War On Drugs Essays (Examples)

Study Document

War On Drugs

Pages: 1 (339 words) Sources: 1 Document Type:Essay Document #:91374995

Fighting the Drug war
What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today? Why?
The fact that using recreational drugs is illegal in the United States has always been controversial from a civil rights standpoint. But it is also controversial because of the … against individuals of color for drug crimes, and 80% of individuals in federal prison are either Black or Latino (“Race and the Drug war,” 2018). Discrimination in the prosecution of the drug war has also had an indirect effect upon the electoral policy of the United States, given that one in 13 voters are denied their … 13 voters are denied their right to vote because of laws that prevent individuals with felony convictions from voting (“Race and the Drug war,” 2018).
Instead of prosecuting individuals for drug crimes wholesale, a more nuanced attitude to drug crimes must be adopted. First and foremost,……



Race and the drug war. (2018). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved from:  https://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/race-and-drug-war 

Resing, C. (2018). Marijuana legalization is a racial justice issue. ACLU. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform/drug-law-reform/marijuana-legalization- racial-justice-issue

Study Document

War On Drugs

Pages: 13 (4034 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Essay Document #:73696424

war on drugs Failing and Nefariously Linked to the war on Terror
Effectiveness of the war on drugs
I. Introduction
A. History of drugs, cross-cultural perspective
1. Opium war
2. Since Nixon, the modern “war on drugs
3. History of drug use in different societies
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals via drug policy.
C. … drug use in different societies
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals via drug policy.
C. Effects of the war on drugs
1. Is it effective? Quantify the deaths related to the WOD, as well as the social entropy in communities, families, and within individuals
… Balancing public health/safety with personal liberty/self-empowerment
B. Alternate strategies, pilot projects
1. Cannabis law reform
2. Psychedelics
IV. Discussion
V. Conclusions
A. The war on drugs a human rights issue.
B. The war on drugs ……



ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from:  https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

Effectiveness Of The War On Drugs

Pages: 14 (4146 words) Sources: 18 Document Type:Reaction Paper Document #:69451857

I. Introduction
A. History of drugs, cross-cultural perspective
1. Opium war (ACLU, 2020)
2. Since Nixon, the modern “war on drugs” (Pearl, 2018)
3. History of drug use in different societies (ACLU, 2020)
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals … 2020)
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals via drug policy (ACLU, 2020); Baumbauer, 2012).
C. Effects of the war on drugs
1. Is it effective? Quantify the deaths related to the WOD, as well as the social entropy in communities, families, and within individuals … 2016).
B. Government, public policy, global affairs (Coyne & Hall, 2017; Godlee & Hurley, 2016)
C. Criminalization, justice (ACLU, 2020; “America is At war,” n.d.; Farabee, Prendergast & Anglin, 1998).
D. Other sociological issues
1. Organized crime and terrorism (“America is at war,” n.d.; Coomber, Moyle, Belackova, V., et al., 2018; Pearl, 2018).



ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from:  https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

FBI Drugs And WMDs

Pages: 11 (3378 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:66505511

… that the FBI has engaged in to help prevent the proliferation of WMDs throughout the world. [2: Joseph Chinyong Liow, "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004), 242.]
Literature Review
The Development of a Strategy
As … introduced the intensely broadened scope, especially with regards to homeland security.[footnoteRef:4] The origins of the strategy can ultimately be found in the Gulf war crisis of 1991, under the George H. Bush Administration—and its culmination was witnessed under his son, G. W. Bush’s Administration. Yet, as Mauroni … should be allied in the international community are becoming less open to working or collaborating with one another. Tensions are fueled by economic war (sanctions) and the walking away from treaties, such as recently took place between the U.S. and Russia with respect to the suspension of … people. Yet how easily it……



Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019.  https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm 

Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.

The Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. “Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Washington, D.C., 1999.

FBI. “COINTELPRO.”  https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro 

FBI Counterproliferation Center. “About.”  https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch/fbi-counterproliferation-center 

Fischer, Rowena Rege. “Guide to the Study of Intelligence: Counterproliferation,” Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 21, no. 1 (Winter 2014-15), 78-82.

Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.

