1. Name the three (3) separate government components that make-up the U.S. criminal justice system explain their function and how they work together?
The three separate government components that make-up the U.S. criminal justice system of courts, law enforcement, and corrections. Imperatively, these components are dependent on one another and one would not necessarily be beneficial devoid … statements made. Secondly, law enforcement works in tandem with the courts in regard to serving warrants and subpoenas. The third component of the justice system, corrections, are employed in making certain that criminal remain under confinement, facilitate the transportation of convicts to hearings, and also partake in the supervision of individuals subsequent to their release from … as set by the 4th Amendment of the United States Constitution. Notably, these constituents were set up in order to guarantee a fair system for any persons that face accusations. Laws cannot be……
Ortmeier, P. J. (2006). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. New York: Prentice Hall.
Peak, K. J. (Ed.). (2013). Encyclopedia of community policing and problem solving. Sage Publications.
Perez, D. W., & Moore, J. A. (2012). Police Ethics. Cengage Learning.
Science Daily. (2008). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers\\' Physical And Mental Health. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
The New York Times. (2014). Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/16/nyregion/sir-robert-peels-nine-principles-of-policing.html
University of San Diego. (2019). The Top 5 Trends in Law Enforcement. Retrieved from: https://onlinedegrees.sandiego.edu/top-5-trends-in-law-enforcement/
What is criminal justice reform? It is the focus on improving the criminal justice system the implementation of evidence-based best practices, policies that promote greater equitability fairness, and systems that are more cost-efficient (National criminal justice Association, 2019). One area in which reform is needed is the issue of bail. Bail is the bond that allows an arrested individual … last for many months. If the individual has the money, he may post bail. If not, he is stuck in jail. Essentially, the system favors the rich over the poor (ACLU, 2019). There are many examples of abuses regarding bail—from the woman mistakenly jailed pre-trial, who ended … discuss the history of reform, pros and cons, incarceration rates, advocacy efforts, the current arrest and detention process and statistics in New Jersey.
criminal justice Reform Background
In the 1990s there was an attitude in America that the government needed……
ACLU. (2019). ACLU lawsuit goes after $2 billion bail industry that profits off poor people. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-lawsuit-goes-after-2-billion-bail-industry-profits-poor-people
Drug Policy Alliance. (2019). New Jersey Judiciary Releases Annual Bail Reform Report, with Additional Key Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.drugpolicy.org/press-release/2019/04/new-jersey-judiciary-releases-annual-bail-reform-report-additional-key
National Criminal Justice Association. (2019). Criminal justice system improvement. Retrieved from https://www.ncja.org/ncja/policy/criminal-justice-reform
Platt, T. (2018). Criminal justice reform in the U.S. has a long history of repressive outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.salon.com/2018/12/27/criminal-justice-reform-in-the-u-s-has-a-long-history-of-repressive-outcomes/
Vitiello, M. (2002). Three Strikes Laws-A Real or Imagined Deterrent to Crime. Hum. Rts., 29, 3.
Woods, A. & Rosnick, J. (2019). Mistakenly Jailed Pretrial, an Ohio Mother Lost Her Job and Kids. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/smart-justice/bail-reform/mistakenly-jailed-pretrial-ohio-mother-lost-her-job-and-kids
Ziegelheim, D. (2018). Grassroots Organizations Are Leading The Way On Criminal Justice Reform. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/social-justice/the-grassroots-organizations-leading-criminal-justice-reform
… staying firm. It is when officers lose control of their own emotions that escalation happens.
Discussion 3: According to conflict theory, what is “criminal justice inequality”? Provide an example.
Conflict theory posits that there are finite resources and groups are in a struggle for power over those resources. … for power over those resources. As a result there is usually a group that has power and consolidates by controlling the levers of justice, politics, business, and so on; and there is a group that does not have power that struggles to obtain it. Karl Marx, who … conflict theory, believed the workers were an example of the latter group and that they would rise up to seize power for themselves. criminal justice inequality refers to the lack of equality in the criminal justice system groups, those groups with power and those without. An example of this would be……
Without any set moral guidelines and stipulations, a country’s criminal justice system not capable of accurately meeting the needs of its people. The role of the system is to penalize poor conduct and make sure that victims of crime are well compensated for any of their losses (Braswell, McCarthy & … crime are well compensated for any of their losses (Braswell, McCarthy & McCarthy, 2017; Souryal & Whitehead, 2019). Ethics are valuable in such systems because they offer both the victim and the accused fair justice application (Kramer, 2018). In this essay, the significance of ethics within the criminal justice system discussed. Also, instances of unethical behavior, as well as the legal responsibilities suffered by the doers of such action, are presented.
Importance … of unethical behavior, as well as the legal responsibilities suffered by the doers of such action, are presented.
Importance of ethics within the……
Braswell, M. C., McCarthy, B. R., & McCarthy, B. J. (2017). Justice, crime, and ethics. Taylor & Francis.
Kramer, L. (2018). Why Is Ethics Important in Criminal Justice? Legal Beagle. Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6386561-ethics-important-criminal-justice.html
News Services (2008, June 13). Woman gets $7.7M in false arrest case, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2008-06-13-0806130382-story.html
Sahakian, W. S., & Sahakian, M. L. (1966). Ideas of the great philosophers (No. 218). Barnes & Noble Publishing.
Souryal, S. S., & Whitehead, J. T. (2019). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth. Routledge. Case law
Indiana Supreme Court Disciplinary Commission vs. Dana E. F. DANIELS, Supreme Court Cause No. 49S00-1402-DI-133, (2015).
Jackson v. City of Chicago, No. 03 C 8289, (July 31, 2006).
