… that 87% of African American homicides are killed by guns. It is evident from these statistics that gun violence among the African American community is a real problem. This paper will provide an overview of the problem, who it affects and why it is important for social … the offender. 71% of the killings were totally unrelated to any other crime being committed (Violence Policy Center, 2020). These statistics show a community that is being destroyed by gun violence but also by violent attitudes. This problem, moreover, is cultural.
The culture of the African American … that is being destroyed by gun violence but also by violent attitudes. This problem, moreover, is cultural.
The culture of the African American community has been hurt by a number of factors. Candace Owens has pointed out the three biggest problems facing black America today are father … three biggest problems facing black……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work
Jones, N. (2014). “The regular routine”: Proactive policing and adolescent development among young, poor black men. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2014(143), 33-54.
Llewellyn, J. J., Archibald, B. P., Clairmont, D., & Crocker, D. (2013). Imagining success for a restorative approach to justice: Implications for measurement and evaluation. Dalhousie LJ, 36, 281.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
Violence Policy Center. (2020). Black homicide victimization. Retrieved from http://vpc.org/revealing-the-impacts-of-gun-violence/black-homicide-victimization/
Gun Violence Effect on African American community
The African American community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of gun violence. For starters, the violence takes a toll on … communities. The violence that emanates from the use of guns and other incidences of shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop members of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious of the law enforcement authorities. Indeed, any government departments, including but not limited to the police, are under thorough scrutiny regarding … be avoided whenever possible (Schopper, Lormand&Waxweiler, 2006). Mental health professionals will also be included in the policy development process. The trauma of a community may be an outcome of the violent……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
… Trust and Legitimacy
The key points of Pillar One of the Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century policing (2015) are that 1) People are more likely to obey the law when they see that those who enforce it follow the law … the legitimate authority to enforce it; 2) trust and confidence play an important part in developing relations between officers and members of the community; 3) appreciating diversity is instrumental in promoting community relations; and 4) a democratic approach to leadership can help cultivate a more integrated and cohesive police department, which in turn can help … action items; however, the most important of them have to do with the integrity and legitimacy of law enforcement officers; the need for community members to be able to trust police officers; the benefits that respect for diversity brings; and the value of having an……
Cao, L. (2015). Differentiating confidence in the police, trust in the police, and satisfaction with the police. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 38(2), 239-249.
Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. (2015). Retrieved from https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qkyvcmq379R6_xw-Phd1DhUYgIGmgb2A/view
Peak, K. J., & Glensor, R. W. (1999). Community policing and problem solving: Strategies and practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
… form of punishment and confinements cannot be effective without any sort of rehabilitation (Ortmeier, 2006).
2. Why is professionalism and ethics critical to policing?
Ethics and professionalism play a pivotal role to policing. In the case of police officers, ethical conduct is particularly significant as a result of the authority that is granted to them and … stress management important to an officer’s health and safety?
Stress management plays a key role to the health and safety of an officer. policing is risky and unsafe work, and the threat creeps around not just on the streets. The pressures of law enforcement position officers at … police officers, it also facilitates overall better decision making, unbiased treatment and enhanced associations between the police officers and the members of the community. Proper and sober decision making guarantees safety of the police officer in the sense that they are not involved in……
Ortmeier, P. J. (2006). Introduction to law enforcement and criminal justice. New York: Prentice Hall.
Peak, K. J. (Ed.). (2013). Encyclopedia of community policing and problem solving. Sage Publications.
Perez, D. W., & Moore, J. A. (2012). Police Ethics. Cengage Learning.
Science Daily. (2008). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers\\' Physical And Mental Health. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
The New York Times. (2014). Sir Robert Peel’s Nine Principles of Policing. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/16/nyregion/sir-robert-peels-nine-principles-of-policing.html
University of San Diego. (2019). The Top 5 Trends in Law Enforcement. Retrieved from: https://onlinedegrees.sandiego.edu/top-5-trends-in-law-enforcement/
… help address the inability of conventional courts and jails to address the needs of defendants with mental illnesses (Mental Health America, 2020). Traditional policing, courts and corrections lacked measures to address defendants with mental health issues, which resulted in the establishment of these courts. Traditional policing initiatives and courts treated mental health ill defendants in the same manner as other offenders while corrections did not include programs that sought … deal mental health individuals coming into contact with the criminal justice system. As a result, the criminal justice system employs a problem-solving approach, community-based treatment, and rewards system when dealing with such mentally ill individuals (Thompson, Osher & Tomasini-Joshi, 2007). However, criminal justice professionals should be trained … ill individuals (Thompson, Osher & Tomasini-Joshi, 2007). However, criminal justice professionals should be trained on clinical eligibility criteria and treatment capacity in the community to help lessen the increased dependence of……
Mental Health America. (2020). Position Statement 53: Mental Health Courts. Retrieved April 27, 2020, from https://www.mhanational.org/issues/position-statement-53-mental-health-courts
Thompson, M., Osher, F. & Tomasini-Joshi, D. (2007). Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Assistance website: https://bja.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh186/files/Publications/MHC_Essential_Elements.pdf
...Community policing Introduction
Race has always been a cultural factor in the U.S. and it is certainly a factor in today’s criminal justice system. James (2018:30) has shown that current “research on police officers has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (30). A significantly higher percentage of the African American population is incarcerated than any other population in the U.S. And, worse, as Lopez (2018) points out, “Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012, even though they made up just 13 percent of the US population.” The evidence indicates that African Americans receive a disproportionate amount of attention from police and are disproportionately punished and incarcerated because of institutionalized racism within the American ruling class. This racist worldview was evident from the early days of the nation, when the concept of Manifest Destiny was put forward by John O’Sullivan (1845). That concept expressed……
Aguirre, A., & Baker, D. V. (Eds.). 2008. Structured inequality in the United States: Critical discussions on the continuing significance of race, ethnicity, and gender. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow. New York: New Press.
