higher education continues to be a significant aspect within an economy with professions necessitating individuals with such education attainments. However, institutions of higher education have continued to experience several challenges, including deteriorating student enrollments, increasing student debt across the United States, and also concerning student completion rates … experience several challenges, including deteriorating student enrollments, increasing student debt across the United States, and also concerning student completion rates for the different education programs. The higher education sector in the United States is experiencing major challenges. California State University, Los Angeles, is the leading all-inclusive public university that is situated … situated at the heart of Los Angeles and is committed to engagement, service, and the public good. It is one of the renowned higher education institutions not only in Los Angeles but also in the state of California as a whole. The purpose of this report is to ………
California State University Los Angeles. (2020). Strategic Plan. Retrieved from: http://www.calstatela.edu/strategicplan
Chavez, M. (2019). Cal State LA has proposed a plan to cut enrollment for incoming freshmen beginning Fall 2020. University Times. Retrieved from: https://csulauniversitytimes.com/operation-impaction/
Finney, J. E. (2014). Why the finance model for public higher education is broken and must be fixed. Public Policy Initiative 2(6).
Wiley Education Services. (2020). Top Challenges Facing U.S. Higher Education. Retrieved from: https://edservices.wiley.com/top-higher-education-challenges/
Unigo. (2020). California State University – Los Angeles: What do you consider the worst thing about your school? Why? Retrieved from: https://www.unigo.com/colleges/california-state-university-los-angeles/q-and-a/what-do-you-consider-the-worst-thing-about-your-school-why-673/1
Mitchell, B. C. (February 22, 2018). America\\\\\\\\\\\\'s colleges and universities have a serious revenue problem. Hechinger Report. Retrieved from: https://hechingerreport.org/opinion-americas-colleges-universities-serious-revenue-problem/
Hussain, S. (February 25, 2019). Cal State L.A.\\\\\\\\\\\\'s plan to raise admissions standards faces pushback from students and faculty. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-edu-cal-state-los-angeles-admissions-20190225-story.html
Zeleza, P. T. (March 12, 2020). Money Matters: The Financial Crises Facing Universities. The Elephant. Retrieved from: https://www.theelephant.info/ideas/2020/03/12/money-matters-the-financial-crises-facing-universities/
Tenure refers to a legally secure position, an “indefinite appointment” at an institute of higher learning (AAUP, 2019, p. 1). Of course, extenuating circumstances may enable the education institution to sever the contract and terminate the tenured faculty. One of those extenuating circumstances would be financial exigency: an unavoidable and unfortunate … job security and benefits versus their non-tenured colleagues.
According to the American Association of University Professors (AAUP, 2019), tenure has been embedded in higher education policy since 1940. Tenure has remained the cornerstone of higher education, promoting broader values related to academic freedom and freedom of speech (Eastman & Boyles, 2015). As Curnalia & Mermer (2018) point out, “tenure … enjoy the protections of tenure including its attendant academic freedoms and job security, tenure remains a critical component in protecting the integrity of higher education.
However, the means by which to protect academic freedom and ensure labor rights……
Alleman, N.F. & Haviland, D. (2017). “I expect to be engaged as an equal”: collegiality expectations of full-time, non-tenure-track faculty members. High Educ (2017) 74: 527. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0062-4
American Association of University Professors (AAUP 2019). Tenure. Retrieved from: https://www.aaup.org/issues/tenure
Curnalia, R. M. L., & Mermer, D. (2018). Renewing our commitment to tenure, academic freedom, and shared governance to navigate challenges in higher education. Review of Communication, 18(2), 129–139.doi:10.1080/15358593.2018.1438645
Eastman, N. J., & Boyles, D. (2015). In defense of academic freedom and faculty governance: John Dewey, the 100th anniversary of the AAUP, and the Threat of Corporatization
Mitchell, M., Palacios, V. & Leachman, M. (2015). States are still funding higher education below pre-recession levels. Journal of Collective Bargaining in the Academy, April 2015, Article 71. Retrieved from: https://thekeep.eiu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1524&context=jcba
...Higher education The article by Eddy and VanDerLinden (2006) looks at how alternative definitions of leadership are replacing traditional leadership concepts. Specifically, the authors assess emerging definitions of leadership in terms of how community college administrators self-identify as leaders. Using a survey method to collect data, the researchers asked respondents to identify their definition of leadership. The purpose was to see if they viewed leadership in terms of their position at the college or in terms of other variables.
