...Crimes The Role of Forensic Science in Crime Scene Investigation
The scientific method begins with the identification of a problem. Questions are asked, data is collected, a hypothesis is formed and then tested. The scientific method is essentially no different from the kind of investigative work that investigators of a crime scene do on a daily basis. They a faced with a problem: a crime has occurred. The questions they must ask are: what happened, why, when, who was involved, where did it occur, and how did it happen? They collect data and using forensic science to analyze the data, they come up with a narrative that answers those questions (Shaler, 2011). Lab work helps to verify the story by providing more evidence that can give more details. This paper will show how the scientific method is applied to forensic science.
The forensic scientific method consists of five steps:
Gaensslen, R. E., & Larsen, K. (2019). Introductory forensic science (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://content.ashford.edu/ " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
...Crimes Does Criminal Profiling Work or is it Unjustified The Case of Tim Masters
Criminal profiling allows law enforcement to develop their understanding of particular types of crime, criminals, criminal behaviors, and crime-ridden areas. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is one data set tool used in criminal profiling (FBI, 2019). However, criminal profiling is not an exact science but rather more of an art and there is a high degree of subjectivity that goes into creating a criminal profile. Thus, when it comes to the criminal profiling of serial killers, there are many factors that must be considered—biological, sociological, environmental, criminological, and psychological inputs. This paper will describe what is involved in the criminal profiling of serial killers, how the process works, who conducts it, what traits of serial killers profiles tend to focus on, and how effective the process is at helping law enforcement agents catch killers.……
Alldredge, J. (2015). The" CSI Effect" and Its Potential Impact on Juror Decisions. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1), 6.
Bonn, S. (2019). How the FBI Profiles Serial Offenders. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/wicked-deeds/201905/how-the-fbi-profiles-serial-offenders
Dogra, T.D. et al. (2012). A psychological profile of a serial killer: A case report. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 65(4), 299-316.
FBI. (2019). Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Retrieved from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/aboutucr.html
Karson, M. (2017). Why Profiling Serial Killers Can’t Work. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/feeling-our-way/201711/why-profiling-serial-killers-can-t-work
Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19, 1-11.
Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2007). Describing Ted Bundy's personality and working towards DSM-V. Practice, 27, 20-22.
Sarteschi, C. M. (2016). Serial Murder. In Mass and Serial Murder in America (pp. 45-67). Springer, Cham.
… similar offenders get different punishments. More specifically, a disparity exists when judges impose the same punishment/ sentence on offenders who have very different crimes and criminal histories and when judges impose different punishments on offenders who have carried out identical crimes and have identical criminal past. Sentencing discrimination is a bit different from sentencing disparity, and it exists in several ways. First, sentencing discrimination … judges when they are imposing sentences. Second, it exists when judges impose harsher sentences on male offenders than on female offenders for similar crimes. Third, it exists when judges impose harsher sentences on offenders who are poor than on offenders who are rich for similar crimes. Lastly, it exists when judges impose harsher sentences on offenders who are persons of color than on Caucasian offenders for similar crimes (Spohn, 2008).
The Supreme Court Building has a phrase engraved on it. The phrase reads, “Equal……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
...Crimes General Strain Theory
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. By analyzing GST, we can determine the effect or how criminal behavior is developed. GST looks at how a negative relationship will affect and individual and their possibility of developing towards crime. A negative relationship can be defined as any relationship of other people that is not consistent with the individual's beliefs of how they should be treated. In this paper, we have analyzed two articles all focusing on GST. However, the two articles differ in the negative stimuli being researched. Cullen, Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse.……
Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.
Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.
Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.
Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.
Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.
Criminal justice, in the meantime, would find that the resources liberated through drug policy reform are harnessed and used to prevent real crimes against humanity, from domestic violence and abuse to acts of terror to homicide. Taking the drug market out from under the chokehold of ……
ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition
“America is At War,” (n.d.). Retrieved from: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html
Bambauer, J. Y. (2012). How the war on drugs distorts privacy law. Stanford Law Review 62(2012). Retrieved from: https://www.stanfordlawreview.org/online/how-the-war-on-drugs-distorts-privacy-law/
Benson, B.L., Kim., I., Rasmussen, D.W., et al. (1992, 2006). Is property crime caused by drug use or by drug enforcement policy? Applied Economics 24(7): 679-692.
Best, D., Irving, J. & Albertson, K. (2016). Recovery and desistance: what the emerging recovery movement in the alcohol and drug area can learn from models of desistance from offending. Addiction Research & Theory 25(1): 1-10.
Coomber, R., Moyle, L., Belackova, V., et al. (2018). The burgeoning recognition and accommodation of the social supply of drugs in international criminal justice systems: An eleven-nation comparative overview. International Journal of Drug Policy 58(2018): 98-103.
Coyne, C.J. & Hall, A. R. (2017). Four decades and counting. CATO Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.cato.org/publications/policy-analysis/four-decades-counting-continued-failure-war-drugs
Farabee, D., Prendergast, M. & Anglin, M.D. (1998). The effectiveness of coerced treatment for drug-abusing offenders. 62 Fed. Probation 3 (1998).
...Crimes Criminological Perspectives
Criminological perspectives explain why people commit crime and why some people are more predisposed to engage in criminal activity than others. The trait, social, and classical/choice perspectives are among the most common criminological perspectives. This text describes the core arguments of these three perspectives and how they dictate the sentencing model used at trial.
