The History of US Marshals in civil rights Era
The American society was polarized with the African Americans having a lower edge of protection as opposed to the white majority. The … are held in high regard in society since they serve the American people. During slavery, a federal agency was formed through a Judiciary act in the constitution to help handle fugitives. Policing America was necessary post-segregation era since the African Americans needed protection against harm, discrimination, and … call to the American people.
The first Congress created the U.S. Marshals under President George Washington. The president signed into law the Judiciary act on September 24, 1789, which charged the marshals with the enforcement of laws and actions in federal courts. They assisted the courts to serve subpoenas, warrants, and capture federal fugitives even though they evolved to handle day to … order in counties with no local governments.……
Larry K. Gaines, V. E. (2014). Policing in America. New York: Routledge.
Skocpol, T. (1999). Advocates without Members: the recent transformation of American civic life. In T. Skocpol, Civic Engagement in American Democracy (pp. 461-480). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
… United States. He revered by the African American community and Americans in general for his fight against slavery. Long after his death, U.S. civil rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and used his fight to inspire Americans to fight for the rights of African Americans. This paper looks at the life of Fredrick Douglass and his massive contributions to the abolitionist movement and women's suffrage … expanded his arguments as the tension between the Union and the Southern states increased over the issue of slavery and trade before the civil War (Sundstrom). According to Douglass, the main intention of his articles and speeches and books was to expose to everyone how evil slavery … pointed out the hypocrisy of slavery apologists by asking several rhetorical questions. For example, he asked why specific laws existed to limit the actions of blacks if they were beasts and incapable……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… (1776) that “all men are created equal”—but it was a statement that only rang partially true if one is to judge by their actions. Even though Thomas Paine (1791) had identified the “rights of Man” in his treatise by the same name, the Americans were not really interested in applying Enlightenment philosophy to its fullest, for … for they still wished to deny the Negro his fair share of equality. Slavery persisted for nearly another century and it took the civil War to bring that issue to the fore, with the Great Emancipator finally taking the first steps in freeing slaves in states still … in Central America dubbed “Linconia” (Guelzo, 2000). The 13th Amendment officially ended slavery everywhere in the US, but it did not establish equal rights for blacks and Jim Crow laws sprang up in numerous states. It would be another century before the civil rights……
Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/compare.html
Guelzo, A. C. (2000). Lincoln and the Abolitionists. The Wilson Quarterly, 24(4), 58-70.
O’Sullivan, J. (1845). Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review, 17(1), 5-10.
Paine, T. (1791). The rights of man. Retrieved from https://www.ushistory.org/Paine/rights/
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
… District legal obligations to ELLs and their parents
Below are some of the legal reasons why the district has an ESOL program.
The civil rights of 1964, Title VI
Title VI of the 1964 civil rights act recipients of federal financial assistance from discriminating a student on color, race, or country of origin (“Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook,”2019). … significant access to every curricular and extracurricular program. Meaningful access means that ELLs are provided with opportunities to participate in curricular and extracurricular activities, just like native English speakers.
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
The Equal Educational Opportunities Act states that each district should “take appropriate action to overcome barriers that impede equal participation [of their] students in [they are] instructional programs” (“Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook,”2019). This Act forms the basis of the ESOL program. It is also consistent with bilingual language policy that calls……
Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook. (2019, October). Cloud Object Storage | Store & Retrieve Data Anywhere | Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). https://s3.amazonaws.com/scschoolfiles/364/esl_handbook_updated_oct_2019_1.pdf
Díaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Sutton, L. C., Cornelius, L., & McDonald-Gordon, R. (2012). English language learners and judicial oversight: Progeny of Castaneda. Educational Considerations, 39(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1111
U.S. Department of Education. (2012, May). Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature. https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/title-iii/language-instruction-ed-programs-report.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice. (2019, October 15). Types of educational opportunities discrimination. https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-educational-opportunities-discrimination
… or mental disabilities is changing. Even the term “disabled” seems to stem from the problematic concept of ableism: as the Center for Disability rights points out, some managers still operate under “the assumption that disabled people need to be 'fixed' in one form or the other.” That assumption is … “the assumption that disabled people need to be 'fixed' in one form or the other.” That assumption is being challenged across the country as the rights of disabled people are asserted and defended—and this paper shows how. Historically, the disabled population has been one of the most marginalized populations … and national culture overall can be constructed. This paper thus first provides a lens analysis of this issue; second, it analyzes how social practices have been shaped by issues and events in diversity in modern culture; third, it assesses the benefits and challenges of addressing issues in … culture; third, it assesses the……
Baruch, Y. (2000). Teleworking: benefits and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers. New technology, work and employment, 15(1), 34-49.