The researchers noted that, traditionally, these colleges have been described as bureaucratic in nature, with positional leadership serving as the main type, but today administrators in these colleges self-identify using a variety of different leadership ideas. These leaders are in fact thinking more complexly about leadership instead of linking leadership to position or to a single characteristic. The authors make the point that it is important to nurture these alternative definitions of leadership……
Chliwniak, L. (1997). Higher education leadership: Analyzing the gender gap, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 25 (4). Washington DC: ASHE.
Eddy, P. L., & VanDerLinden, K. E. (2006). Emerging Definitions of Leadership in Higher Education: New Visions of Leadership or Same Old “Hero” Leader? Community College Review, 34(1), 5–26.
O'Banion, T. (1997). A learning college for the 21st century. Phoenix, AZ: American Council on Education Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.
Peterson, M. (1997). Using contextual planning to transform institutions. In M. Peterson, D. Dill, L. A. Mets, & Associates (Eds.), Planning and management for a changing environment, 127-157. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Townsend, B. K., & Twombly, S. B. (1998). A feminist critique of organizational change in the community college. In. J. S. Levin (Ed.), Organizational change in the community college: A ripple or a sea change?, pp. 77-85. New Directions for Community Colleges. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
The US government has reduced its state funding for the higher education institutes to lower the college costs, especially for ethnic groups since the increase in education costs have made it harder for color and lower-income student to enroll in these colleges. There are numerous benefits for enrolling in the … have made it harder for color and lower-income student to enroll in these colleges. There are numerous benefits for enrolling in the best education institutions after the students are graduated that mainly includes higher incomes. Still, it puts pressure on those students whose households are earning low. With such stagnant earnings, it is greatly difficult for racially … low. With such stagnant earnings, it is greatly difficult for racially and economically diverse students to have affordability and access to the highly-priced education institutes. Recently, the costs for attending a public college have surged up to $21,370 as compared to……
Amour, Madeline. “Report: living expenses, not tuition, are the problem.” Inside Higher Ed, 13 May 2020, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/13/living-expenses-are-larger- barrier-students-tuition-report-finds. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Cude, Katherine. The Rising Cost Of Tuition At Four Year Public Universities: A Comparison Of The Explanations Offered By The Academic Literature And University Decision Makers. 2016. University of Vermont, Undergraduate theses. Scholar Works, https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=castheses
Davidson, Adam. “Is College Tuition Really Too High?” The New York Times Magazine, 8 Sep. 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/magazine/is-college-tuition-too-high.html . Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Desrochers, Donna, and Kirshstein, Rita. Labor Intensive or Labor Expensive? 2014. American Institutes for Research, Delta Cost Project. Lumina Foundation, https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/deltacostair-labor-expensive-higher- education-staffing-brief-feb2014.pdf
Dickler, Jessica. “Why College Tuition Keeps Rising.” CNBC, 24 Oct. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/24/why-college-tuition-keeps-rising.html, Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. Rising Tuition And Enrollment In Public Higher Education. 2008. IZA, Discussion Paper. IZA, http://ftp.iza.org/dp3827.pdf
Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. “The Impact of Tuition Increases on Enrollment at Public Colleges and Universities.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 33, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 435-457.
Hess, Abigail. “The Cost of College Increased by More Than 25% In the Last 10 Years- Here’s Why.” CNBC, 13 Dec. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/13/cost-of-college- increased-by-more-than-25percent-in-the-last-10-years.html. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.
… identifies schools and programs that are used to help the deaf community and it also examines the outcomes of deaf students in general education. It discusses whether deaf students are better served in an inclusive environment or whether they are better served in a deaf community based … however, there is also the sense that deaf and hard of hearing students would benefit from a support system within a deaf community education environment and if this is something that is available, it is typically discussed between parents and teachers to see if it is a ……
Arizona Office for Americans with Disabilities. (2007). Retrieved from https://know-the-ada.com/t4/history-deafness.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/language.html
Curhan, G., & Curhan, S. (2016). Epidemiology of hearing impairment. In Hearing Aids (pp. 21-58). Springer, Cham.
