… like law abiding citizens (i.e., life course theory), and so they end up convicted of crimes and incarcerated. Yet once they are in prison, they are treated like chattel slaves of corporations who pay pennies on the dollar for their labor (Pelaez, 2014). They are not rehabilitated. … not rehabilitated. They do not receive mental health treatment.
That is a major problem. The criminal justice system is supported by for-profit private prisons that make money off incarceration. That to me sounds like a big conflict of interest, and it is apparent to many…[break]…way that would ……
Evans Cuellar, A., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2006). A cure for crime: Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 25(1), 197-214.
Pelaez, V. (2014). The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery?. Global Research, 31, 1-2.
… the contemporary state correctional system do not focus on removing the deviant from society but rather on building up the character of the prisoner and providing work for the prisoner, education, health care, and support so that the prisoner can rehabilitate and re-enter society with a new set of skills that can be applied to sustainability.
These activities include earning a GED … (Florida Department of Corrections, 2020). By providing the average inmate opportunities to improve him or herself by using the time available in the prison to the best possible advantage, the corrections system makes improving the chances for rehabilitation the main prospect. However, there are still punitive approaches … all-out emphasis on punitive practices.
Criminal Justice Issues for Corrections Personnel and the Rights of Offenders
Corrections personnel have to be mindful of prisoners’ rights today, as the case of Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539 (1974) showed. This was……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice System
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in Prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of ……
Bloom, B., & Covington, S. (1998, November). Gender-specific programming for female offenders: What is it and why is it important. In 50th annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC.
… on these themes. [1: Angela Y. Davis, The Meaning of Freedom (San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012), 196.]
The Rise of the Prison-Industrial Complex according to Davis
Angela Davis describes the rise of the prison-industrial complex as being “accompanied by an ideological campaign to persuade us once again…that race is a marker of criminality.”[footnoteRef:2] In other words, the … complex as being “accompanied by an ideological campaign to persuade us once again…that race is a marker of criminality.”[footnoteRef:2] In other words, the prison complex is there to herd blacks into a system, whereby they are branded like cattle—marked as being lowlifes, degenerates, trouble makers—and then re-introduced … before they were arrested; at which point they are now doubly repulsive to “civilized” society: they are both black and ex-convicts. Thus, the prison complex is there to serve a purpose: it is there to oppress and marginalize a racial minority.……
Davis, Angela. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books, 2012.
Gomez, Alan. “Resisting Living Death at Marion Federal Penitentiary, 1972,” Radical History Review 96 (2006): 58–86.
Prashad, Vijay. “Second-Hand Dreams,” Social Analysis 49: 2 (Summer 2005): 191-198.
Sudbury, Julia. “A World Without Prisons: Resisting Militarism, Globalized Punishment, and Empire,” Social Justice 31.2 (2004): 9-28.
… are commonly denied representation and are pushed into accepting unfair plea deals, which all the same cause them to end up in the prison industrial complex. Aguirre and Baker (2000) note that minorities often cannot afford bail whereas it is easier for white defendants to post bail. … the prosecution offers in exchange for a lighter sentence. Of course, there is no such thing as a light sentence because once in prison, the jail cell follows one all his life. From that point on the African American male is stuck…[break]…exploit cheap labor overseas. It is … view them as threats to their way of life. So many whites feel that there is no problem with so many minorities being imprisoned. They view the ones who are not in prison with suspicion and see them as criminals who are walking freely about. The problem is inherently a cultural one and……
Aguirre, A., & Baker, D. V. (Eds.). 2008. Structured inequality in the United States: Critical discussions on the continuing significance of race, ethnicity, and gender. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow. New York: New Press.
Davis, Angela. 2012. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco: City Light Books.
James, Lois. 2018. The stability of implicit racial bias in police officers. Police Quarterly 21(1):0-52.
Lopez, German. 2018. There are huge racial disparities in how US police use force. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.vox.com/identities/2016/8/13/17938186/police-shootings-killings-racism-racial-disparities ).
O’Sullivan, John. 1845. Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17(1):5-10.
Pettit, Becky, and Bruce Western. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration." American sociological review 69(2):151-169.
Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 ).
The 8th Amendment and Prison Life
Not all of an individual’s Constitutional rights are lost the moment the person is incarcerated. On the contrary, it is there that … of the correctional system. The correctional system must, therefore, maintain a degree of authenticity and transparency so that society can be assured that prisoners are treated humanely and in accordance with their Constitutional rights. At the same time the correctional system has to take issues such as … when it comes to the rights of the incarcerated, the correctional system must be fair and equitable in their treatment and handling of prisoners.
Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539 (1974) was the United States Supreme Court case that set the record straight on prisoners and their due process rights. One of the allowances provided prisoners is their “good time credits”—and upon the occasion that these are taken from prisoners as a punitive measure by the prison,……
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . . Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Oaks, D. H. (1965). Habeas corpus in the states: 1776-1865. The University of Chicago Law Review, 32(2), 243-288.
Richmond, C. (2015). Toward a More Constitutional Approach to Solitary Confinement: The Case for Reform. Harv. J. on Legis., 52, 1.
