...Crimes The Importance of Effective Crime Scene Management
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to explain the importance of securing crime scenes in order to protect evidence from contamination and preserve it for use by the courts. In addition, a discussion concerning different methods that might be necessary to document evidence at a crime scene and different collection methods that might be used at a crime scene is followed by an explanation concerning the chain of custody and why it is important. Finally, the repercussions of failing to protect evidence or establish chain of custody is followed by an explanation concerning how an investigator or forensic expert differentiates between what is or is not evidence. A summary of the research and key findings concerning the foregoing issues are presented in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Why it is important to secure the……
Almirall, J. R., Ballou, S., Carroll, P. et al. (2013, September). Crime scene investigation: A guide for law enforcement. Largo, FL: National Forensic Science Technology Center.
Casey, J. & Burke, T. (2009, June). Police and EMS. Law & Order, 51(6), 97-101.
Gehl, R. (2019). Crime scene management. Introduction to Criminal Investigations. Retrieved from https://pressbooks.bccampus.ca/criminalinvestigation/chapter/chapter-8-crime-scene-management/ .
Florida International University, National Forensic Science Technology Center. (n.d.). Crime scene investigation guide. Retrieved from https://www.nfstc.org/products/crime-scene-investigation-guide/ .
Richards, G. E. Chapters 3, 5 and 6.
… Sutherland's contribution to the study of White Collar Crime and some of the limitations regarding his work.
Sutherland defined white collar crime as “crimes committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation,” and broke them into two types based … 3). Sutherland argued that white collar criminals were of a higher class than regular blue collar criminals: they were more sophisticated and their crimes were not shown on the six o’clock news routinely the way blue collar crimes like murder, rape and theft routinely were. In other words, white collar crime was not as visible to the ordinary people on the ……
Eichenwald, K. (2005). Conspiracy of Fools. NY: Random House.
Rosoff, S., Pontell, H. & Tillman, R. (2003). Looting America. NY: Prentice Hall.
Schultz, K. & Greenbert, D. (2009). Bernie Madoff’s Billionaire Victims. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/12/madoff-guilty-plea-business-wall-street-celebrity-victims.html
...Crimes Response to Reketer Barber
The popularity of shows like CSI has led to widespread misperceptions about the quality and nature of forensic science. As you point out, the CSI effect could lead to wrongful acquittals, but it is equally possible that jurors might wrongfully convict based on perceptions of the strength of forensic evidence admitted into the trial. As Gaensslen & Larsen (2019) “jurors bring expectations to the jury room that are based on watching television,” (1.1). One of those expectations is related to the amount of time it takes to process forensic evidence. On television, the scripted shows make it seem like forensic evidence is processed almost instantaneously, and that the results offer cut and dry facts, when in reality the time it takes to process the data is much longer and the results less conclusive.
Response to Barbara Larios
It is interesting to focus on both the sentencing……
Gaensslen, R. E., & Larsen, K. (2019). Introductory forensic science (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://content.ashford.edu/
Shelton, D. E. (2008, March). The ‘CSI effect:’ Does it really exist? (Links to an external site.) NIJ Journal, 259. Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/journals/259/pages/csi-effect.aspx#author
...Crimes White Collar Crime
A grade fixing scandal emerged at William Cullen Bryant High School in Long Island City in 2015. The principal of the school, Namita Dwarka, had been adamant with teachers that they help students to pass so that they can meet their graduation quotas (Gonen, Edelman & Golding, 2015). Several teachers and some students began to speak out about the pressure they were getting from the principal. Mary Bozoyan was one of them. She blew the whistle on what became known as the grade fixing scandal at William Cullen Bryant. Her reward was retaliation from the principal (Edelman, 2015). This paper will describe the issues and criminal activity that really goes all the way up the chain of command to the Department of Education. The major issues concern falsifying student grades but more importantly the quid pro quo conditions placed on schools and states by the federal government,……
Edelman, S. (2015). School ‘retaliates’ against disabled teacher for criticizing principal. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2015/11/01/school-retaliates-against-disabled-teacher-for-criticizing-principal/
Gonen, Y., Edelman, S. & Golding, B. (2015). City finally decides to probe rampant grade-fixing. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2015/08/03/city-finally-decides-to-probe-rampant-grade-fixing/
Granata, K. (2015). Queens Community Demands Removal of High School Principal. Retrieved from https://www.educationworld.com/a_news/queens-community-demand-removal-high-school-principal
...Crimes Gender and Crime
Problem of Equality in the Criminal Justice System
Why Women Need Special Gender Specific Programs in Prison
Some of the biggest hurdles the criminal justice system faces in implementing programs and policies that effectively address the needs and experiences of female offenders are that this population is so small compared to the rest of the incarcerated population that it would require a significant amount of resources to tailor programs and policies to meet the needs of this population exclusively (Bloom & Covington, 1998). Some of these programs that are needed include child care services, separate dwelling places for pregnant offenders, mentor programs tailored for women so that they can get out of the system and not become recidivists, and substance abuse treatment resources. There is also the need to promote support systems for women so that they can build and develop healthy and supportive relationships.
