… as well and thus have the legitimate authority to enforce it; 2) trust and confidence play an important part in developing relations between officer and members of the community; 3) appreciating diversity is instrumental in promoting community relations; and 4) a democratic approach to leadership can help … appreciating diversity is instrumental in promoting community relations; and 4) a democratic approach to leadership can help cultivate a more integrated and cohesive police department, which in turn can help to promote systematically the values that the department wants to implement.
The report recommends several action items; …
The report recommends several action items; however, the most important of them have to do with the integrity and legitimacy of law enforcement officer; the need for community members to be able to trust police officer; the benefits that respect for diversity brings; and the value of having an integrated police department. Each……
Cao, L. (2015). Differentiating confidence in the police, trust in the police, and satisfaction with the police. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 38(2), 239-249.
Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qkyvcmq379R6_xw-Phd1DhUYgIGmgb2A/view
Peak, K. J., & Glensor, R. W. (1999). Community policing and problem solving: Strategies and practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
… the health and welfare of others above one’s own life. Indeed, law enforcement is an especially dangerous profession, and more than one hundred police officer were killed in the line of duty in 2018 alone, representing a 13% increase compared to 2017 (McCarthy, 2020). Despite the significant risks … duty in 2018 alone, representing a 13% increase compared to 2017 (McCarthy, 2020). Despite the significant risks that are involved, thousands of new police cadets successfully complete a rigorous course of training and eagerly join the ranks of the 800,000 police officer already serving the citizens of the United States each year (Law enforcement facts, 2020).
Moreover, police officer are also expected to adhere to a higher ethical standard compared to other citizens by virtue of the trust instilled in them by … to other citizens by virtue of the trust instilled in them by the general public. For example,……
Hughes, P. J. (2017, January 1). A new sheriff in town. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31, 8-13.
Law enforcement code of ethics. (2020). The International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from https://www.theiacp.org/resources/law-enforcement-code-of-ethics .
Law enforcement facts. (2020). National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund. Retrieved from https://nleomf.org/facts-figures/law-enforcement-facts .
McCarthy, N. (2019, May 8). The number of U.S. police officers killed in the line of duty increased law year. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2019/05/08/the-number-of-u-s-police-officers-killed-in-the-line-of-duty-increased-last-year-infographic/
Owens, K. M. & Pfeifer, J. (2009, June). Police leadership and ethics: Training and policy recommendations. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 1(2), 124-130.
Steirheim, M. (2020, March). The importance of ethical leadership and moral courage in pubic management. Public Management, 102(3), 19-23.
… of individuals subsequent to their release from custody. What is more, the courts make certain that the law enforcement agencies such as the police department obtain search warrants in the event that probable cause is established and the expanse to be searched is delineated as set by … 2006).
2. Why is professionalism and ethics critical to policing?
Ethics and professionalism play a pivotal role to policing. In the case of police officer, ethical conduct is particularly significant as a result of the authority that is granted to them and owing to the difficulty of monitoring … a result of the authority that is granted to them and owing to the difficulty of monitoring and administering the everyday behavior of police officer within the streets. In addition, it is important…[break]…of San Diego, 2019).
4. Why is stress management important to an officer’s health and safety?
Stress management plays a……
Ortmeier, P. J. (2006). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. New York: Prentice Hall.
Peak, K. J. (Ed.). (2013). Encyclopedia of community policing and problem solving. Sage Publications.
Perez, D. W., & Moore, J. A. (2012). Police Ethics. Cengage Learning.
Science Daily. (2008). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers\\' Physical And Mental Health. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
The New York Times. (2014). Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/16/nyregion/sir-robert-peels-nine-principles-of-policing.html
University of San Diego. (2019). The Top 5 Trends in Law Enforcement. Retrieved from: https://onlinedegrees.sandiego.edu/top-5-trends-in-law-enforcement/
… factor in the U.S. and it is certainly a factor in today’s criminal justice system. James (2018:30) has shown that current “research on police officer has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (30). A significantly higher percentage of the African American population is incarcerated … is incarcerated than any other population in the U.S. And, worse, as Lopez (2018) points out, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive … they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from police and are disproportionately punished and incarcerated because of institutionalized racism within the American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early ……
Aguirre, A., & Baker, D. V. (Eds.). 2008. Structured inequality in the United States: Critical discussions on the continuing significance of race, ethnicity, and gender. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow. New York: New Press.