Study Document

Pablo Escobar

Pages: 5 (1470 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:90013199

… story been made into numerous television shows and films, such as the Netflix series Narcos. Escobar’s story reveals the inherent problem with the war on drugs, and signals the need for change in international drug policy.
Escobar was born on December 1, 1949 in Rionegro, Antioquia. His father was … Pablo’s godfather. Arbaláez had served as a United Nations delegate and was a “highly respected intellectual,” perhaps the first person to inspire Pablo war positions of power and leadership (Thompson.55). In fact, Arbaláez has been credited with inspiring the teenage Escobar to become politically active, to serve … 1). He also reportedly sold fake diplomas (“Pablo Escobar Biography” 1). Then, Escobar shifted to higher stakes crimes like car theft and dealing drugs. His start in the drug trade began with cannabis, and then he made a name for himself in cigarette smuggling during what has … trade began with……


Works Cited

Kenney, Michael. “From Pablo to Osama: Counter-terrorism Lessons from the War on Drugs.” (2003). Survival, 45(3), 187–206. doi:10.1080/00396338.2003.9688585

“Pablo Escobar Biography.” Biography.com. Accessed 4 Dec, 2019 from  https://www.biography.com/crime-figure/pablo-escobar 

“Pablo Escobar Crime Files.” Crime and Investigation. Accessed 4 Dec, 2019 from  https://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/pablo-escobar 

Pobutsky, Aldona Bialowas. “Peddling Pablo: Escobar\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Cultural Renaissance.” Hispania, Vol. 96, No. 4, Dec 2013, pp. 684-689.

Thompson, D. P. (1996). Pablo Escobar, Drug Baron: His surrender, imprisonment, and escape. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 19(1), 1996: 55–91. doi:10.1080/10576109608435996

Study Document

Teenage Health Vulnerabilities With Substance Abuse US

Pages: 7 (2249 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:17023523

… several decades. For instance, according to one authority, “We have been fighting drug abuse for almost a century. Four Presidents have personally waged war on drugs. Unfortunately, it is a war that we are losing” (The United States war on drugs, 2017).
This is not to say, however, that no progress has been achieved at all, but it is to say that changing public … of precision in determining the true prevalence of substance abuse among American adolescents, the problem is widely regarded as being sufficiently serious to war action by a number of health advocacy groups, including those discussed below.
Current health advocacy groups for this health issue
Like government efforts, … These online resources can serve as a valuable tool to help communicate the actual risks that are involved in even experimenting with illicit drugs and provide information to interested adolescents concerning where they can go for……



A public health-based approach. (2019). Rural Health. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealth info.org/toolkits/substance-abuse/1/public-health-based-approach.

Barker, P. (2009). Psychiatric and mental health nursing: The craft of caring. London: Hodder Arnold.

Burrow-Sanchez, J. J. (2009, Summer). Understanding adolescent substance abuse: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(3), 283-288.

Guy, X. & Slesnick, N. (2016, April). Changes in family relationships among substance abusing runaway adolescents: A comparison between family and individual therapies. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 42(2), 299-302.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Principles of adolescent substance use disorder treatment: A research-based guide. Retrieved from  https://www.drugabuse.gov/  publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment.

Schwartz, R. C. & Smith, S. D. (2009, October). Screening and assessing adolescent substance abuse: A primer for counselors. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 24(1), 23-26.

The United States war on drugs. (2017 ). Stanford University. Retrieved from https://web. stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html.

Youth.gov. (2019). Substance abuse agencies. Retrieved from  https://youth.gov/youth-topics/substance-abuse/prevalence-substance-use-abuse-and-dependence .

Study Document

The US Sentencing System Disparities And Discrimination

Pages: 8 (2275 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:28286224

… a punishment based on the maximum and minimum sentences for the particular crime, as stipulated in the penal code. While all this sounds war, there have been many cases recorded of discrimination and disparity in sentencing (Spohn, 2008). 
With regards to sentencing, a disparity exists in two … to receive harsher sentences than their white counterparts (Mauer, 2010).
Discrimination and disparities also exist in many jurisdictions with regards to how the “war on drugs” is conducted. It is now well known that discrimination and disparities in how the war on drugs conducted have led to many persons of color being incarcerated. Discrimination can be seen in the fact that the war is focused on neighborhoods with African Americans and Latin Americans. This has resulted in the disproportionate increase of persons of color in detention … percent of the people sentenced for drug-related offenses were of the same race.……



Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574

Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.

Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.

Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.

Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.

Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.

Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.

Study Document

Race And Incarceration Rates

Pages: 5 (1649 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:97402010

… American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early days of the nation, when the concept of Manifest Destiny was put war by John O’Sullivan (1845). That concept expressed the belief that White Anglo Saxon Protestants were essentially God’s chosen people and thus had a … the young African American male population is “currently under the control of the criminal justice system” (Alexander 2012:16). Another issue is the unjust war on drugs disproportionately impacts African Americans, who are commonly denied representation and are pushed into accepting unfair plea deals, which all the same cause ……



Aguirre, A., & Baker, D. V. (Eds.). 2008. Structured inequality in the United States: Critical discussions on the continuing significance of race, ethnicity, and gender. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow. New York: New Press.