Stojkovic, S., & Lovell, R. (2019). Corrections: An introduction (2nd Ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
Inhumanity in the Stanford Prison Experiment
According to Philip Zimbardo, dehumanization is the act of marginalizing another human being to the point where that person is seen … Effect,” and how it is pursued in “The Lucifer Effect” that Zimbardo describes as he recounts his own past experience with the Stanford Prison Experiment and in the context of the Abu Ghraib scandal.
What is Dehumanization?
Dehumanization is one of the most horrific experiences that can … factors that can lead to dehumanization, as Zimbardo points out. Power, control, authority, pride, and hatred—these are factors as well. In Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, he showed how normal, everyday college students could become cruel and abusive towards their peers when engaging in an experiment on power. … when engaging in an experiment on power. College students were selected to participate in an experiment wherein half of them would act as prisoners and……
Hong, J. K. “The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil.” Army Lawyer, (2012), 55-58.
Maslow, Abraham. “A theory of human motivation.” Psychological Review, 50.4 (1943), 370.
Rogers, Carl. Client-Centered Therapy. MA: Riverside Press, 1951.
Unkefer, Dean. 90 Church.
Zimbardo, Philip. The Lucifer Effect. Random House, 2007.
… punishment must be received. However, the punishment should by no means mean that the child must spend 10, 20 or 30 years in prison well into adulthood. That is what happened with Anthony Rolon: he spent half his adult life in prison…[break]…there are ways the justice system can go about handling this without destroying the young person’s life. Treatment through therapy, counseling, and other support … justice system has to adopt a treatment-oriented perspective because punitive justice merely leads to further breakdowns in society. The U.S. has the highest prison population in the world and that is a shameful reflection of the type of justice that the criminal justice system has implemented. Too … of justice that the criminal justice system has implemented. Too many people are being incarcerated, and the reason for this is simple: the prison industrial complex is a business and these incarcerated prisoners are used……
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Cramer, M. (2014). Parole Board releases 2nd man convicted of murder as juvenile. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/06/parole-board-releases-man-convicted-murder-while-juvenile/REwVVe3aR9leuRVMpZsN6O/story.html
Diskin, M. (2018). New law will put limits. Retrieved from https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/2018/10/11/new-california-law-means-teen-suspect-oxnard-murders-cannot-tried-adult/1535518002/
Fritz, J. K. (2015). Diverting young offenders from prison is ‘smart justice.’ Education Digest, 81(2), 53-55.
Jannetta, J., & Okeke, C. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement. Building Ladders of Opportunity for Young People in the Great Lakes States, brief, 4. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement_2.pdf " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… being committed in the first place through the deterrent effect. Third, the death penalty could save taxpayers a lot of money and reduce prison overcrowding, too. Arguments against the death penalty are valid but insufficient to withdraw from a pro death penalty position. For example, the death … certainty. The death penalty may not deter some people, but could be a meaningful deterrent for others. Keeping violent criminals locked up in prison for decades costs more money than the average taxpayer realizes, and financial cost alone could suffice to explain why the death penalty should … against which the death penalty would seem lenient in comparison. Also, the death penalty can be considered a compassionate alternative to life in prison. Prison is not a good life, but repenting for one’s crimes in those final moments of life could be quite cathartic.
Another argument against…[break]…young. … taxpayer—should not be paying……
ACLU (n.d.). The case against the death penalty. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/other/case-against-death-penalty
The Code of Hammurabi. Trans. By L.W. King. Retrieved from: https://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp
“Top 10 Pro & Con Arguments,” (2016). ProCon. Retrieved from: https://deathpenalty.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=002000
World Population Review (2019). Countries with death penalty 2019. Retrieved from: http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/countries-with-death-penalty/
… worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the world’s population, but it makes up 22% of the entire planet’s prison population. 716 people for every 100,000 in the U.S. will be incarcerated; moreover, 70% of those in prison will be there simply because they cannot afford to pay for bail (ACLU, 2019). Since most people live paycheck to paycheck in the … The Sentencing Project, which is a Wasington, D.C.-based national reform group that focuses on racism in the justice system and lower in the prison population; The Marshall Project, which is made up of journalists seeking to shed light on the justice system as it lacks transparency; and … pretrial process consists of
Bail reform statistics in New Jersey show signs of progress. According to the Drug Policy Alliance (2019), the pretrial prison population has declined almost by half over the past 3 years,……
ACLU. (2019). ACLU lawsuit goes after $2 billion bail industry that profits off poor people. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-lawsuit-goes-after-2-billion-bail-industry-profits-poor-people
Drug Policy Alliance. (2019). New Jersey Judiciary Releases Annual Bail Reform Report, with Additional Key Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.drugpolicy.org/press-release/2019/04/new-jersey-judiciary-releases-annual-bail-reform-report-additional-key
Pelaez, V. (2019). The Prison Industry in the United States: Big Business or a New Form of Slavery? Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-prison-industry-in-the-united-states-big-business-or-a-new-form-of-slavery/8289
Ziegelheim, D. (2018). Grassroots Organizations Are Leading The Way On Criminal Justice Reform. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/social-justice/the-grassroots-organizations-leading-criminal-justice-reform
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