19th Century Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Scandalous Art Of The 19th Century

Pages: 4 (1327 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Essay Document #:73431158

Realism in Art in Paris in the 19th century Prostitutes and Third Class Carriages
The 19th century was a century of Realism, Romanticism and Victorianism; a conflict existed in society between wanting to explore boundaries (the romantic aspect), expose reality, and wanting to … lesbian’s face. These paintings were neither Romantic nor Victorian, and therefore were not appropriate to the tastes of the art-going public of the 19th century. They were paintings of Realism that challenged the sensibilities and taboos of the time by obliging the public to look where it……



Browne, E. (2020). The third-class carriage. Retrieved from  https://www.sartle.com/artwork/the-third-class-carriage-honore-daumier 

Clark, T. J. (1999). The painting of modern life. Princeton.

Michallat, W. (2007). Lesbian inscriptions in Francophone society and culture. Durham Modern Languages.

Millett-Gallantt, A. (2010). The disabled body in contemporary art. Palgrave Macmillan.

Study Document

Democracy In America In The 21st Century

Pages: 7 (2223 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:23576697

… into a behemoth of a machine with multiple organs now influencing various sectors unseen by most people. The Civil War occurred before a century of this system had even concluded, and the cause was the same—tension between state (local, democratic government) and federal (centralized government). Again, the … banks, organs of state that persist from one administration to the next, and big business. Any hope for democracy essentially died in the 19th century—but really it was dead from the get-go and Jefferson knew as he was the one who predicted a tyranny of the Judiciary should ……


Works Cited

Dahl, Robert. On Democracy.

Ferejohn, John. Is Inequality a Threat to Democracy?

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press.

Mansbridge, Jane. On the Importance of Getting Things Done. PS, 2012.

Runciman, David. The Confidence Trap. Princeton University Press.

Study Document

Carrie Chapman And The Women S Movement

Pages: 8 (2257 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:61754681

The Women’s Rights Movement in the U.S. got going in the 19th century with the National Woman’s Rights Convention of 1850 in Worcester, Massachusetts, where the role of women in society was a major focal point … and speaking out on the evils of slavery and so on. The Women’s Movement would continue on through the latter half of the 19th century into the 20th century. Women’s suffrage would become a major focal point in the early 20th century and women would finally win the right to vote in 1920. Carrie Chapman was a big leader in the Women’s Rights Movement at … right to vote in 1920. Carrie Chapman was a big leader in the Women’s Rights Movement at that time, campaigning hard for the 19th Amendment to be passed. However, there were other campaigns by women that had other outcomes—such as the campaign by Carrie Nation at……



Blackwell, E. (1850). Elizabeth Blackwell on the 1850 Women\\\\\\'s Rights Convention. Retrieved from  http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/WomansRights/blackwell_comments.html 

Griffith, E. (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press.

History. (2019). Women’s suffrage. Retrieved from  https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage 

Lawson, E. N. (2013). Smugglers, Bootleggers, and Scofflaws: Prohibition and New York City. SUNY Press.

Siegel, R. B. (1994). Home as Work: The First Woman\\\\\\'s Rights Claims Concerning

Wives\\\\\\' Household Labor, 1850-1880. The Yale Law Journal, 103(5), 1073-1217.

Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.

Study Document

Military History

Pages: 7 (2223 words) Sources: 11 Document Type:Essay Document #:42630182

… threats that the army and the country are facing and also beneficial for the future.
History of strategy and tactics
Before the eighteenth century, military strategies involved thinking about and overcoming challenges such as supply challenges, maneuvers, and fortifications. However, between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, bigger ……



Grieco, K. A. (2018). The 2018 national defense strategy: continuity and competition. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 12(2), 3-8.

Henry, R. S. (2016). “First With the Most” Forrest. Pickle Partners Publishing.

Hundley, R. O. (1999). Past Revolutions, Future Transformations. What Can the History of Revolutions in Military Affairs Tell us about Transforming the US Military? (No. RAND-MR-1029-DARPA). RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA.

Noel, E. (1905). Gustaf Adolf (King of Sweden): The Father of Modern War. Bale & Danielsson.

Parrot, D. A. (1985). Strategy and Tactics in the Thirty Years\\\\\\\\\\\\' War: The\\\\\\\\\\\\" Military Revolution.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Militärgeschichtliche Zeitschrift, (2), 7.

Phifer, M. (2012). A Handbook of Military Strategy and Tactics. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd.

RisCassi, R. W. (1997). Doctrine for joint operations in a combined environment: A necessity. Military Review, 77(1), 103.

Steele, B. (2005). Military Reengineering Between the World Wars. RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA.

