… of these countries, leading to completely different languages, cultures, customs, and institutions. The French left the most lingering legacy on Haiti, and Haitian slave ended up leading the world’s first successful large-scale slave rebellion. British rule in Jamaica would also eventually dissolve, as slave became an untenable model for the global labor market. Spanish-ruled Puerto Rico likewise capitalized on the slave trade and the free labor extracted from it, but slave in Puerto Rico was less linked to race as it was in either Haiti or Jamaica. This is not to say that Puerto … to race as it was in either Haiti or Jamaica. This is not to say that Puerto Rico is not as marred by slave as were Jamaica or Haiti, but the colonial system did ensure a lingering social stratification based on class status. This paper compares and … a lingering social stratification based on……
Dubois, Laurent. “Fire in the Cane,” in Avengers of the New World, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Geggus, David. “The Caribbean in the Age of Revolution.”
Godreau, Isar P., Cruz, Mariolga Reyes, Ortiz, Mariluz, et al. “The Lessons of Slavery: Discourses of Slavery, Mestizaje, and Blanqueamiento in an Elementary School in Puerto Rico.” American Ethnologist, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2008, pp. 115-135.
Laguerre, Michael. “The Place of Voodoo in the Social Structure of Haiti.” Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1973, pp. 36-50.
Mintz, Sidney Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations, Harvard University Press, 2012.
Safa, Helen. “The Matrifocal Family and Patriarchal Ideology in Cuba and the Caribbean,” Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol. 10, No.2, 2005.
Stinchcombe, Arthur. “Planter power, Freedom, and Oppression of Slaves in 18th century Caribbean”, from Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, pp. 125-158.
Stinchcombe, Arthur. “Race as a Social Boundary: Free Colored versus Slaves and Blacks,” from Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, pp. 159-172.
...Slave trade Overview of Africa’s Post-Conflict History
Historical Formal Institutions
Colonial legacies persist in Africa in spite of a post-colonial era (Austin, 2010). These legacies have continued in post-conflict Africa’s history. In Africa, there has been no real unifying factor bringing individuals together, primarily because of the communal aspect of society throughout the continent. Community exists and can be found everywhere in Africa. Structural, dramaturgic and institutional factors in formal institutionalization in Africa of health care has come about as a result of investment, development, and political stability (Ratcliffe, 2013). The relationship among cultural traditions, laws of society, and the symbolic boundaries have served to create the structural meanings behind formal institutions; the expressive dimension, communicative properties and interaction of these elements have made up the dramaturgic, and the actors and organizations themselves have manifested the institutional. An example of this can be seen in Nigeria.
Structurally, dramaturgically and institutionally, Africa has……
Afro-centric Alliance, A. (2001). Indigenisingorganizational change: Localisation in Tanzania and Malawi. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(1), 59-78.
Asiseh, F., Owusu, A., & Quaicoe, O. (2017). An analysis of family dynamics on high school adolescent risky behaviors in Ghana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 26(5), 425-431.
Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.
Brager, G., Specht, H., Torczyner, J. L., &Torczyner, J. (1987). Community organizing. Columbia University Press.
Bratton, M., & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge university press.
Burnham, G. M., Pariyo, G., Galiwango, E., & Wabwire-Mangen, F. (2004). Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 187-195.
Dillard, C., Duncan, K. L., & Johnson, L. (2017). Black History Full Circle: Lessons from a Ghana Study Abroad in Education Program. Social Education, 81(1), 50-53.
Ehui, S. (2020). Protecting food security in Africa. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/05/14/protecting-food-security-in-africa-during-covid-19/
Throughout history, the Bible has been used to oppress those perceived to be weak, poor, or inferior. One of the best examples being slave during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade were slave were required to submit to their Masters, for they were superior based on their White skin color. To help maintain slave, the white slave masters developed white supremacists' theories, which were founded on a biased interpretation of the Bible[footnoteRef:2]. The superiority story has always been drawn from … act – a biased one, the Bible was used to support and augment white supremacist theories that were used to support colonialism and slave. However, through the liberationist theology, which the Bible is replete of, the minority and oppressed community have come to understand the true value ……
Elliott, John E. \\\\\\"Oppression, Exploitation and Injustice in the Old Testament: The View from Liberation Theology.\\\\\\" International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 19, No. 10/11/12 (1992): 15-52.