Gallaudet University. (2019). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/national-resources-and-directories/schools-and-programs.html
Hill, M. (2019). Embryology Sensory - Hearing Abnormalities. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Hearing_Abnormalities
Hyde, M., Nikolaraizi, M., Powell, D., & Stinson, M. (2016). Critical factors toward the Inclusion of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in higher education. Diversity in deaf education, 441-472.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2006). Retrieved from https://sites.ed.gov/idea/
Padden, C. A. & Humphries, T. (2005). Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Online Studio education
The rise of Web 2.0 Technologies paves the way to a collaborative and interactive learning environment making the exchange of content and collaboration … and collaboration over the web (Loannao, 2018). The internet, since then, started becoming the reservoir of knowledge, giving free access to information and education resources (Loannao, 2018). Because of these developments, online courses and online education began and were incorporated in different education fields as the means of expanding knowledge and enhancing the learning procedure (Loannao, 2018). Studio-based learning is the practical education where the learning is done through doing, relying on the jury system for evaluating and assessing the student’s projects (Siddiqi, 2002). The entire … the jury system for evaluating and assessing the student’s projects (Siddiqi, 2002). The entire course is designed in the traditional pedagogy.
Online Studio education is more than just a different teacher and student interaction format as……
Bender, D. M. (2006). Using Online Education Technologies to Support Studio Instruction. Educational Technology and Society.
Kurt, S. (2009). An analytic study on the traditional studio environments and the use of the constructivist studio in the architectural design education. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 401-408.
Loannao, O. (2018). Opening up design studio education using blended and networked formats. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.
Nottingham, A. (2014). Reshaping design education: teaching graphic design online and onsite. The University of Melbourne.
Pasin, B. (2017). Rethinking the Design Studio-Centered Architectural Education. A Case Study at Schools of Architecture in Turkey. The Design Journal.
Siddiqi, A. A. (2002). ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO PROJECTS AND THE CHARADES OF CURRICULUM. The 6th Saudi Engineering Conference, KFUPM. Architecture Department, College of Environmental Design, KFUPM Dhahran.
… period poverty. It is noteworthy that teachers could play an essential role in helping students from low-income families when students face economic and education challenges. The solution is developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive interventions such as the EAP could help young children from low SES families to … low SES families.
Poverty drastically affects children's ability to learn. However, many studies show how the negative effects of poverty on education can be overcome.
Researchers Compton-Lilly and Delbridge (2019) recently investigated the matter of how poverty affects children's ability to learn. The … two researchers also noted that teachers could play an important role in helping students from low-income families when the students face economic and education challenges,
Researchers Hampden-Thompson and Galindo (2017) also investigated how poverty affects the ability of children to learn. In their study, these two researchers … by two things – the……
Compton-Lilly, C., & Delbridge, A. (2019). What Can Parents Tell Us About Poverty and Literacy Learning? Listening to Parents Over Time. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 62(5), 531–539.
Dickerson, A., & Popli, G. K. (2016). Persistent poverty and children\\\\\\\\\\\\'s cognitive development: evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 179(2), 535-558.
Hampden-Thompson, G., & Galindo, C. (2017). School-family relationships, school satisfaction, and the academic achievement of young people. Educational Review, 69(2), 248–265.
Thompson, K., Richardson, L. P., Newman, H., & George, K. (2019). Interaction Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Emerging Literacy and Literacy Skills among Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Children: A Comparison Study. Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice, 4(1), 5.
Borre, A., Bernhard, J., Bleiker, C., & Winsler, A. (2019). Preschool Literacy Intervention for Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Children: Effects of the Early Authors Program Through Kindergarten. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR), 24(2), 132–153.
Comber, B., & Kamler, B. (2004). Getting Out of Deficit: Pedagogies of reconnection. Teaching Education, 15(3), 293–310.
education Law Policy and Social Justice Mother Tongue Instruction
The population of students receiving their instruction in another language apart from their mother tongue … mother tongue. This is particular the case in early learning. In one such study, it was found out that in early childhood classroom education, mother tongue was a key factor in the further advancement of the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent, students … the further advancement of the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent, students tend to have more positive attitudes towards education – and the school at large – when instruction has a strong mother tongue foundation. It therefore follows that there is sufficient basis … are not limited to, Vietnamese, French, Korean, Wu Chinese, German, Japanese, Russian, Portuguese, Arabic, Hindi, Spanish, as well as Mandarin Chinese. In matters education, mother tongue is of great……
Awopetu, A.V. (2016). Impact of Mother Tongue on Children’s Learning Abilities in Early Childhood Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 58-63.
Busse, V., Cenoz, J., Dalmann, N. & Rogge, F. (2019). Addressing Linguistic Diversity in the Language Classroom in a Resource?Oriented Way: An Intervention Study with Primary School Children. Language Learning.
Bingol, A.S. (2012). Mother tongue instruction policies towards Turkish migrant children in Europe. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1016-1023.
