crimes in the U.S.
Contrary to US civil law, the nation’s criminal law represents a legal system which deals with penalizing those who … of the past century. The bill included numerous positive provisions like greater law enforcement accountability and fresh protections for those victimized by perpetrators of sex abuse/assault and domestic violence; however, it was believed to worsen the racial gap in involvement in the criminal justice arena (Moore, 2017). Hence, … among other places. A greater number of criminal offenses were categorized, at the federal level, as those calling for a death sentence. Immigration-linked crimes, gangster crimes, hate crimes, and sex crimes were defined and categorized as well, under the law (United States Congress, 1994). Furthermore, the Act financed a larger number of crime prevention ……
Raymond Derrial Madden, Petitioner-appellant, v. United States of America, Respondent-appellee, 64 F.3d 669 (10th Cir. 1995)
Sepulveda v. United States, 69 F. Supp. 2d 633 (D.N.J. 1999)
United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Joanne Kwi Ye Estes, Defendant-appellant, 166 F.3d 1218 (9th Cir. 1998)
United States v. Madden, No. 92-6206 (10th Cir. Apr. 20, 1993), WL 332262 Books and article
Moore, R. (2017). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.
United States Congress. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Public law, (103-322).
The Establishment. (2016, April 12). About That Controversial 1994 Crime Bill. A Medium Corporation. Retrieved from https://medium.com/the-establishment/about-that-controversial-1994-crime-bill-c17ccfcc25fa
Social Policy Analysis Report
Definition of Social Problem
In recent decades, sex trafficking has become a substantial social problem affecting the whole world and continues to necessitate worldwide collaboration to combat it (Brooks and Heaslip, … conducted by the United Nations, statistics indicated that persons across 106 different nations across the globe had experienced trafficking either for labor or sex, or both. Twenty-eight percent of this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, … this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, 2017). The United Nations defines sex traffic to encompass the act of recruiting, transferring, harboring, or receiving of individuals, by way of either threat or through use of force … enforcement entities to facilitate the charging and prosecution of traffickers.
Analysis of Social Problem
Facts, Statistics, and Demographic……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
… person has been pursuing personal and career development, as well as their standing in the community, family status, and the nature of the crimes committed. Another reason why indeterminate sentencing may be used in some jurisdictions is to promote the principle of individualization: which allows each offender … rehabilitation but a pro for those who prefer punitive policies.
Examples of Determinate Sentencing
Determinate sentencing is often used in cases involving violent crimes. In 2020, a woman in West Virginia was given a determinate sentence of 15 years, with no possibility of parole (Baker, 2020). Age ……
Allen, J. (2016). CU rape case sparks debate over Colorado’s indeterminate sentencing law. The Denver Channel. Retrieved from: https://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/local-news/colorados-indeterminate-sentencing-criticized
Baker, J. (2020, Aug 10). Davis sentenced to 15 years in 2017 Wheeling hotel killing. WTOV. Retrieved from: https://wtov9.com/news/local/davis-sentenced-to-15-years-in-2017-wheeling-hotel-killing
Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Indeterminate sentence. Retrieved from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/indeterminate_sentence
Gant, J. & Hussain, D. (2020, 5 Aug). Hero PC Andrew Harper’s mother slams ‘unduly lenient sentences for her son’s killers. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8592283/Attorney-General-review-jail-terms-handed-three-teenagers-killed-PC-Andrew-Harper.html
Green, S.J. (2020, Aug 6). Brothers sentenced to 40 years in prison for 2016 shooting at Seattle homeless encampment. Bakersfield. Retrieved from: https://www.bakersfield.com/ap/national/brothers-sentenced-to-40-years-in-prison-for-2016-shooting-at-seattle-homeless-encampment/article_5c5d040d-0e0c-532e-9fd7-794232746f5d.html
O’Hear, M.M. (2011). Beyond rehabilitation. 48 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1247 (2011).
Puzauskas, K. & Morrow, K. (2018). No indeterminate sentencing without parole. 44 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 263 (2018).