Bortz, D. (2018). Can Blind Hiring Improve Workplace Diversity? Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/0418/pages/can-blind-hiring-improve-workplace-diversity.aspx
Center for Disability Rights. (2019). Ableism. Retrieved from http://cdrnys.org/blog/uncategorized/ableism/
Corrigan, P. W. (2016). Lessons learned from unintended consequences about erasing the stigma of mental illness. World Psychiatry, 15(1), 67-73.
Fabian, R. (2019). New Marvel Film \\\\\\\\\\\\'The Eternals\\\\\\\\\\\\' Will Feature First Deaf Superhero. Retrieved from https://finance.yahoo.com/news/marvel-film-eternals-feature-first-211402332.html
Faurer, J., Rogers-Brodersen, A., & Bailie, P. (2014). Managing the re-employment of military veterans through the Transition Assistance Program (TAP). Journal of Business & Economics Research (Online), 12(1), 55.
Guruge, S., Wang, A. Z. Y., Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, V., & Sidani, S. (2017). Knowing so much, yet knowing so little: a scoping review of interventions that address the stigma of mental illness in the Canadian context. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(5), 507-523.
Marquis, J.P., Lim, N., Kavanagh, J., Harrell, M.C. & Scott, L.M. (2007). Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis. Pittsburgh, PA: Rand Corporation.
… protected class due to age, ethnicity, race, national origin, disability, sex, or religion have the legal right not to be harassed under the civil rights act 1964 (Glaviano, 2017). John does fall under the protected class due to his national origin and race since he identifies as Hispanic. … the supervisor role fits the explanation given under the Vance v. Ball State case (Meyers, 2015). The supervisor has been given tangible employment actions that he or she could take against the victim like demoting him or firing him. Therefore, the harasser in this case is a … been created by the supervisor.
The employer can defend himself for the supervisor's conduct by stating that there was no tangible action taken against the employee. This means that the employee was neither demoted nor fired by the supervisor. In this case, the employer is … John has to……
EEOC. (n.d). Filing a Formal Complaint. Washington, DC: EEOC Headquarters Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/federal-sector/filing-formal-complaint .
Glaviano, A. (2017). Teaching Organizational Leaders: Application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to Hiring Practices and Harassment Prevention in New Orleans.
Meyers, S. D. (2015). Who’s the Boss: The Definition of a Supervisor in Workplace Harassment Under Vance v. Ball State University. Saint Louis University Law Journal, 59(3), 19.
… film adaptation of the 1960 novel by Harper Lee of the same name. The film was produced during a decade in which the civil rights Movement was reaching its zenith. Blacks had been protesting throughout the South, and Martin Luther King, Jr., would be arrested in Birmingham in … Martin Luther King, Jr., would be arrested in Birmingham in 1963. There he would write his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, justifying his actions at the front of the civil disobedience. Soon thereafter would be the march to Washington and then the Selma to Montgomery march. In short, race and desegregation was on … was on everyone’s mind. The film gives special attention to the issue of race, even though it is set in the 1930s. The activities abuzz in the 1960s were surely reflected in the film’s story. For instance, the unjust accusation of rape leveled against the black……
Executive Order 10925. Thecre. https://www.thecre.com/fedlaw/legal6/eo10925.htm
… were still subjected to harsh and unfair treatment throughout the latter half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century. In fact, it would be more than a century after the ratification of the 13th Amendment before the civil rights act be signed into law—and it would take a major protest led by Martin Luther King, Jr. just to achieve that. From the … together in a group?) and also forbade whites mixing with blacks either platonically or sexually. It was a blatant violation of blacks’ Constitutional rights—particularly their right to assemble under the 1st Amendment. Article 4, Section 1 forbade blacks from bearing arms—even though as citizens of the U.S. … it was their Constitutional right to bear arms under the 2nd Amendment. In short, the Black Code meant to strip blacks of the rights that citizens (i.e., whites) held in the country. If the……
King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” 1963.