Davis, Angela. 2012. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco: City Light Books.
James, Lois. 2018. The stability of implicit racial bias in police officers. Police Quarterly 21(1):0-52.
Lopez, German. 2018. There are huge racial disparities in how US police use force. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.vox.com/identities/2016/8/13/17938186/police-shootings-killings-racism-racial-disparities ).
O’Sullivan, John. 1845. Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17(1):5-10.
Pettit, Becky, and Bruce Western. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration." American sociological review 69(2):151-169.
Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 ).
… local agencies exist to provide social services and promote the welfare of these populations. Some of the existing agencies include state and local police agencies, Office of Homeless Services, federal Department of the Homeless, and various homeless services programs. Moreover, homeless women and children can obtain support ……
Bachega, H. (2018, October 8). Homeless in US: A Deepening Crisis on the Streets of America. BBC. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-45442596
Bendix, A. (2019, November 18). The 9 States with the Worst Homelessness Crises Reveal How Bad the Housing Crunch Has Gotten in US Cities. Business Insider. Retrieved November 22, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/photos-homelessness-states-worst-crises-2018-11?IR=T
Ellsworth, J.T. (2018, December 3). Street Crime Victimization Among Homeless Adults: A Review of the Literature. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy and Practice, 14(1), 96-118.
Family & Youth Services Bureau. (2016, June 24). Domestic Violence and Homelessness: Statistics (2016). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/resource/dv-homelessness-stats-2016
Norris, S. (2019, September 9). Women Fleeing Abuse Are Being ‘re-traumatized’ by the Housing System. City Metric. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.citymetric.com/politics/women-fleeing-abuse-are-being-re-traumatised-housing-system-4769
Stanley, J.L., Jansson, A.V., Akinyemi, A.A. & Mitchell, C.S. (2016, November). Characteristics of Violent Deaths Among Homeless People in Maryland, 2003-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), S260-S266.
Turner, M.M., Funge, S.P. & Gabbard, W.J. (2018). Victimization of the Homeless: Perceptions, Policies, and Implications for Social Work Practice. Journal of Social Work in the Global Community, 3(1), 1-12.
Tyler, K.A. & Beal, M.R. (2010). The High-risk Environment of Homeless Young Adults: Consequences for Physical and Sexual Victimization. Violence and Victims, 25(1), 101-115.
… total drug users in the United States, only 14 percent were African Americans. However, nearly 35 percent of the people arrested by the police for drug-related offenses were African Americans, and over 50 percent of the people sentenced for drug-related offenses were of the same race. The … race. The above statistics show several things. They show that the war on drugs is irrationally focused on African Americans. They show that police…[break]…what is recommended. And the explanation should never be the race of the offender (Yang, 2015).
Adopting the sentencing system detailed above would have ……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
… will strive to become better citizens. On the contrary, citizens who know that their government, together with its representatives, like judges and the police, cannot indeed be trust to act in the best interest of its people will less likely cooperate during criminal investigations or even report … its people will less likely cooperate during criminal investigations or even report a crime (Souryal & Whitehead, 2019).
The code of ethics forbids police officer from threatening crime suspects or even applying physical force to obtain information regarding alleged crimes. police officer must inform those they arrest of their Miranda rights: their right t stay silent during their dealings with officer as well as their right to be represented by a lawyer. Informing the arrested individuals of their civil rights allows them to act … dismissed (Indiana Supreme Court Disciplinary Commission vs. Dan E. F. Daniels, 2015).
2.1. What happened and……
Braswell, M. C., McCarthy, B. R., & McCarthy, B. J. (2017). Justice, crime, and ethics. Taylor & Francis.
Kramer, L. (2018). Why Is Ethics Important in Criminal Justice? Legal Beagle. Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6386561-ethics-important-criminal-justice.html
News Services (2008, June 13). Woman gets $7.7M in false arrest case, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2008-06-13-0806130382-story.html
Sahakian, W. S., & Sahakian, M. L. (1966). Ideas of the great philosophers (No. 218). Barnes & Noble Publishing.
Souryal, S. S., & Whitehead, J. T. (2019). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth. Routledge. Case law
Indiana Supreme Court Disciplinary Commission vs. Dana E. F. DANIELS, Supreme Court Cause No. 49S00-1402-DI-133, (2015).
Jackson v. City of Chicago, No. 03 C 8289, (July 31, 2006).