Study Document

Ottoman Empire And The Arabs

Pages: 6 (1859 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:40041022

… Arab camps, with the British implementing a divide and conquer strategy to undo the Empire in WW1.
Geography and Diversity
In the 13th century, Anatolia was little more than a nest of independent Turkish principalities. Osman ruled one of these principalities on the Byzantine frontier. His people … Balkans. Venice ruled Thessaloniki but this too was taken by the Ottomans, and the Battle of Nicopolis at the end of the 14th century closed out the Crusades and, for the Christian West, ended in defeat. Mehmed took Constantinople the following year and agreed to allow the … of the House of Saud was totally achieved. The northern Najd was incorporated into the Saudi and by the end of the 18th century, al-Hasa was also absorbed. Taif and Medina were added in 1802 and 1804 respectively. By in 1818 the Saudi state was destroyed by … and consolidated its power mainly……



Anderson, Scott. 2014. Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Atlantic Books.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. 1994. Pilgrims and Sultans: The Hajj under the Ottomans 1517–1683. London: I. B. Tauris. 

Faroqhi, Suraiya. 2004. The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It. London: IB Tauris.

Khaled Fahmy. 2009. Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford:Oneworld Publications.

Murphy, David. 2008.  The Arab Revolt 1916–18 Lawrence sets Arabia Ablaze. Osprey: London.

Wilson, Mary C. 'The Hashemites, the Arab Revolt, and Arab Nationalism' in The Origins of Arab Nationalism (1991), ed. Rashid Khalidi, pp. 204–24. Columbia University Press.

Study Document

Female Artists In History

Pages: 7 (2218 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:41863907

… a position in the court of King Phillip II of Spain; Mary Wollstonecraft, whose Vindication of the Rights of Women in the 18th century opened the door for the 19th and 20th centuries’ women’s movements; and Emily Dickinson, whose poetry of the 19th century was lauded by second wave feminists such as Adrienne Rich, who identified Dickinson as an important inspiration in her own work. These women … their contributions reverberated to different disciplines and different eras and time periods so that they are even being felt today in the 21st century.
How the Women Shaped Their Culture
Sofonisba Anguissola
There were not many celebrated female artists of the Renaissance, but Sofonisba Anguissola was one … to rise up through the patronage of kings, queens and princes.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wollstonecraft’s contribution to culture at the end of the 18th century was her monumental work A Vindication of the Rights……



Chisholm, H. (1911). Sophonisba Angussola. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 44.

Jones, E. M. (2000). Libido dominandi: Sexual liberation and political control. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine’ Press.

Juhasz, S. (1983). Feminist Critics Read Emily Dickinson. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Sewall, R. B. (1974). The life of Emily Dickinson. NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.

Wollstonecraft, M. (1792). Vindication of the Rights of Woman.  https://www.bartleby.com/144/4.html 

Study Document

Natural Law In Catholic Social Teaching

Pages: 11 (3338 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:14149927

… passion and man’s irrational side. This led to a corrupt understanding of the Rights of Man.
The Rights of Man
In the 18th century, the rights of man were not a matter to be taken lightly or even something that one took for granted. As Lynn Hunt … the idea of these rights, but he never moved beyond a vague, romantic idea of emancipation and freedom. Liberty was like an 18th century intellectual drug that fueled many a heady debate in many a salon. It was not necessarily something that anyone expected or foresaw needing … embrace the modern world, and the Second Vatican Council’s attitudes towards modernism stood in stark contrast to those of the Church in the 19th century under Leo XIII and the early 20th century under St. Pius X, and this led to different foci in terms of social teaching. [19: Stephen J. Pope, “Natural……



Barton, George Aaron. A critical and exegetical commentary on the book of Ecclesiastes. Vol. 17. Scribner, 1908.

Hunt, Lynn. \\\\\\"Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights.\\\\\\" In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31. Boston: Bedford, 2016 National Assembly. “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 26 August 1789.”

Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite. Accessed November 4, 2019. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/3216

Pope, Stephen J. “Natural Law in Catholic Social Teachings.”  https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/boisi/pdf/f09/Pope_Natural_Law_In.pdf 

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, “Seven Themes of Catholic Social Teaching,”  http://www.usccb.org/beliefs-and-teachings/what-we-believe/catholic-social-teaching/seven-themes-of-catholic-social-teaching.cfm 

Study Document

Contact In Canadian Literature

Pages: 11 (3347 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:97950942

… the Atlantic include works by the Bronte sisters, works by Poe, and Shelley’s Frankenstein. The gothic was a popular genre form in the 19th century. It was romantic, vibrant, dark, brooding, frightening, exciting, and visceral. It resonated with readers because after a century of Enlightenment (hyper-emphasis on reason and naturalism), the romantic era had ushered in something desperately needed: feeling. Thus, authors of the 19th century, like Duncan Campbell Scott and Pauline Johnson, found elements of the gothic genre to be a useful way to explore and express their ……


Works Cited

Gray, Charlotte, and Clara Thomas. "Flint and feather: the life and times of E Pauline Johnson, Tekahionwake." Canadian Woman Studies 23.1 (2003): 183.