The Mississippi Black Code of 1865.
Racial injustice is a part of American history. In spite of legislation like the civil rights act 1964, racial injustice remains rampant in the United States. Police brutality is one of the most visible areas in which racial injustice … to the “blue wall of silence” in police culture. Even if poor leadership in policing is more to blame than racism itself, the fact that black males experience a disproportionate number of such instances and are also stopped and arrested more often than their white counterparts, shows … changes in American and global societies due to the covid-19 pandemic. Along the surreal backdrop of the pandemic, with social distancing and lockdowns impacting everyday life, police officers killed two innocent individuals. On March 13, 2020, police officers barged into the home of Breonna Taylor using a … present and stood by watching passively as Derek Chauvin knelt on Floyd long……
Black Lives Matter (2020). Retrieved from: https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/
Cole, B. (2020). Minnesota asks Trump to declare ‘major disaster’ over riots damage. Newsweek. 3 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.newsweek.com/minnesota-riots-tim-walz-clean-george-floyd-1515335
Glover, S., Richards, C., Devine, C., et al. (2020). A key miscalculation by officers contributed to the tragic death of Breonna Taylor. CNN. 23 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/23/us/breonna-taylor-police-shooting-invs/index.html
“History of Juneteenth,” (2020). juneteenth.com. Retrieved from: https://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
Ray, R. (2020). What does ‘defund the police’ mean and does it have merit? Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/06/19/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-and-does-it-have-merit/
“Seven Things You Need to Know About Antifa,” (2020). BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/X56rQkDgd0qqB7R68t6t7C/seven-things-you-need-to-know-about-antifa
“Who Are Antifa?” (2020). ADL. Retrieved from : https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa
… health and safety laws, and state laws is discussed.
Recent Federal Legislative Protections/Laws
Workplace discrimination is a term used to refer to any practice or procedures in the working environment that seek to segregate an individual or group based on their unique attributes from other individuals. According … segregate an individual or group based on their unique attributes from other individuals. According to Jennings (2018), workplace discrimination incorporates “disparate treatment, disparate impact, and pattern or practice of discrimination” (p.731). These three concepts were the premise for initial federal laws enacted to protect employees against discrimination. Federal anti-discrimination laws or legislative protections were initially enacted to prevent discrimination on the basis of age, race, ethnicity, color, gender or disability. These laws alongside state laws have played a critical … race, ethnicity, color, gender or disability. These laws alongside state laws have played a critical role in safeguarding employees from discriminatory……
Coble, C. (2015, June 11). Can Undocumented Immigrants Get Workers’ Comp? Retrieved March 12, 2020, from https://blogs.findlaw.com/injured/2015/06/can-undocumented-immigrants-get-workers-compensation.html
Grabell, M. & Berkes, H. (2018, February 7). Florida Bill Seeks to Stop Arrests of Injured Immigrant Workers. National Public Radio. Retrieved March 12, 2020, from https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/02/07/583995647/florida-bill-seeks-to-stop-arrests-of-injured-immigrant-worker s
Jennings, M. (2018). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Lenard, P.M. (1987). Unjust Dismissal of Employees at Will: Are Disclaimers a Final Solution? Fordham Urban Law Journal, 15(2), 533-565.
Lindsay, D.C. & Moore, L.M. (2011). State and Federal Leave Laws: How Recent Legislative Changes Have Complicated Leave Administration. Employment Relations Today, 38(1), 77-90.
Macgillivray, E.D., Beecher, H.J.M. & Golden, D. (2010, December). Legal Developments – Recent Action, Federally and in the Workplace. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 73-81.
Mello, J.A. (2019, August 9). Why the Equal Pay Act and Laws Which Prohibit Salary Inquiries of Job Applicants Can Not Adequately Address Gender-Based Pay Inequity. SAGE Open, 9(3), https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019869106
Muhl, C.J. (2001, January). The Employment-at-will Doctrine: Three Major Exceptions. Monthly Labor Review, 3-11. Retrieved from Bureau of Labor Statistics website: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/01/art1full.pdf
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