Hayes, John H., and Carl R. Holladay. Biblical exegesis: a beginner\\\\\\'s handbook. Westminster John Knox Press, 2007.
Klein, William W., Craig L. Blomberg, and Robert L. Hubbard Jr. Introduction to biblical interpretation. Zondervan Academic, 2017.
Pontifical Biblical Commission. The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church: Address of His Holiness Pope John Paul II and Document of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1993.
Thiselton, Anthony C. Hermeneutics: an introduction. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2009.
Thomas, James, and Angela Harden. \\\\\\"Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews.\\\\\\" BMC medical research methodology 8, no. 1 (2008): 45.
Tikito, Iman, and Nissrine Souissi. \\\\\\"Meta-analysis of systematic literature review methods.\\\\\\" International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science 11, no. 2 (2019): 17.
West, Gerald O. \\\\\\"Locating \\\\\\'Contextual Bible Study\\\\\\' within biblical liberation hermeneutics and intercultural biblical hermeneutics.\\\\\\" HTS Theological Studies 70, no. 1 (2014): 1-10.
Globalization has opened up international markets for almost all good including sex trade. It has also made it easy for traffickers to move women from one country to another and force them to join the sex … It has also made it easy for traffickers to move women from one country to another and force them to join the sex trade. According to Brewer (2009), with the increasingly integrated world economy has allowed human trafficking to thrive. Human trafficking thrives since the perpetrators make … country through elaborate money-laundering schemes using underground banks. Prostitution has now become a globalized commodity with women being forced to partake in the trade against their wishes (Watson, June 18, 2009). The perpetrates lure the women with the promise of jobs and a lucrative life and they ……
Brewer, D. (2009). Globalization and human trafficking. Topical Research Digest: Human rights and human trafficking, 2009, 46-56.
Griffith, A. (May 02, 2017). Stop “Saving” Women: A Transnational Feminist Approach. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/stop-saving-women-a-transnational-feminist-approach_b_5908ca52e4b084f59b49fd4b
Valoy, P. (January 28, 2015). Transnational Feminism: Why Feminist Activism Needs to Think Globally. Retrieved from https://everydayfeminism.com/2015/01/why-we-need-transnational-feminism/
Watson, C. (June 18, 2009). The globalization of sex. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/the-globalization-of-sex-1.777957
… Times of Crisis, focus on health pandemic
Background of the Study
Centuries before missionaries and colonialists arrived in Africa and centuries before the slave trade commenced, Africans in Africa had cultural and social practices and mechanisms to sustain their societies and to prevent the loss of lives during ……
Abel-Smith, B., & Rawal, P. (1992). Can the poor afford ‘free’ health services? A case study of Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning, 7(4), 329-341.
Airhihenbuwa, C. O. (1995). Health and culture: Beyond the Western paradigm. Sage.
Fairhead, J. (2014). The significance of death, funerals, and the after-life in Ebola-hit Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia: Anthropological insights into infection and social resistance.
Handler, J. S. (2016). Custom and law: The status of enslaved Africans in seventeenth-Century Barbados. Slavery & Abolition, 37(2), 233-255.
Iganus, R. B., & Haruna, A. (2017). The Strength of African Culture in Managing Family Crisis in a Globalized World. Anthropol, 5(197), 2332-0915.
Manguvo, A., & Mafuvadze, B. (2015). The impact of traditional and religious practices on the spread of Ebola in West Africa: time for a strategic shift. The Pan African Medical Journal, 22(Suppl 1).
Marsland, R. (2006). Community participation the Tanzanian way: Conceptual contiguity or power struggle? Oxford Development Studies, 34(1).
Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Sage publications.
… of the key figures in the United States in the nineteenth century was Fredrick Douglass (c. 1817–1895). Fredrick Douglass was born to a slave woman in 1817. This automatically made him a slave. It is thought that his father was the white owner of his mother (Lee, 13-30). Douglass is most famous for escaping from the … thought that his father was the white owner of his mother (Lee, 13-30). Douglass is most famous for escaping from the shackles of slave in the year 1838 and becoming one of the key leaders and advocates for the abolition of slave in the United States. He revered by the African American community and Americans in general for his fight against slave. Long after his death, U.S. Civil Rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and used his fight to inspire Americans to … abolition movement
Fredrick Douglass published many……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… Treaty (1854)
The 1854 Reciprocity Treaty is one of the most famous economic treaties in Canadian history. The Reciprocity Treaty was a trade treaty that was signed between the economy of the United States and what was then known as the Province of Canada (Quebec and … Canada (Quebec and Ontario) and other smaller provinces of the then British North America. The treaty was a forerunner of the Canada-United States trade agreement of 1989. It was primarily intended to facilitate free trade in primary products such as coal, fish, timber, barley, oats, and wheat. The parties signed it on 5th June 1854, and it went … prices as American goods and take all the money home without paying duties.