Bloom, B., & Covington, S. (1998, November). Gender-specific programming for female offenders: What is it and why is it important. In 50th annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC.
Crimes in the U.S.
Contrary to US civil law, the nation’s criminal law represents a legal system which deals with penalizing those who … among other places. A greater number of criminal offenses were categorized, at the federal level, as those calling for a death sentence. Immigration-linked crimes, gangster crimes, hate crimes, and sex crimes were defined and categorized as well, under the law (United States Congress, 1994). Furthermore, the Act financed a larger number of crime prevention ……
Raymond Derrial Madden, Petitioner-appellant, v. United States of America, Respondent-appellee, 64 F.3d 669 (10th Cir. 1995)
Sepulveda v. United States, 69 F. Supp. 2d 633 (D.N.J. 1999)
United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Joanne Kwi Ye Estes, Defendant-appellant, 166 F.3d 1218 (9th Cir. 1998)
United States v. Madden, No. 92-6206 (10th Cir. Apr. 20, 1993), WL 332262 Books and article
Moore, R. (2017). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.
United States Congress. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Public law, (103-322).
The Establishment. (2016, April 12). About That Controversial 1994 Crime Bill. A Medium Corporation. Retrieved from https://medium.com/the-establishment/about-that-controversial-1994-crime-bill-c17ccfcc25fa
Financial Crimes, Fraud, and Investigation
The banking sector is a critical part of a country’s economy. This is more so the case given that it … could either be employees of the firm, business collaborators, or outsiders working alone or in cahoots with bank employees.
From a broader perspective, crimes in the banking industry could either be violent robbery or white collar crime. This text concerns itself with white collar crime. In basic … other related gain. Violent bank robberies have been on a steep decline over the last few decades. Towards this end, the types of crimes the banking industry experiences that have been highlighted in this text largely relate to white collar crime. It is important to note that … that have been highlighted in this text largely relate to white collar crime. It is important to note that the various kinds of crimes in the banking industry……
Albrecht, W.S., Albrecht, C.C., Albrecht, C.O. & Zimbelman, M.F. (2008). Fraud Examination (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Dionne, B. (2020). Regions Bank Teller Accused of Stealing Customer Identities Faces Felony Charges. Retrieved https://www.wbrc.com/2020/01/30/regions-bank-teller-accused-stealing-customer-identities-facing-felony-charges/
Golden, T.W., Skalak, S.L. & Clayton, M.M. (2006). A Guide to Forensic Accounting Investigation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Krancher, M., Riley, R. & Wells, T.J. (2010). Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Singleton, T.W., Singleton, A.J. & Bologna, R.J. (2006). Fraud Auditing and Forensic Accounting (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Zagaris, B. (2010). International White Collar Crime: Cases and Materials. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
...Crimes The key assumptions underlying strain, control, and learning theories of criminal behavior are similar, which is why they are sometimes integrated or at least interrelated in criminological discourse. Strain theories evolved from Durkheim’s theory of anomie: the individual’s disregard for social norms arising from the breakdown of social cohesion (Crossman, 2019). A breakdown of social cohesion can result from the ineffectiveness or the perceived illegitimacy of social institutions. Thomas Merton proposed that anomie can be exacerbated when individuals experience strain—or psychological distress—resulting from unmet needs, especially when those needs are unmet due to sociological problems such as inequality, injustice, or disparity.