Rhine, E.E., Watts, A. & Reitz, K.R. (2018). Parole boards within indeterminate and determinate sentencing structures. Robina Institute of Law and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: https://robinainstitute.umn.edu/news-views/parole-boards-within-indeterminate-and-determinate-sentencing-structures
… of the 15th century in France, to Jack the Ripper in 19th century England, the West has no lack of cases to study. sex deviance, necrophilia, violent mood swings, isolation, and social dysfunction have generally stood out as cues of abnormal mental behaviors associated with serial killers. … type describes a serial killer who enjoys hunting his victims as though for sport. The hedonistic type derives some pleasure or satisfaction, often sex, from the act of killing. The visionary type refers to the killer who is motivated by voices in his head. And the mission-focused ……
Alldredge, J. (2015). The" CSI Effect" and Its Potential Impact on Juror Decisions. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1), 6.
Bonn, S. (2019). How the FBI Profiles Serial Offenders. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/wicked-deeds/201905/how-the-fbi-profiles-serial-offenders
Dogra, T.D. et al. (2012). A psychological profile of a serial killer: A case report. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 65(4), 299-316.
FBI. (2019). Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Retrieved from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/aboutucr.html
Karson, M. (2017). Why Profiling Serial Killers Can’t Work. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/feeling-our-way/201711/why-profiling-serial-killers-can-t-work
Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19, 1-11.
Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2007). Describing Ted Bundy's personality and working towards DSM-V. Practice, 27, 20-22.
Sarteschi, C. M. (2016). Serial Murder. In Mass and Serial Murder in America (pp. 45-67). Springer, Cham.
… ongoing informal or formal group, party, or alliance of at least three individuals whose primary activities include perpetrating at least one of the crimes listed below: 1) attacking using a lethal weapon, 2) murder, 3) burglary, 4) selling or holding in possession for production, selling, offering for … participated in some pattern of hang crime (California Department of Justice, 1993).
Classification of Gangs
Depending on structural elements like size, age, ethnicities, sex, criminality, lifespan, and territoriality, besides conditions of origin, evolution, goals, and modus operandi, the classifications described below exist:
1. Scavenger (short-lived) gangs. Such … such gangs include fights with similar rival gangs in the neighborhood or outside of the school campus, bullying, blackmail, and other generally minor crimes around or within the school and neighborhood. While they do respect their leader, there is no explicit, consolidated structure or organization for the ……
California Department of Justice. (1993). Gangs 2000: A call to action. Sacramento, California: Department of Justice.
Department of Public Security. (2007). Definition and classification of gangs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7(2), 191-216. DOI: 10.1177/1362480603007002413.
...Sex crimes Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s attempt at social reform, a fundamental characteristic of his Quaker ideals (Fantel, 1974). The goal of Penn’s plan was to promote moral rehabilitation and it was believed that through the inmate’s lengthy time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
… tasks that I did not expect to perform in my internship. My tasks mainly involved providing assistance and support for offender community services, sex offender treatment, offender substance abuse treatment, and offender reintegration. I also helped offenders with housing and court costs. My main responsibility in my … and any issues or challenges they are facing.
When I was just starting out in my internship position, I got assigned to a sex offender probation officer. She was a hardworking officer whom I was tasked to help. She had a total of 32 offenders to supervise. … hardworking officer whom I was tasked to help. She had a total of 32 offenders to supervise. The fact that the only other sex offender probation officer took a leave around the time I started by internship, meant that I got more responsibilities and tasks to handle … of the officers causing many……
… or accepted means of society (Beatson & Hanley, 2017; Brock& Teixeira, 2014). Included in these cases can be situations of labor trafficking and sex trafficking. The point is that not every person feels the same about human trafficking or that it is necessarily immoral in every case. … that governments are addressing a moral evil that exists in the world—when in reality the governments are merely deflecting attention from their own crimes and virtue signaling to the populace. For instance, De Shalit et al. (2014) argue that the debate surrounding sex trafficking is corrupted by political influence and political paradigms adopted by non-government organizations (NGOs) that frame the problem within the perspective of emotional … adopted by non-government organizations (NGOs) that frame the problem within the perspective of emotional appeals to justice even though the reality of the sex worker industry is different from the way many governments and……
Beatson, J., & Hanley, J. (2017). The intersection of exploitation and coercion in cases of Canadian labour trafficking. Journal of law and social policy, 26, 137.
