… latter’s pursuit of naturalism in opposition to the Old World values, virtues and order.[endnoteRef:3] The problem that occurred in America was that the founding fathers were not of the same mind as Thomas Paine, though they readily used his words and ideas in their Declaration of Independence. Paine … Declaration of Independence. Paine truly believed in the equality of all men and he was whole-heartedly opposed to the institution of slavery. The founding fathers were not, and the equality they expressed in the Declaration of Independence was meant primarily to be limited to the rights of the … ideal of American Democracy was not always in alignment with the reality of democracy in America. [2: Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript] [3: Rousseau, J. (2018). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/] [4: Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at ……
Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript
Rousseau, J. (2018). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 1.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 5.
National Assembly. “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 26 August 1789.” Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/3216
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Brutus No. 1. (1787). http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm
… sinful practice of slavery. Douglass was also of the idea that slavery was not consistent with America's national narrative of equali8ty and its founding documents. He also argued that it was not consistent with the country's historical, social, economic, and political…[break]…the Second Great Awakening.
Douglass believed civil ……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… parts of the United States. They were part of the Iroquois tribe, with whom the British had meant to form a treaty. The founding fathers did not want any sort of treaty with the Natives, however. They wanted the land. Men like Thomas were few and far between, ……
Crockett, Davy, “On the removal of the Cherokees, 1834,” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-now/spotlight-primary-source/davy-crockett-removal-cherokees-1834
“The Magnetic Telegraph.” Ladies’ Repository 10(1850): 61-62. O’Sullivan, John. “Annexation.” United States Magazine and Democratic Review, vol.17, no. 1 (July-August 1845): 5-10.
Sevier, John. Letter to the Cherokee. DPLA. https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/cherokee-removal-and-the-trail-of-tears/sources/1500
Brown-Rice, Kathleen. "Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans." Professional Counselor 3, no. 3 (2013).
Cave, Alfred A. "Abuse of power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian removal act of 1830." The Historian 65, no. 6 (2003): 1330-1353.
Cherokee Preservation Foundation. “About the Eastern Band.” Cherokee Preservation, 2010. http://cherokeepreservation.org/who-we-are/about-the-ebci/
… slogans like “Don’t Tread on Me!” or “1776 or Die!” or other similarly themed slogans that recall to mind the calls the of founding fathers and their fighting spirit. By associating their extremist views with the voices of the founding fathers they drape their ideology in patriotic zeal, which attracts others who also want to be patriots—but they also give a corrupted vision of ……
Barnett, B. A. (2015). 20 Years Later: A Look Back at the Unabomber Manifesto. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 60-71.
Beinart, P. (2017). The rise of the violent left. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/the-rise-of-the-violent-left/534192/
Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).
Costello, M., & Hawdon, J. (2018). Who are the online extremists among us? Sociodemographic characteristics, social networking, and online experiences of those who produce online hate materials. Violence and gender, 5(1), 55-60.
DeCook, J. R. (2018). Memes and symbolic violence:# proudboys and the use of memes for propaganda and the construction of collective identity. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 485-504.
Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., & Freberg, L. A. (2011). Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions of personality. Public Relations Review, 37(1), 90-92.
Hamm, M &Spaaj, R. (2015). Lone wolf terrorism in America: Using knowledge of radicalization pathways to forge prevention strategies. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/248691.pdf
Klein, A. (2019). From Twitter to Charlottesville: Analyzing the Fighting Words Between the Alt-Right and Antifa. International Journal of Communication, 13, 22.
… outcomes in the near future. There are those who believe in democracy—in the ideal—and they are enthused and inspired by the steps the founding fathers took to create this nation. However, there are also those who take a skeptical stance and see the founding fathers as barons of industry, couching their land and power grabs in terms that speak to equity and fairness……
Dahl, Robert. On Democracy.
Ferejohn, John. Is Inequality a Threat to Democracy?
Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press.
Mansbridge, Jane. On the Importance of Getting Things Done. PS, 2012.
Runciman, David. The Confidence Trap. Princeton University Press.
...Founding fathers Alternate Titles:
Rise of the Oligarchs in Russia and Ukraine
How Boris Berezovsky Fled Russia and Supported a Coup in Ukraine
The “expulsion” of Boris Berezovsky from Russia under the Putin Regime sparked a chain of events that led to Ukraine’s upheaval. Though considered an “expulsion” by the Russian billionaire, Berezovsky was actually summoned to appear for questioning by the Prosecutor General but chose to remain in exile in UK and obtain political asylum there (BBC, 2012). The story is worth telling because what followed in the geopolitical spat between Berezovsky and Putin impacted Ukraine and millions of lives there, and the telling reveals the fragile nature of the democracies of Eastern Europe in general in the post-Soviet era. For it was Berezovsky who vowed revenge against Putin and immediately began meddling in Ukraine politics as a way of getting back at the new head of Russia—with the help……
Alexievich, S. (2007). Secondhand Time: The Last of the Soviets. NY: Random House.