Davis, Angela. 2012. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco: City Light Books.

James, Lois. 2018. The stability of implicit racial bias in police officers. Police Quarterly 21(1):0-52.

Lopez, German. 2018. There are huge racial disparities in how US police use force. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.vox.com/identities/2016/8/13/17938186/police-shootings-killings-racism-racial-disparities ).

O’Sullivan, John. 1845. Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17(1):5-10.

Pettit, Becky, and Bruce Western. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration." American sociological review 69(2):151-169.

Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 ).

Study Document

The Rise Of The Opium Trade In Afghanistan Following The US Invasion

Pages: 14 (4271 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:85024812

Evaluating a Counterterrorism Strategy
One of the problems with the “war on terror” as first conceived in the wake of 9/11 was that it lacked objectivity and realism (Taddeo, 2010). The mission calculus was … US lacked an adequate iSTART framework going into its counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan, the result has been an extended, largely ineffective and costly war without end.
The iSTART Framework
The iSTART framework provides six principles for effective counterterrorism strategies. Ideology focuses on providing legitimacy for the counterterrorism … Taliban to stop protecting agents of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and to deliver the leaders of the international terrorist organization to US forces. The war on terror that Bush called for, though, was like calling a war on coronavirus or even a war on crime—an impossible mission. Sickness and crime can be prevented to some degree but never eradicated completely because so long as human beings ………



Almukhtar, S. & Nordland, R. (2019). What Did the U.S. Get for $2 Trillion in Afghanistan? Retrieved from  https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/09/world/middleeast/afghanistan-war-cost.html 

Barno, D. (2007). The Other War: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan 2003– 20. Military Review, 87(5), 32–44.

Barton, G. (2016). Out of the ashes of Afghanistan and Iraq: the rise and rise of Islamic State. Retrieved from  https://theconversation.com/out-of-the-ashes-of-afghanistan-and-iraq-the-rise-and-rise-of-islamic-state-55437 

Felbab-Brown, V. (2017). Afghanistan’s opium production is through the roof—why Washington shouldn’t overreact. Retrieved from  https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/11/21/afghanistans-opium-production-is-through-the-roof-why-washington-shouldnt-overreact/ 

FM 3-24. (2014). Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf

Hitz, F. P. (1999). Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 12(4), 448-462.

IrishTimes. (2001). Britain freezes £61m of suspected Taliban assets. Retrieved from  https://www.irishtimes.com/news/britain-freezes-61m-of-suspected-taliban-assets-1.398565 

Kiras, J. D. (2002). Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and Colin Gray eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 208–232.

Study Document

Counterterrorism Strategy For The Next U S Presidential Administration

Pages: 6 (1889 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:70457523

One of the goals of the G. W. Bush Administration, which launched the war on Terrorism campaign, was to “end the state sponsorship of terrorism” (White House, 2003). The top goals of the Bush Administration, however, were … who end up joining a terrorist organization or who are already part of these groups (Freeman, 2018). Thus, we can continue to wage war against terrorists, but if we continue to supply, arm, train and facilitate individuals and groups who become terrorists all our counterterrorism efforts are … Numerous other high-profile terrorists have been killed including thousands of insurgents in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan (Nordland & Mashal, 2019).
The war in Afghanistan has not been a success. The Taliban is still in control and currently the U.S. is positioned to negotiate a withdrawal … been destabilized and is on the verge of joining Libya as a failed state. Much……



Bipartisan Policy Center. (2017). Defeating terrorists, not terrorism. Retrieved from  https://bipartisanpolicy.org/report/counterterrorism-policy-from-911-to-isis/ 

Englehardt, T. (2018). America’s war on terror. Retrieved from  https://www.thenation.com/article/americas-war-on-terror-has-cost-taxpayers-5-6-trillion/ 

Freeman, M. (2018). ISIS Is a US-Israeli Creation. Top Ten “Indications.” Retrieved from  https://www.globalresearch.ca/isis-is-a-us-israeli-creation-top-ten-indications/5518627 

Malzahn, S. M. (2002). State Sponsorship and Support of International Terrorism: Customary Norms of State Responsibility. Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., 26, 83.

Nordland, R. & Mashal, M. (2019). U.S. and Taliban Edge Toward Deal to End America’s Longest War. Retrieved from  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/26/world/asia/afghanistan-taliban-peace-deal.html 

White House. (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from  https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030214-7.html 

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