According to historians, the Reciprocity Treaty also significantly increased the trade between Canadian regions and the United States. As per official statistics, trade between Canadian regions and the United……
Ankli, R. E. (1971). The reciprocity treaty of 1854. The Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d\\\\\\\\\\\\'Economique, 4(1), 1-20.
Gerriets, M., & Gwyn, J. (1996). Tariffs, trade, and reciprocity: Nova Scotia, 1830-1866. Acadiensis, 25(2), 62-81.
Haynes, F. E. (1892). The Reciprocity treaty with Canada of 1854 (Vol. 7, No. 6). Baltimore, Md.: American Economic Association.
Hinton, M. (2013). Canadian economic growth and the reciprocity treaty of 1854. Working Papers 13038, Economic History Society.
Masters, D. C. (1963). The reciprocity treaty of 1854: its history, its relation to British colonial and foreign policy, and to the development of Canadian fiscal autonomy (Vol. 9). McGill-Queen\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Press-MQUP.
Officer, L. H., & Smith, L. B. (1968). The Canadian-American reciprocity treaty of 1855 to 1866. Journal of Economic History, 598-623.
Porritt, E. (1908). Sixty Years of Protection in Canada, 1846-1907: Where Industry Leans on the Politician. London: Macmillan.
Saunders, S. A. (1934). The Maritime Provinces and the Reciprocity Treaty. The Dalhousie Review.
The whites preferred Washington's strategy, especially as they weren’t prepared to actually discuss black political and social equality so soon after ending slave (Blatty, 2015). The method worked to their (i.e., whites') advantage and was thus met with tremendous enthusiasm on the part of whites, who … of President Roosevelt.
The perspectives of the activists under study were shaped, to a large extent, by their pasts. Washington, a former slave, understood how to achieve goals by working within limitations. He was able to free himself from a position of slave all on his own. Therefore, his approach to continue working and momentarily appeasing the whites whilst covertly pursuing the black community’s agenda was … momentarily appeasing the whites whilst covertly pursuing the black community’s agenda was shaped by his earlier dealings with whites.
However, Dubois never experienced slave, and his first experience of racial discrimination only came……
Blatty, D. (2015, February 22). W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from Biography: https://www.biography.com/news/web-dubois-vs-booker-t-washington
Dubois, W. (1903). he Talented Tenth. In The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative Negroes of To-day (pp. 36-43). New York.
Dunn, F. (1993). The Educational Philosophies of Washington, Dubois, and Houston: Laying the Foundations for Afrocentrism and Multiculturalism. Journal of Negro Education, 62(1), 23-24.
Hancock, A.-M. (n.d.). Socialism/Communism. In p. Young.
Washington, B. T. (1895). Speech at the Atlanta Exposition. Atlanta.
… empowers law enforcement to investigate cases of sex trafficking, holding perpetrators culpable for their actions, and also precluding human sex trafficking and modern slave from occurring in the first place.
Approximately 17,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States yearly. Even worse, the numbers for sex trafficking ……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
… small businesses are showing signs of slowing down: “Hampering job growth are labor shortages, layoffs at bricks-and-mortar retailers, and fallout from weaker global trade.” In other words, the takeover of commerce by Amazon is resulting in traditional retailers being put out of business, and the trade War launched by Trump is resulting decreased business abroad. The fact that the majority of new jobs being added is in the services ……
BBC. (2019). US economy under Trump: Is it the greatest in history? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-45827430
Bernstein, J. (2019). A tight job market is a potent force against inequality and wage stagnation. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/02/01/tight-job-market-is-potent-force-against-inequality-wage-stagnation/?utm_term=.0a531cf24efb
Cox, J. (2019). Private payroll growth tops estimates as job market shows signs of tightening. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/31/private-payrolls-up-156k-in-july-vs-150k-est-adpmoodys.html
Harwood, J. (2019). 5 reasons why income inequality has become a major political issue. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2019/06/05/5-reasons-income-inequality-has-become-a-major-political-issue.html
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