… all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental organizations, including the fire department, police department, and sheriff's department. Some federal level public safety institutions include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and Border Patrol (Vault, 2020).
… include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and Border Patrol (Vault, 2020).
The most predominant public safety jobs are connected with the police: police officer, detectives/ investigators, or correctional officer. EMT personnel, highway patrol officials, and firefighters make up another major public safety employee cluster. The majority of private-sector safety personnel include private … computer forensic investigators, owing to alarming rates of growth of cybercrime across the globe (Vault, 2020).
Statement of the Purpose: New York City police Department (NYPD) - A Risk Analysis
The NYPD constitutes one among America's biggest and earliest municipal police organizations, employing roughly 36,000 officer……
Achim, A. C. (2014). Risk management issues in policing: from safety risks faced by law enforcement agents to occupational health. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1671-1676.
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing perspectives on a complex process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52-61. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44127004?seq=1
Buyantseva, L. V., Tulchinsky, M., Kapalka, G. M., Chinchilli, V. M., Qian, Z., Gillio, R., et al. (2007). Evolution of lower respiratory symptoms in New York police officers after 9/11: A prospective longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med, 49, 310–17.
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Lippmann, M., Cohen, M. D., & Chen, L-C. (2015). Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management. Crit Rev Toxicol, 45(6), 492-530. DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2015.1044601
NYPD. (2020). About NYPD. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page
OHS. (2008). Occupational Health and Safety Code of Practice. Australian Government.
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… part of American history. In spite of legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964, racial injustice remains rampant in the United States. police brutality is one of the most visible areas in which racial injustice manifests itself. The murder of George Floyd was only one of … George Floyd was only one of many similar instances, the majority of which go unreported due to the “blue wall of silence” in police culture. Even if poor leadership in policing is more to blame than racism itself, the fact that black males experience a disproportionate number … is responding to racism in America. Additionally, this essay will show how the George Floyd incident led to a public discussion about defunding police. Racial equality and justice in America require a total overhaul of institutions like law enforcement.
Racism in the Age of Covid
2020 brought … and global societies due to……
Black Lives Matter (2020). Retrieved from: https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/
Cole, B. (2020). Minnesota asks Trump to declare ‘major disaster’ over riots damage. Newsweek. 3 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.newsweek.com/minnesota-riots-tim-walz-clean-george-floyd-1515335
Glover, S., Richards, C., Devine, C., et al. (2020). A key miscalculation by officers contributed to the tragic death of Breonna Taylor. CNN. 23 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/23/us/breonna-taylor-police-shooting-invs/index.html
“History of Juneteenth,” (2020). juneteenth.com. Retrieved from: https://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
Ray, R. (2020). What does ‘defund the police’ mean and does it have merit? Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/06/19/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-and-does-it-have-merit/
“Seven Things You Need to Know About Antifa,” (2020). BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/X56rQkDgd0qqB7R68t6t7C/seven-things-you-need-to-know-about-antifa
“Who Are Antifa?” (2020). ADL. Retrieved from : https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa
… eliminate identifying information and then analyzed via thematic analysis.
Table 1. Interviewees
Region/department of work
Int – 1
Int – 2
Int – 3
U.S. Department of Justice
Findings and discussion
Theme 1: Trust - Be predictable in an … he expected his leaders to adhere to the laws of the state and the Constitution (Int-1) strictly. Considering that the interviewee is a police officer, this is somewhat expected. But beyond this detail, the statement shows that followers expect their leaders to be competent or to continue following ……
Birnbaum, T., & Friedman, H. H. (2014). Ezra and Nehemiah: Lessons in Moral and Spiritual Leadership. Available at SSRN 2390230.
Carrington, D. J., Combe, I. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2019). Cognitive shifts within leader and follower teams: Where consensus develops in mental models during an organizational crisis. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(3), 335-350.
Harter, J. (2019). Why Some Leaders Have Their Employees\\\\\\' Trust, and Some Don\\\\\\'t. Workplace. Gallup.
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Kranke, D., Gin, J., Der-Martirosian, C., Weiss, E. L., & Dobalian, A. (2020). VA social work leadership and compassion fatigue during the 2017 hurricane season. Social Work in Mental Health, 18(2), 188-199.
Patton, C. (2017). What made Nehemiah an effective leader?. Journal of Applied Christian Leadership, 1(1), 8-14.
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Skeet, A. (2020, April 4). Ethical Followership in Times of Crisis. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University.
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