1 Identify and discuss some of the principal elements of E. H. Sutherland's contribution to the study of White Collar crime and some of the limitations regarding his work.
Sutherland defined white collar crime as “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation,” and broke them into two types based … 3). Sutherland argued that white collar criminals were of a higher class than regular blue collar criminals: they were more sophisticated and their crime were not shown on the six o’clock news routinely the way blue collar crime like murder, rape and theft routinely were. In other words, white collar crime was not as visible to the ordinary people on the street because the ordinary person is not of the higher class to which … a Ponzi scheme like Bernie Madoff with people’s pension funds or 401(k)s, etc. (Schultz &……
Eichenwald, K. (2005). Conspiracy of Fools. NY: Random House.
Rosoff, S., Pontell, H. & Tillman, R. (2003). Looting America. NY: Prentice Hall.
Schultz, K. & Greenbert, D. (2009). Bernie Madoff’s Billionaire Victims. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/12/madoff-guilty-plea-business-wall-street-celebrity-victims.html
General Strain Theory
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, … or how criminal behavior is developed. GST looks at how a negative relationship will affect and individual and their possibility of developing towards crime. A negative relationship can be defined as any relationship of other people that is not consistent with the individual's beliefs of how they … both testing general strain theory in their different criminal justice research articles. General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, … and the motivation for delinquency. GST focuses on the negative treatments that an individual……
Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.
Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.
Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.
Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.
Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.
...Corporate crime Deregulation under the Trump Administration and Its Impact on the Non-Profit Sector
President Trump touted deregulation as one of the issues he would push for during his campaign leading up to the 2016 election. Once placed in the White House, he held true to his push for deregulation and that policy has had some impact on the non-profit sector in the US. This paper will show how that impact has benefited the nonprofit sector in some ways and how in other ways it remains to be seen whether negative fallout will occur or not. Specifically this paper will explain how deregulation under the Trump Administration is impacting the non-profit sector in various beneficial ways, such as
by allowing nonprofits to keep anonymous the names of donors; and by capping the amount federal agencies can force nonprofits to spend—the idea being that this will prohibit agencies from shifting costs for……
Belton, K. & Graham, J. (2019). Trump’s Deregulatory Record: An Assessment at the Two-Year Mark. Retrieved from http://accf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ACCF-Report_Trump-Deregulatory-Record-FINAL.pdf
Benson, M. L., Stadler, W. A., & Pontell, H. N. (2019). Harming America: Corporate Crime in a Context of Deregulation. Victims & Offenders, 14(8), 1063-1083.
Brookings Institute. (2020). Tracking deregulation in the Trump era. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/interactives/tracking-deregulation-in-the-trump-era/
Morrow, D. (2017). Deregulation in the Trump Administration will likely impact nonprofits. Retrieved from http://blog.abila.com/deregulation-trump-administration-impacting-nonprofits/
Weaver, H. L. (2018). One for the price of two: the hidden costs of regulatory reform under executive order 13,771. Administrative Law Review, 70(2), 491-512.
crime, data breaches, and fraud represent evils that significantly threaten businesses. Companies have, in the past, lost much to these crime and, hence, must come up with plans to prevent such future occurrences. In this paper, the processes information technology security audits entail and … IT security will be dealt with. According to research on the subject, IT security auditing constitutes a significant step in the safeguarding of corporate data against crime, data breaches, and fraud. It must be performed from time to time in the form of a methodical analysis by an outside specialist … implementation of suitable security measures for averting such breaches and reducing their adverse impacts.
Two classes of risks exist, against which corporate information systems require protection: logical and physical. The latter, more to do with devices as compared to the actual information system, encompasses natural … commonly occurring event was insider……
Almatari, O. and Helal, I., and Mazen, S., and El Hennawy, S. (2018). \\\\\\"Cybersecurity Tools for IS Auditing.\\\\\\" The 6th International Conference on Enterprise Systems, At Limassol, Cyprus 10.1109/ES.2018.00040.
Davis, W. S., & Yen, D. C. (Eds.). (2019). The information system consultant\\\\\\'s handbook: Systems analysis and design. CRC press.
Diamantopoulou, V., Tsohou, A., & Karyda, M. (2019). From ISO/IEC 27002: 2013 Information Security Controls to Personal Data Protection Controls: Guidelines for GDPR Compliance. In Computer Security (pp. 238-257). Springer, Cham.
Khan, M. (2017). Computer security in the human life. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), 6(1), 35-42.