Brock, D., & Teixeira, R. (2014). Beyond exploitation and trafficking: Canadian critical perspectives on sex work. Labour: Journal of Canadian Labour Studies/Le Travail: revue d’Études Ouvrières Canadiennes, 74.
De Shalit, A., Heynen, R., & van der Meulen, E. (2014). Human trafficking and media myths: Federal funding, communication strategies, and Canadian anti-trafficking programs. Canadian Journal of Communication, 39(3).
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Lam, E., & Lepp, A. (2019). Butterfly: Resisting the harms of anti-trafficking policies and fostering peer-based organising in Canada. Anti-trafficking review, (12), 91-107.
UNODC. (2015). UNODC on human trafficking and migrant smuggling. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/
… of gang-initiated violence as compared to mass shootings or terrorist attacks. Gang members contribute to a disproportionately high percentage of the violence and crimes witnessed in the nation. Roughly two-thousand gang-linked murders are reported across the country per annum, which makes up 13% of overall murders in … youngsters, the authors of this research endeavor aimed at ascertaining the types of crime perpetrated by gangs and the distinctive traits differentiating gang crimes from other kinds of group offenses.
Gangs use graffiti to demarcate their territory and use threats to intimidate other people. Further, the authors … authority served as a mediating factor.
This study highlights the need for a closer examination of the societal and mental contributors to gang crimes and membership.
Peterson, Carson & Fowler, (2018)
The aim of this study's authors was: gauging whether or not gangs' sex composition is associated with gender differences in perpetrating crime……
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. L. (2013). Gang-related crime: The social, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(7), 611-627.
FBI, (n.d.). Gangs. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/violent-crime/gangs#The-Gang%20Threat on 12 June 2020
Finelli, G. A. (2019). Slash, Shoot, Kill Gang Recruitment of Children, and the Penalties Gangs Face. Family Court Review, 57(2), 243-257.
Hesketh, R. F. (2018). A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chester, United Kingdom).
Hesketh, R.F. (2019). Joining gangs: living on the edge?. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5 No. 4; 280-294.
Higginson, A., Benier, K., Shenderovich, Y., Bedford, L., Mazerolle, L., & Murray, J. (2018). Factors associated with youth gang membership in low?and middle?income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1-128.
Howell, J. C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Klein, M.W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
… 1980. They are young, digitally sophisticated, and able to operate with a degree of professionalism and discipline that allows them to hide their crimes beneath legitimate-looking facades. Spearphishing is one example of a type of cybercrime used by professional criminals to lure victims into traps or sites … digital forensics (Taylor, Fritsch, Liederbach, Saylor & Tafoya, 2019).).
Computers allow for a virtual anonymity to be obtained and allow criminals to commit crimes from virtually anywhere in the world thanks to the Internet. They do not even have to be in the same country but can … to Deter and Prevent Cybercrime
One of the best ways to prevent cybercrime is to educate the end user. The vast majority of crimes come from phishing scams and social engineering, both of which prey on the end user. End users should know better than to click ……
Computer Hope. (2019). When was the first computer invented? Retrieved from https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm
Crane, C. (2019). 33 alarming cybercrime statistics you should know in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.thesslstore.com/blog/33-alarming-cybercrime-statistics-you-should-know/
Schjølberg, Stein. (2017). The History of Cybercrime (1976-2016). Books on Demand.
Statista. (2020). Global digital population. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Liederbach, J., Saylor, M. R., & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism. NY, NY: Pearson.
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