The Trait Perspective
The trait perspective argues that an individual’s predisposition to commit crime is influenced by their biological or genetic makeup (Siegel, 2015). According to the trait perspective, humans are born-criminals. However, individuals have certain traits such as blood chemistry disorders, neurological problems, defective intelligence or psychological disorders that determine whether or not they engage in crime when under duress or pushed in a certain direction. Traditional trait theorists believe that these biological and psychological attributes explain all criminality (Siegel, 2015). Contemporary theorists, however, believe that environmental factors such as disorganized neighborhoods, socioeconomic……
Cole, G., & Smith, C. (2007). Criminal Justice in America (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Hagan, F. E. (2010). Introduction to Criminology: Theory, Methods and Criminal Behavior (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mackenzie, D. L. (2001). Sentencing and Corrections in the 21st century: Setting the Stage for the Future. National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
Siegel, L. J. (2015). Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typologies (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
… poor health conditions, stigmatization, and victims of crime. Recent studies have shown that approximately 49% of homeless people have been victims of violent crimes while 62% have witnessed violent attacks on another homeless individual (Stanley et al., 2016). Therefore, addressing the plight of homeless people is a ……
Bachega, H. (2018, October 8). Homeless in US: A Deepening Crisis on the Streets of America. BBC. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-45442596
Bendix, A. (2019, November 18). The 9 States with the Worst Homelessness Crises Reveal How Bad the Housing Crunch Has Gotten in US Cities. Business Insider. Retrieved November 22, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/photos-homelessness-states-worst-crises-2018-11?IR=T
Ellsworth, J.T. (2018, December 3). Street Crime Victimization Among Homeless Adults: A Review of the Literature. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy and Practice, 14(1), 96-118.
Family & Youth Services Bureau. (2016, June 24). Domestic Violence and Homelessness: Statistics (2016). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/resource/dv-homelessness-stats-2016
Norris, S. (2019, September 9). Women Fleeing Abuse Are Being ‘re-traumatized’ by the Housing System. City Metric. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.citymetric.com/politics/women-fleeing-abuse-are-being-re-traumatised-housing-system-4769
Stanley, J.L., Jansson, A.V., Akinyemi, A.A. & Mitchell, C.S. (2016, November). Characteristics of Violent Deaths Among Homeless People in Maryland, 2003-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), S260-S266.
Turner, M.M., Funge, S.P. & Gabbard, W.J. (2018). Victimization of the Homeless: Perceptions, Policies, and Implications for Social Work Practice. Journal of Social Work in the Global Community, 3(1), 1-12.
Tyler, K.A. & Beal, M.R. (2010). The High-risk Environment of Homeless Young Adults: Consequences for Physical and Sexual Victimization. Violence and Victims, 25(1), 101-115.
...Crimes Types of Criminal Profiling
According to Bartol & Bartol (2017), there are five broad categories of criminal profiling, but they are not mutually exclusive and are frequently used in tandem with one another to aid investigations. The first type of criminal profiling covered in the text is commonly referred to as psychological profiling: the profiling of known individuals like suspects. The goal of psychological profiling is risk or threat assessment: to determine how serious a person may be if they have threatened violence. Similarly, psychological profiling can be used on persons who have been flagged for violating social norms or who have acted out. As helpful as psychological profiling can be to investigators, it is important to note that the process can be misleading and even harmful to investigations (Sample, 2010). Psychological profiling methods are not necessarily grounded in research, and can lead to spurious results and prejudicial data.
Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2017). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach (11th ed.). Retrieved from https://redshelf.com/
Kocsis, R. N., & Palermo, G. B. (2015). Disentangling Criminal Profiling: Accuracy, Homology, and the Myth of Trait-Based Profiling. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(3), 313-332. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13513429
Sample, I. (2010). Psychological profiling ‘worse than useless.’ The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/sep/14/psychological-profile-behavioural-psychology
...Crimes Forensic science evolved as an attempt to introduce scientific methods into criminal justice. From the 18th century onward, advancements in chemistry, biology, and physics paved the way for forensic science (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Likewise, the routine use of autopsy and forensic pathology helped improve the ability to understand the causes of death (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Forensic science steadily evolved, in conjunctions with advancements in scientific instruments and the methods used for data collection and analysis. DNA evidence and analysis has made a huge impact on forensic science. Current concerns in forensic science include the need for increased reliability and validity of forensic science methods, as well as public perceptions of forensic science. Because perceptions of forensic science could have a direct impact on juror decisions, distinguishing real from junk science becomes one of the most important issues in criminal justice.
Scientific Methods in Forensic Science
Forensic scientific methods……
Ballantyne, K. N., Edmond, G., & Found, B. (2017). Peer review in forensic science. Forensic Science International, 277, 66–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.05.020
Bell, S., Sah, S., Albright, T. D., Gates, S. J., Jr, Denton, M. B., & Casadevall, A. (2018). A call for more science in forensic science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America, 115(18), 4541–4544. https://doi.org//10.1073/pnas.1712161115
Gaensslen, R. E., & Larsen, K. (2019). Introductory forensic science (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://content.ashford.edu/ " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… the point where crime has really become not a criminal justice problem but rather a mental health problem, as nearly half of all crimes are committed by people with a history of mental health issues (Evans Cuellar, McReynolds & Wasserman, 2006). Instead of getting the mental health … been so utterly derailed that they cannot operate like law abiding citizens (i.e., life course theory), and so they end up convicted of crimes and incarcerated. Yet once they are in prison, they are treated like chattel slaves of corporations who pay pennies on the dollar for ……
Evans Cuellar, A., McReynolds, L. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2006). A cure for crime: Can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, 25(1), 197-214.
Pelaez, V. (2014). The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery?. Global Research, 31, 1-2.
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