Lenghel, R. D., & Vlad, M. P. (2017). INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDITING. Quaestus, (11), 178.
Manaseer, S., & Alawneh, A. (2019). ON CYBERSECURITY AUDITING AWARENESS: CASE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), 17(7).
Suduc, A. M., Bîzoi, M., & Filip, F. G. (2010). Audit for information systems security. Informatica Economica, 14(1), 43.
… opportunity to reduce the risk of such fraud by removing much of the moral hazard concerned with equity-based compensation and the misalignment of corporate goals and executive goals. This is done at the level of executive compensation structure, because once the moral hazard itself is created, the ……
Ganti, A. (2019) Rationcal choice theory. Investopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2020 from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/rational-choice-theory.asp
Palmiter, A. (no date). Corporate governance as moral psychology. In possession of the author.
Parloff, R. (2018) How VW paid $25 billion for dieselgate – and got off easy. Business Ethics. Retrieved January 18, 2020 from https://business-ethics.com/2018/02/08/1638-how-vw-paid-25-billion-for-dieselgate-and-got-off-easy/
Smith, A. (2018) Volkswagen ex-CEO charged with fraud in diesel emissions scandal. CNN. Retrieved January 18, 2020 from https://money.cnn.com/2018/05/03/news/companies/winterkorn-vw-diesel-scandal/index.html
What is crime?
Definition of crime
crime is any criminal activity that is conducted using computers or the Internet. As today’s digital natives have the most experience with computers, cybercriminals … 1980. They are young, digitally sophisticated, and able to operate with a degree of professionalism and discipline that allows them to hide their crime beneath legitimate-looking facades. Spearphishing is one example of a type of crime used by professional criminals to lure victims into traps or sites that have the appearance of legitimacy.
crime is committed by people who know computer code, understand computer systems and networks, know how to navigate databases, access data storage, get past … how to navigate databases, access data storage, get past firewalls, exploit cloud computing services, control the Internet of Things and more. They
How crime Has Evolved over Time
Computers and the rise of the Internet ushered in the era of crime.……
Computer Hope. (2019). When was the first computer invented? Retrieved from https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm
Crane, C. (2019). 33 alarming cybercrime statistics you should know in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.thesslstore.com/blog/33-alarming-cybercrime-statistics-you-should-know/
Schjølberg, Stein. (2017). The History of Cybercrime (1976-2016). Books on Demand.
Statista. (2020). Global digital population. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Liederbach, J., Saylor, M. R., & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism. NY, NY: Pearson.
...Corporate crime Literature Review on Coping Through The Use Of Informal Institutions during COVID 19 in South Africa, Nigeria, and Swaziland
The institutional theory deals with the outlines, regulations, standards, and procedures that are formulated in the institutions as commanding instructions for social behavior. This theory gives an understanding of how institutions are shaped, and the societal norms and frameworks are informed to all people of an organization. Communication is the sole indicator of how organizations are formulated with the help of formal rules and regulations, as that would reflect how they are conversed across all levels of the firm and in what way people are obeying them. This would ultimately build an organizational culture for coping with social and political issues. The informal institutions are socially shared instructions, typically unwritten, that are formed, transferred and imposed outside the official boundaries (Torniainen & Sasstamoinen, 2007), for example, giving tips to the food……
Coelho, A. (2019). The role of informal institutions in the enforcement of rules and how to improve corporate and public governance in Brazil: Studies based on a set of corporate governance cases involving state-owned companies (Working Paper). Retrieved from SSRN website https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3434037
Dacin, M.T., Goodstein, J. & Scott, W.R. (2002). Institutional theory and institutional change: Introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 45- 47. DOI: 10.2307/3069284
Escandon-Barbosa, D.M., Urbano, D., Hurtado-Ayala, A., Paramo, J.S. & Dominguez, A.Z. (2019). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and entrepreneurial activity: A comparative relationship between rural and urban areas in Colombia. Journal of Urban Management, 8(3), 458-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jum.2019.06.002
Estrin, S. & Prevezer, M. (2010). The role of informal institutions in corporate governance: Brazil, Russia, India, and China compared. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28, 41- 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-010-9229-1
Kaufmann, W., Hooghiemstra, R. & Feeney, M.K. (2018). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and red tape: A comparative study. Public Administration, 96(2), 386-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/padm.12397
Meluch, A.L. (2016, August). Understanding the organizational and institutional origins of social support in a cancer support center. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1466944822&disposition=inline
Torniainen, T.J. & Sasstamoinen, O.J. (2007). Formal and informal institutions and their hierarchy in the regulation of the forest lease in Russia. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 80(5), 489-501. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpm033
… also be able to use carbon offsets, such as planting forests in our supplier countries, many of which are critical as carbon sinks.
corporate social responsibility is a major issue in coffee. The typical issue is with regards to the farmers, and their ability to earn a … have specific reporting on domestic issues such as fair wages, wage equity, and other initiatives that are generally of concern in America, where corporate social responsibility is concerned.
