons concerning these activities?
But there is no evidence … such “luxuries” as television and exercise/fitness programs. What are the pros and cons concerning these activities?
But there is no evidence that making prison as miserable as possible acts as a deterrent or rehabilitates prison. In fact, having an outlet for physical and mental energy may be useful, versus allowing such undirected energies into less fruitful channels, such … mental energy may be useful, versus allowing such undirected energies into less fruitful channels, such as engaging in covert criminal activities within the prison. In fact, instead of merely offering access to gyms and television, an even more structured approach may be preferable. This might include access … an even more structured approach may……
10 keys to improving conditions in overcrowded prisons. (2020). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from: http://restorativejustice.org/am-site/media/overcrowding-en.pdf
Crimes in the U.S.
Contrary to US civil law, the nation’s criminal law represents a legal system which deals with penalizing those who perpetrate criminal offenses. Among the many criminal laws of the nation is its 1994 Violent Crime Control … of the time, Bill Clinton. The act served to allocate several billion dollars towards hiring more law enforcement officials and expanding the nation’s prison system. It was partially a reaction to horrifying criminal incidents during those years, like the shocking mass shootings that took place in California and … larger number of crime prevention initiatives, which included initiatives aimed at counteracting violent acts against females. Still further, the act did away with prison Pell grants as well as other academic initiatives for prison. At present, certain entities are advocating for the reestablishment of jail academic initiatives and prison Pell grants. Finally, the law included establishment of boot-camp- like……
Raymond Derrial Madden, Petitioner-appellant, v. United States of America, Respondent-appellee, 64 F.3d 669 (10th Cir. 1995)
Sepulveda v. United States, 69 F. Supp. 2d 633 (D.N.J. 1999)
United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Joanne Kwi Ye Estes, Defendant-appellant, 166 F.3d 1218 (9th Cir. 1998)
United States v. Madden, No. 92-6206 (10th Cir. Apr. 20, 1993), WL 332262 Books and article
Moore, R. (2017). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.
United States Congress. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Public law, (103-322).
The Establishment. (2016, April 12). About That Controversial 1994 Crime Bill. A Medium Corporation. Retrieved from https://medium.com/the-establishment/about-that-controversial-1994-crime-bill-c17ccfcc25fa
… higher than that of non-indigenous deaths. This has, however, also been linked to the disproportionately huge number of indigenous people in the Australian prison system (Weatherburn, Fitzgerald, & Hua, 2003). With that said, between 2005-2007 and 2015-2017, the gap in life expectancy between indigenous males and non-indigenous Australian ……
AIHW. (2011, May 5). Life expectancy and mortality of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/indigenous-australians/life-expectancy-and-mortality-of-aboriginal-and-to/contents/summary
AIHW. (2019, July 17). Deaths in Australia. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/life-expectancy-death/deaths/contents/life-expectancy
Altman, J. C., Biddle, N., & Hunter, B. H. (2009). Prospects for ‘Closing the Gap’ in Cocioeconomic Outcomes for Indigenous Australians? Australian Economic History Review, 49(3), 225-251.
Biddle, N. (2019, February 14). Four lessons from 11 years of Closing the Gap reports. Retrieved from The Conversation: https://theconversation.com/four-lessons-from-11-years-of-closing-the-gap-reports-111816
Biddle, N., & Taylor, J. (2012). Demographic Consequences of the ‘Closing the Gap’ Indigenous Policy in Australia. Popul Res Policy Rev, 31, 571–585.
COAG. (n.d.). National Indigenous Reform Agreement. Council of Australian Governments.
Crikey. (2012, September 25). Black government expenditure — it’s a white thing. Retrieved from Crikey: https://www.crikey.com.au/2012/09/25/black-government-expenditure-its-a-white-thing/
Department of Prime Miniter and the Cabinet. (2008). Closing the Gap-Prime Minister\\\\\\'s report 2018. Australian Government.
Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive … Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s … resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is a controversial option in the state correctional system and not one that is used with the same goal in mind as when Pennsylvania instituted the reform-minded approach to corrections. This paper … goal in mind as when Pennsylvania instituted the reform-minded approach to……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice system
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of female offenders are that this population is so small … include child care services, separate dwelling places for pregnant offenders, mentor programs tailored for women so that they can get out of the system and not become recidivists, and substance abuse treatment resources. There is also the need to promote support system for women so that they can build and develop healthy and supportive relationships.
These are challenges because women have different social needs than … different social needs than males and their interaction style is different and thus places unique requirements upon program providers within the criminal justice system. They are vulnerable to sexual harassment, and……
Bloom, B., & Covington, S. (1998, November). Gender-specific programming for female offenders: What is it and why is it important. In 50th annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC.
Without any set moral guidelines and stipulations, a country’s criminal justice system is not capable of accurately meeting the needs of its people. The role of the system is to penalize poor conduct and make sure that victims of crime are well compensated for any of their losses (Braswell, McCarthy & … crime are well compensated for any of their losses (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2017; Souryal & Whitehead, 2019). Ethics are valuable in such system because they offer both the victim and the accused fair justice application (Kramer, 2018). In this essay, the significance of ethics within the … offer both the victim and the accused fair justice application (Kramer, 2018). In this essay, the significance of ethics within the criminal justice system is discussed. Also, instances of unethical behavior, as well as the legal responsibilities suffered by the doers of such action, are presented.
Importance … by……
Braswell, M. C., McCarthy, B. R., & McCarthy, B. J. (2017). Justice, crime, and ethics. Taylor & Francis.
Kramer, L. (2018). Why Is Ethics Important in Criminal Justice? Legal Beagle. Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6386561-ethics-important-criminal-justice.html
News Services (2008, June 13). Woman gets $7.7M in false arrest case, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2008-06-13-0806130382-story.html
Sahakian, W. S., & Sahakian, M. L. (1966). Ideas of the great philosophers (No. 218). Barnes & Noble Publishing.
Souryal, S. S., & Whitehead, J. T. (2019). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth. Routledge. Case law
Indiana Supreme Court Disciplinary Commission vs. Dana E. F. DANIELS, Supreme Court Cause No. 49S00-1402-DI-133, (2015).
Jackson v. City of Chicago, No. 03 C 8289, (July 31, 2006).
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