Epistemology and Duty Ethics in criminal justice
1 Ethics in Law Enforcement Agencies
As Roufa (2019) notes, ethics in law enforcement are essential to prevent behaviors from going … and whether one would be able to justify with reason the action if necessary before the public.
2 Ethics within Philosophy in a criminal justice Context
The three main ethical philosophies are Virtue Ethics, Deontology (Duty Ethics) and Utilitarianism. A fourth ethical philosophy is often used to justify … justify the means. Each of the…[break]…use of their free will to pursue objectives that are important to them (Holmes, 2007).
Ethics apply to criminal justice because they set the parameters for how the system of criminal justice should be arranged. The criminal justice system the US was developed during the Enlightenment era so Enlightenment philosophy influenced it heavily; however, as time has passed, other ethical perspectives … the Enlightenment……
Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues, 5th Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.
Hehman, E., Flake, J. K., & Calanchini, J. (2018). Disproportionate use of lethal force in policing is associated with regional racial biases of residents. Social psychological and personality science, 9(4), 393-401.
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Roufa, T. (2019). Ethics in law enforcement. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/ethics-in-law-enforcement-and-policing-974542
… of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45(3), 350-357.
The article explains that juvenile solitary confinement as a punitive measure in juvenile justice is equal to child abuse because of the negative impact it can have on the child’s mind. The article explains that it should … the negative impact it can have on the child’s mind. The article explains that it should be reported as child abuse and the system should not permit it. This article is relevant to the thesis because it shows that juvenile justice needs to be geared towards the fact that these are children not adults. The article’s main strength is its ability to show that … punishment is unhealthy and abusive.
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C.
(2015). Restorative justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
This article reveals how restorative justice……
Ethical Issues in criminal justice
The juvenile justice system has a unique position in the American justice system as a whole. Its function should be to rehabilitate the juvenile offender before he or she becomes an adult criminal. Juvenile records are expunged when the individual becomes an adult. There are, of course, some exceptions of when a juvenile who commits a … when a juvenile who commits a very serious crime and is charged as an adult, but for the most part, in theory, juvenile criminal have a unique status. Juvenile offenders also are unique in that because of their age they may be guilty of particular crimes that … at all if committed by adults (“Status Offenses,” 2020).
Status offenses are controversial and raise uncomfortable ethical questions from the perspective of the justice system. On one hand, the juvenile system is supposed to engage in greater leniency toward young……
Rovner, J. (2014). Disproportionate minority contact in the juvenile justice system. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from: https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/disproportionate-minority-contact-in-the - juvenile-justice-system/
Status offenders. (2015). Development Services Group, Inc. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Status_Offenders.pdf
… have their sentence determined and read out by a judge at the sentencing hearing. The sentencing hearing can only take place after the criminal conviction. During the sentencing hearing, the judge will have to decide on a sentence or a punishment based on the maximum and minimum … get different punishments. More specifically, a disparity exists when judges impose the same punishment/ sentence on offenders who have very different crimes and criminal histories and when judges impose different punishments on offenders who have carried out identical crimes and have identical criminal past. Sentencing discrimination is a bit different from sentencing disparity, and it exists in several ways. First, sentencing discrimination exists when legally irrelevant … than on Caucasian offenders for similar crimes (Spohn, 2008).
The Supreme Court Building has a phrase engraved on it. The phrase reads, “Equal justice under the law.” However, for the poor, for persons of……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
… (Seiter, 2014), but there is almost certainly bound to be a conflict of interest between the private industry and the mission of the criminal justice system. If the corrections industry is profiting from incarceration, how can there not be a conflict of interest? Thus, my big problem with privatization … of interest? Thus, my big problem with privatization of prisons is that it presents too many opportunities for private wealth to exploit the criminal justice system’s vulnerabilities and undermine the social justice it is meant to uphold.
Seiter, R. P. (2014). Private prisons: Myths, realities & educational opportunities for inmates. Saint Louis University Public Law Review, … one seeks to benefit financially—but that is what it has become. An entire industry is benefiting from another’s punishment. The case for social justice and rehabilitation here is slight.
Seiter, R. P. (2014). Private prisons: Myths, realities & educational opportunities for inmates. Saint Louis……
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
Seiter, R. P. (2014). Private prisons: Myths, realities & educational opportunities for inmates. Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 33(1), 415–428.
Racial justice is a part of American history. In spite of legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964, racial justice remains rampant in the United States. Police brutality is one of the most visible areas in which racial justice manifests itself. The murder of George Floyd was only one of many similar instances, the majority of which go unreported due to the … shows that racial bias is endemic in American society.
This sample essay provides an example of how to write about racial equality and justice in America. Several topics will be discussed in this essay, including George Floyd and the riots in Minneapolis. A discussion of Black Lives … in America. Additionally, this essay will show how the George Floyd incident led to a public discussion about defunding police. Racial equality and justice in America require a total overhaul of institutions like law enforcement.
Racism in the……
Black Lives Matter (2020). Retrieved from: https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/
Cole, B. (2020). Minnesota asks Trump to declare ‘major disaster’ over riots damage. Newsweek. 3 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.newsweek.com/minnesota-riots-tim-walz-clean-george-floyd-1515335
Glover, S., Richards, C., Devine, C., et al. (2020). A key miscalculation by officers contributed to the tragic death of Breonna Taylor. CNN. 23 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/23/us/breonna-taylor-police-shooting-invs/index.html
“History of Juneteenth,” (2020). juneteenth.com. Retrieved from: https://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
Ray, R. (2020). What does ‘defund the police’ mean and does it have merit? Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/06/19/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-and-does-it-have-merit/
“Seven Things You Need to Know About Antifa,” (2020). BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/X56rQkDgd0qqB7R68t6t7C/seven-things-you-need-to-know-about-antifa
“Who Are Antifa?” (2020). ADL. Retrieved from : https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa
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