Johnson, E. Pauline. “Pagan in St. Paul’s Cathedral.”  http://fullonlinebook.com/essays/a-pagan-in-st-paul-s-cathedral/jhfy.html 

Mulvey-Roberts, Marie, ed. The Handbook to Gothic literature. NYU Press, 1998.

Salem-Wiseman, Lisa. ""Verily, the White Man's Ways Were the Best": Duncan Campbell Scott, Native Culture, and Assimilation." Studies in Canadian Literature/Études en littérature canadienne (1996): 121-144.

Scott, D. C. “The Onondaga Madonna.”

Smith, Andrew. Gothic Literature. Edinburgh University Press, 2007.

Study Document

Indian Removal Act 1830

Pages: 13 (4034 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:92871385

… rights abuses in a long history of human rights abuses committed by the American government—from the time of slavery even into the 21st century. This paper will describe the history of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and show why and how it became a disaster for … had proposed it, and other administrations had followed suit, forcibly removing the Choctaw and Cherokee from their native soil throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.[footnoteRef:2] Washington and Jefferson had promoted the idea of having the Indians adopt the American culture and begin practicing Christianity, speaking English, and … hoops of seeking permission from the Cherokee to lay the groundwork of transportation infrastructure became more and more of a problem as the century wore on. In Sevier’s letter one sees the kind of attitude the rulers of the U.S. had and what their view of the … could not have developed a……


Works Cited

Primary Sources

Crockett, Davy, “On the removal of the Cherokees, 1834,” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-now/spotlight-primary-source/davy-crockett-removal-cherokees-1834

“The Magnetic Telegraph.” Ladies’ Repository 10(1850): 61-62. O’Sullivan, John. “Annexation.” United States Magazine and Democratic Review, vol.17, no. 1 (July-August 1845): 5-10.

Sevier, John. Letter to the Cherokee. DPLA.  https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/cherokee-removal-and-the-trail-of-tears/sources/1500 

Secondary Sources

Brown-Rice, Kathleen. "Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans." Professional Counselor 3, no. 3 (2013).

Cave, Alfred A. "Abuse of power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian removal act of 1830." The Historian 65, no. 6 (2003): 1330-1353.

Cherokee Preservation Foundation. “About the Eastern Band.” Cherokee Preservation, 2010.  http://cherokeepreservation.org/who-we-are/about-the-ebci/

Study Document

Including Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Students In The General Education

Pages: 15 (4479 words) Sources: 12 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:71231641

… for the deaf was created in 1760 by a French Catholic priest. Prior to that, it was a Catholic Benedictine in the 17th century who focused on developing a method for teaching deaf students: his name was Pedro Ponce de Leon. In 1788, the first French sign … for teaching deaf students: his name was Pedro Ponce de Leon. In 1788, the first French sign language dictionary was published. In the 19th century, Alexander Graham Bell, who had a hard of hearing mother, started the Volta Bureau School for teaching hearing impaired children.
At the end … Bell, who had a hard of hearing mother, started the Volta Bureau School for teaching hearing impaired children.
At the end of the 19th century, the first hearing aids were developed. A century later, the very first cochlear implants were being tested. The cochlear implant, also known as the Bionic Ear, was……



Arizona Office for Americans with Disabilities. (2007). Retrieved from  https://know-the-ada.com/t4/history-deafness.html 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/language.html 

Curhan, G., & Curhan, S. (2016). Epidemiology of hearing impairment. In Hearing Aids (pp. 21-58). Springer, Cham.

Gallaudet University. (2019). Retrieved from  https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/national-resources-and-directories/schools-and-programs.html 

Hill, M. (2019). Embryology Sensory - Hearing Abnormalities. Retrieved from  https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Hearing_Abnormalities 

Hyde, M., Nikolaraizi, M., Powell, D., & Stinson, M. (2016). Critical factors toward the Inclusion of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in higher education. Diversity in deaf education, 441-472.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2006). Retrieved from  https://sites.ed.gov/idea/ 

Padden, C. A. & Humphries, T. (2005). Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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