It is recommended that all of these plans are taken into account, and executed. Fiyeli has aggressive growth ……
Aburto, L. & Weber, R. (2005) Improved supply chain management based on hybrid demand forecasts. Applied Soft Computing. Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30284637/demand_forecast_in_a_supermarket_using_a_hybrid_intelligent_system.pdf
CT Magazine (2012) Coffee packaging freshness. Coffee Talk Magazine. Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://coffeetalk.com/ctmagazine/10-2012/3926/
Del Valle, G. (2019) Wholesale coffee is cheaper than it has been in years. That’s not good news. Vox. Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/4/25/18512680/coffee-futures-price-dropping-brazil-currency
Garza, E. & Hoffman, M. (2019) How climate change is killing coffee. Knowledge @ Wharton. Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/coffee-climate-change/
Khan, O. & Creazza, A. (2005) The impact of product design on the supply chain. Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265492088_The_Impact_of_Product_Design_on_the_Supply_Chain_The_Impact_of_Product_Design_on_the_Supply_Chain
Manetti, G. & Becatti, L. (2009). Assurance services for sustainability reports: Standards and empirical evidence. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 87 (2009) 289-298.
Mersie, A. (2019) Coffee prices seen rising 25% by year end. Reuters Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-coffee-poll/coffee-prices-seen-rising-nearly-25-percent-by-year-end-reuters-poll-idUSKCN1Q11JD
Mordor Intelligence (2017) United States coffee market – growth, trends and forecasts. Mordor Intelligence Retrieved June 13, 2019 from https://www.mordorintelligence.com/industry-reports/united-states-coffee-market
… answer; it is not as if C-suite leaders are faced with simple choices like whether to steal, accept a bribe, or commit some crime. The most common ethical challenges are those that require discipline and self-restraint, but also courage and humility.
The subject of this interview holds … ethics officer” prove far more effective than nebulous means of approaching dilemmas and decisions (p. 39). Leadership always remains critical for the entire corporate culture, inculcating the values and norms of the organization through C-suite behavioral characteristics. Linden believes, as Hatcher (2018) does, that “an organization is … the artificial elevation of the company’s stock price, as well as broader societal problems like “lower shareholder returns, bubbles and crashes and huge corporate scandals,” (Martin, 2011, p. 43). In light of the ethical and even legal problems associated with providing C-suite personnel with stock in the … and promotes the triple bottom……
Bailey, C. & Shantz, A. (2018). Creating an ethically strong organization. MIT Sloan Management Review. http://ilp.mit.edu/media/news_articles/smr/2018/60101.pdf
Crossan, M., Mazutis, D. & Seijts, G. (2013). In search of virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 113(4): 567-581.
Hatcher, T. (2008). The value of values in the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 97-122.
Hoekstra, E., Bell, A. & Peterson, S.R. (2008). Humility in Leadership: Abandoning the Pursuit of Unattainable Perfection. In S.A. Quatro & R. R. Sims (Eds.), Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-Suite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp. 79-96.
MacDougall, A.E., Bagdarasov, Z. & Buckley, M.R. (2008). Applying a primary risk management model to the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Second Edition. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 211-234.
Martin, R. (2011). The CEO\\\\'s ethical dilemma in the era of earnings management. Strategy & Leadership 39(6): 43-47.
Schwartz, M.S. (2013). Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The core elements. Business Horizons 56(1): 39-50.
… has always placed a limit on the number of immigrants who are permitted in at any one time. When it was in U.S. corporate interests (i.e., WASP interests), immigrants were welcomed: this was the case when the Chinese were used to build the railroads in the 19th … conjunction with the social services pairing project was successful or not. If the measurements show no real or substantial change in terms of crime, drug dealing and cost, it would mean the wall and the social worker program was not a successful solution. If however it is … program was not a successful solution. If however it is seen that more immigrants are coming into the country legally than illegally, that crime and drug dealing has been reduced, and that immigrants are being better supported to stand on their own without relying heavily on government ……
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