Davis, Angela. 2012. The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco: City Light Books.
James, Lois. 2018. The stability of implicit racial bias in police officers. Police Quarterly 21(1):0-52.
Lopez, German. 2018. There are huge racial disparities in how US police use force. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.vox.com/identities/2016/8/13/17938186/police-shootings-killings-racism-racial-disparities ).
O’Sullivan, John. 1845. Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17(1):5-10.
Pettit, Becky, and Bruce Western. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration." American sociological review 69(2):151-169.
Plessy v. Ferguson. 1896. Retrieved July 30, 2019 ( https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/163us537 ).
… traditional police and detective work, such as interviewing witnesses, collecting forensic evidence at the scene of the crime, and getting police into the community to help raise awareness about what is going on.
The Process of Criminal Profiling
The primary task of profiling serial killers falls to … fact is that these profiles can assist police in narrowing a search, especially if the killings are confined to a certain region or community. However, this does not mean criminal profiling cannot be used erroneously to prosecute and convict innocent persons. The case of Tim Masters shows ……
Alldredge, J. (2015). The" CSI Effect" and Its Potential Impact on Juror Decisions. Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science, 3(1), 6.
Bonn, S. (2019). How the FBI Profiles Serial Offenders. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/wicked-deeds/201905/how-the-fbi-profiles-serial-offenders
Dogra, T.D. et al. (2012). A psychological profile of a serial killer: A case report. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 65(4), 299-316.
FBI. (2019). Summary of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. Retrieved from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2009/aboutucr.html
Karson, M. (2017). Why Profiling Serial Killers Can’t Work. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/feeling-our-way/201711/why-profiling-serial-killers-can-t-work
Miller, L. (2014). Serial killers: I. Subtypes, patterns and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior 19, 1-11.
Samuel, D. B., & Widiger, T. A. (2007). Describing Ted Bundy's personality and working towards DSM-V. Practice, 27, 20-22.
Sarteschi, C. M. (2016). Serial Murder. In Mass and Serial Murder in America (pp. 45-67). Springer, Cham.
… It is therefore incumbent upon law enforcement agencies at every level to create an organizational culture that places a high priority of ethical policing practices and to develop ethical leaders that can model the way for their subordinates. To this end, the purpose of this paper is … that does not bring discredit…[break]…code of silence can be readily discerned by the public’s negative reaction to isolated but high-profile cases of unethical policing practices whenever and wherever they occur.
The research was consistent in underscoring the importance of ethical leadership in general and law enforcement … organizational culture that places a high priority of ethical law enforcement practices. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that modern policing methods will continue to change as a result……
Hughes, P. J. (2017, January 1). A new sheriff in town. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31, 8-13.
Law enforcement code of ethics. (2020). The International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from https://www.theiacp.org/resources/law-enforcement-code-of-ethics .
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McCarthy, N. (2019, May 8). The number of U.S. police officers killed in the line of duty increased law year. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/niallmccarthy/2019/05/08/the-number-of-u-s-police-officers-killed-in-the-line-of-duty-increased-last-year-infographic/
Owens, K. M. & Pfeifer, J. (2009, June). Police leadership and ethics: Training and policy recommendations. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 1(2), 124-130.
Steirheim, M. (2020, March). The importance of ethical leadership and moral courage in pubic management. Public Management, 102(3), 19-23.
… such as Hispanics and African Americans in the criminal justice system (Yang, 2015).
Lastly, the sentencing system would be in agreement with what community activists, commentators, and legislators are saying right now, which is the fact that offender characteristics and mitigating factors ought to be considered. The ……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
… in the criminal justice system researchers will use epistemology to develop theories of crime, to construct programs and processes for how to police—i.e., community policing, and so on. Forensics, law, and bail reform will all rely on epistemology at some point as they rely on information and data ……
Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues, 5th Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.
Hehman, E., Flake, J. K., & Calanchini, J. (2018). Disproportionate use of lethal force in policing is associated with regional racial biases of residents. Social psychological and personality science, 9(4), 393-401.
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Roufa, T. (2019). Ethics in law enforcement. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/ethics-in-law-enforcement-and-policing-974542
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