Alexievich, S. (2017). The Unwomanly Face of War: An Oral History of Women in World War II. NY: Random House.
BBC. (2012). Russian godfathers. Retrieved from https://www.documentary24.com/russian-godfathers-putin-and-the-oligarchs--848/
Forbes. (2020). Ihor Kolomoyskyy. Retrieved from https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/how-russian-oligarchs-changed-country%E2%80%94and-not-better-97472
Klebnikov, P. (2000). Godfather of the Kremlin. New York, NY: Harcourt.
IMF. (2007). Report for Ukraine. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=1992&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=926&s=PPPGDP&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=41&pr1.y=2
Mezrich, B. (2015). Once upon a time in Russia. New York, NY: Atria.
Risen, J. (2019). I Wrote About the Bidens and Ukraine Years Ago. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2019/09/25/i-wrote-about-the-bidens-and-ukraine-years-ago-then-the-right-wing-spin-machine-turned-the-story-upside-down/
… should be united in culture, not divided. Yet because of an elitist cultural framework that was adopted from the beginning of the country’s founding, the nation has always been divided. That culture is what needs to change and it should reflect the culture of……
Carbado, Devon W. \\\\\\"Racial naturalization.\\\\\\" American Quarterly 57.3 (2005): 633-658.
Graber, Shane M., Ever J. Figueroa, and Krishnan Vasudevan. \\\\\\"Oh, Say, Can You Kneel: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Colin Kaepernick’s Racial Protest.\\\\\\" Howard Journal of Communications (2019): 1-17.
Morrison, Toni. “Recitatif.” Skin Deep. Doubleday, 1995.
Naber, Nadine. “Osama’s Daughters: Cultural Racism, Nation-Based Racism, and the Intersectionality of Oppressions after 9/11.” Review of Women’s Studies, 5 (2009), 50-63.
Sabo, Samantha, et al. \\\\\\"Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US– Mexico border.\\\\\\" Social Science & Medicine 109 (2014): 66-74.
...Founding fathers Colonial America was a diverse hodge-podge of religious communities. The Quakers had been given Pennsylvania by William Penn, whose father had held ties with the King of England (Fantel). The Puritans were in New England. Baptists established themselves in the South. Catholics had been in the Northern territories and in the Southwest well before the Protestant surge, and they also established the first Catholic state in Maryland—before it was later taken over by Protestants who banned Catholicism (Laux). In short, there was little religious unity broadly speaking, but religion nonetheless played an important role in the structuring of society and class when it came to local organization. Hawthorne and Melville—the two premier authors of the 19th century—described this experience of social stratification within a religious context fairly well. But there are numerous signs and examples of how it existed and persisted. This paper will show that religion was used as……
Fantel, Hans. William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co., 1974.
Graham, Michael. "Posish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689." The Catholic historical review 79.2 (1993): 197-216.
Holton, W. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Laux, John. Church History. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1933.
Melville, Herman. Clarel. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015005201424&view=1up&seq=9
Milder, R. Herman Melville. New York: Columbia University Press,1988.
Pyle, Ralph E., and James D. Davidson. "The origins of religious stratification in colonial America." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42.1 (2003): 57-75.
… Africa has its mythological leaders and figures, as Prempeh (2007) points out, noting that “the assault on constitutionalism was spearheaded by Africa's larger-than-life founding fathers, leaders like Osagyefo (Victorious Warrior) Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana), Mwalimu (The Teacher) Julius Nyerere (Tanzania), le Grand Silly (Elephant) Sékou Touré (Guinea), Ngwazi (Great Lion) Kamuzu Banda (Malawi), and Mzee (Esteemed Elder) ……
Afro-centric Alliance, A. (2001). Indigenisingorganizational change: Localisation in Tanzania and Malawi. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(1), 59-78.
Asiseh, F., Owusu, A., & Quaicoe, O. (2017). An analysis of family dynamics on high school adolescent risky behaviors in Ghana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 26(5), 425-431.
Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.
Brager, G., Specht, H., Torczyner, J. L., &Torczyner, J. (1987). Community organizing. Columbia University Press.
Bratton, M., & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge university press.
Burnham, G. M., Pariyo, G., Galiwango, E., & Wabwire-Mangen, F. (2004). Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 187-195.
Dillard, C., Duncan, K. L., & Johnson, L. (2017). Black History Full Circle: Lessons from a Ghana Study Abroad in Education Program. Social Education, 81(1), 50-53.
Ehui, S. (2020). Protecting food security in Africa. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/05/14/protecting-food-security-in-africa-during-covid-19/
… than just about the budget—it is about the entire system of government that has been erected over the past 200 years since the founding fathers began a new system meant to be small.
The political nature of the federal budget process is such that it prevents a ……
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.
Elwood, T. W. (2008). Politics of the US Federal Budget Process. International quarterly of community health education, 28(1), 3-12.
Jennings, M. (2008). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage.
Machold, S., Ahmed, P.K., & Farquhar, S.S. (2007). Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 81:665-678.
ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/
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