Mcmahon, T., Griese, E.R. & Kenyon, D.B. (2019). Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14, 77-110.
Ozfidan, B. (2017). Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study. English Language Teaching; 10(12), 15-23.
Peyton, J.K. (2015). Language of Instruction: Research Findings and Program and Instructional Implications. Reconsidering Development, 4(1), 71-79.
Philips, J.S. (2015). The rights of indigenous peoples under international law. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 75-82.
Sahin, I. (2018). A look at mother tongue education in the context of the right to education. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(9), 343-353.
education, especially bilingual education and its evolution in the United States, has paved its way in every state with differences in approaches and choices of language being … choices of language being taught. A part of US schooling history is its rich history and practice of native language teaching and bilingual education. Ovando (2003), in his study, found that it was about two hundred years ago that American communities first started assembling large numbers of … and German in Pennsylvania, German and Spanish in Texas, and the French language in Louisiana). The toleration and use of several languages for education and interaction suggest a wide linguistic pluralism ideology in this era (Ovando, 2003). Keeping in mind the variations and interactions of the different … era (Ovando, 2003). Keeping in mind the variations and interactions of the different languages, one sees a rich and vibrant culture of bilingual education that seems……
Banks, J. A. (1995). Multicultural Education: Its Effects on Students\\\\\\\\\\\\' Racial and Gender Role Attitudes. Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 617-627). New York: Macmillan.
Gándara, P., & Escamilla, K. (2017). Bilingual education in the United States. Bilingual and multilingual education, 1-14.
Ovando, C. J. (2003). Bilingual education in the United States: Historical development and current issues. Bilingual research journal, 27(1), 1-24.
Saravia-Shore, M., & Arvizu, S. F. (2017). Cross-cultural literacy: An anthropological approach to dealing with diversity. In Cross-cultural Literacy (pp. xv-xxxviii). Routledge.
Wei, L. (2013). Integration of Multicultural Education into English Teaching and Learning: A Case Study in Liaoning Police Academy. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 3(4).
IDEA LAW IEP Special education
Since the majority of parents of disabled students struggle with navigating special education systems, advocacy training provides a means of helping parents secure the right education service for their disabled child. In this paper, parents' need for advocates for asserting special education rights as well as advocate training in the areas of special education advocacy and legislation will be addressed. Additionally, the impacts of advocacy training for disability-linked special education will be discussed.
Parental engagement in child education is a raging topic these last twenty-five years. Before the 80s, school-family partnerships were not the norm but an exception. But ever since, … positively influences both child learning and academic performance. The subject of parental engagement is accorded, even greater focus when it comes to special education. Before the 80s, several parents depended on professionals to receive emotional aid and training. But on account……
Arnini, Sarah, \\\\\\"Parents as Partners: An Analysis of the Barriers to Parental Involvement in Special Education\\\\\\" (2007). Social Work Theses. 12. http://digitalcommons.providence.edu/socialwrk_students/12
Burke, Meghan M. \\\\\\"Improving parental involvement: Training special education advocates.\\\\\\" Journal of Disability Policy Studies 23.4 (2013): 225-234. DOI: 10.1177/1044207311424910
Dameh, Bilal A., \\\\\\"The Impact of Parent Involvement Practices in Special Education Programs\\\\\\" (2015). Culminating Projects in Education Administration and Leadership. 11. https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/edad_etds/11
Hornby, Garry, and Rayleen Lafaele. \\\\\\"Barriers to parental involvement in education: An explanatory model.\\\\\\" Educational review 63.1 (2011): 37-52.
Rehm, Roberta S et al. \\\\\\"Parental advocacy styles for special education students during the transition to adulthood.\\\\\\" Qualitative health research vol. 23,10 (2013): 1377-87. DOI:10.1177/1049732313505915
Sapungan, Gina Madrigal, and Ronel Mondragon Sapungan. \\\\\\"Parental involvement in child\\\\\\'s education: Importance, barriers, and benefits.\\\\\\" Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education 3.2 (2014): 23-43.
Statewide Parent Advocacy Network. \\\\\\"Questions and Answers about IDEA: Parent Participation.\\\\\\" Center for Parent Information and Resources, 3 Jan. 2019, www.parentcenterhub.org/qa2/.
Thatcher, Steven Brown, \\\\\\"Increasing Parental Involvement of Special Education Students: The Creation of Smartphone-Friendly, Web-Based Legal and Procedural Resources\\\\\\" (2012). All Graduate Plan B and other Reports. 147. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/gradreports/147
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