Control theories posit a set of internal and external controls on individual or even collective behavior. Social institutions are assumed to serve as mechanisms of social control, also influencing individual behaviors via a series of real or perceived constraints. Like strain theories, control theories assume that social cohesion is……
Crossman, A. (2019). Deviance and strain theory in sociology. Thoughtco. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtco.com/structural-strain-theory-3026632
“Differential Association, Strain and Control Theories,” (n.d.). Retrieved from: julianhermida.com/contbondstrain.htm
Rukus, J., Stogner, J. & Miller, B. (2016). LBGT novel drug use as contextualized through control, strain, and learning theories. Social Science Quarterly. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bryan_Miller4/publication/308669239_LGBT_Novel_Drug_Use_as_Contextualized_Through_Control_Strain_and_Learning_Theories_LGBT_Novel_Drug_Use/links/5a579e46aca2726376b66832/LGBT-Novel-Drug-Use-as-Contextualized-Through-Control-Strain-and-Learning-Theories-LGBT-Novel-Drug-Use.pdf
What is criminal justice reform? It is the focus on improving the criminal justice system through the implementation of evidence-based best practices, policies that promote greater equitability fairness, and systems that are more cost-efficient (National Criminal Justice Association, 2019). One area in which reform is needed is the issue of bail. Bail is the bond that allows an arrested individual to leave jail while awaiting trial, which could last for many months. If the individual has the money, he may post bail. If not, he is stuck in jail. Essentially, the system favors the rich over the poor (ACLU, 2019). There are many examples of abuses regarding bail—from the woman mistakenly jailed pre-trial, who ended up losing her job and kids as a result (Woods & Rosnick, 2019) to the $2 billion bail industry that profits off the impoverished (ACLU, 2019). This paper will discuss the history of reform,……
ACLU. (2019). ACLU lawsuit goes after $2 billion bail industry that profits off poor people. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-lawsuit-goes-after-2-billion-bail-industry-profits-poor-people
Drug Policy Alliance. (2019). New Jersey Judiciary Releases Annual Bail Reform Report, with Additional Key Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.drugpolicy.org/press-release/2019/04/new-jersey-judiciary-releases-annual-bail-reform-report-additional-key
National Criminal Justice Association. (2019). Criminal justice system improvement. Retrieved from https://www.ncja.org/ncja/policy/criminal-justice-reform
Platt, T. (2018). Criminal justice reform in the U.S. has a long history of repressive outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.salon.com/2018/12/27/criminal-justice-reform-in-the-u-s-has-a-long-history-of-repressive-outcomes/
Vitiello, M. (2002). Three Strikes Laws-A Real or Imagined Deterrent to Crime. Hum. Rts., 29, 3.
Woods, A. & Rosnick, J. (2019). Mistakenly Jailed Pretrial, an Ohio Mother Lost Her Job and Kids. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/smart-justice/bail-reform/mistakenly-jailed-pretrial-ohio-mother-lost-her-job-and-kids
Ziegelheim, D. (2018). Grassroots Organizations Are Leading The Way On Criminal Justice Reform. Retrieved from https://psmag.com/social-justice/the-grassroots-organizations-leading-criminal-justice-reform
… thrown into a cage society is more than likely to label it child abuse. Yet every year children are tried and punished for crimes as though they were adults. While sometimes punitive approaches to juvenile justice may be necessary in order to teach a lesson, they should … accountable for what goes on in their own neighborhoods. The concept of restorative justice is one that should be pursued, even for serious crimes like murder, whenever possible. People should begin to think about how they view others, even those who have offended them. Justice does not … to exclude forgiveness. It does not have to be completely punitive. It can combine punitive measures with treatment. In the case of serious crimes, that may be what juveniles require. However, they should never be tried as adults; the justice system has to remember that these are ……
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Cramer, M. (2014). Parole Board releases 2nd man convicted of murder as juvenile. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/06/parole-board-releases-man-convicted-murder-while-juvenile/REwVVe3aR9leuRVMpZsN6O/story.html
Diskin, M. (2018). New law will put limits. Retrieved from https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/2018/10/11/new-california-law-means-teen-suspect-oxnard-murders-cannot-tried-adult/1535518002/
Fritz, J. K. (2015). Diverting young offenders from prison is ‘smart justice.’ Education Digest, 81(2), 53-55.
Jannetta, J., & Okeke, C. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement. Building Ladders of Opportunity for Young People in the Great Lakes States, brief, 4. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement_2.pdf
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Meli, L. (2014). Hate Crime and Punishment: Why Typical Punishment Does Not Fit the Crime. U. Ill. L. Rev., 921.
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