… will strive to become better citizens. On the contrary, citizens who know that their government, together with its representatives, like judges and the police, cannot indeed be trust to act in the best interest of its people will less likely cooperate during criminal investigations or even report … its people will less likely cooperate during criminal investigations or even report a crime (Souryal & Whitehead, 2019).
The code of ethics forbids police officers from threatening crime suspects or even applying physical force to obtain information regarding alleged crimes. Police officers must inform those they arrest of their Miranda rights: their right t stay silent during their dealings with officers as well as ……
Braswell, M. C., McCarthy, B. R., & McCarthy, B. J. (2017). Justice, crime, and ethics. Taylor & Francis.
Kramer, L. (2018). Why Is Ethics Important in Criminal Justice? Legal Beagle. Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6386561-ethics-important-criminal-justice.html
News Services (2008, June 13). Woman gets $7.7M in false arrest case, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2008-06-13-0806130382-story.html
Sahakian, W. S., & Sahakian, M. L. (1966). Ideas of the great philosophers (No. 218). Barnes & Noble Publishing.
Souryal, S. S., & Whitehead, J. T. (2019). Ethics in criminal justice: In search of the truth. Routledge. Case law
Indiana Supreme Court Disciplinary Commission vs. Dana E. F. DANIELS, Supreme Court Cause No. 49S00-1402-DI-133, (2015).
Jackson v. City of Chicago, No. 03 C 8289, (July 31, 2006).
… be allowed in terms of operating within the realm of the criminal underworld. Eventually there was more coordination between British intelligence and the police, which helped to create greater cohesion and synergy between departments, which further put pressure on the IRA. The British continued to infiltrate the ……
Bamford, B. (2005). The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland. Intelligence and National Security, 20(4), 581-607.
Branch, S., Shallcross, L., Barker, M., Ramsay, S., & Murray, J. P. (2018). Theoretical Frameworks That Have Explained Workplace Bullying: Retracing Contributions Across the Decades. Concepts, Approaches and Methods, 1-44.
Coogan, T. P. (2002). The IRA. New York: Palgrave.
Hilton, J. L., & Von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes. Annual review of psychology, 47(1), 237-271.
IRA Green Book. (1977). Accessed 14 Dec 2015 from https://tensmiths.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/15914572-ira-green-book-volumes-1-and-2.pdf
Lumen. (2019). Theoretical perspectives on deviance. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives-on-deviance/
Maloney, E. (2010). Voices from the Grave: Two Men’s War in Ireland. NY: Faber, Faber.
McLeod, S. (2008) Social Identity Theory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.html
… attendees and other citizens who might have been around the event.
The U.S. marshals today hold one of the highest regards in the police services. They are regarded for their high handedness, protection of the American people and maintenance of law and order. They ensure that fugitives, ……
Larry K. Gaines, V. E. (2014). Policing in America. New York: Routledge.
Skocpol, T. (1999). Advocates without Members: the recent transformation of American civic life. In T. Skocpol, Civic Engagement in American Democracy (pp. 461-480). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
… partner will collaborate to ensure the accountability of gang members targeted.
Evaluation for success: The model will be evaluated for success based on police apprehension and violent criminal history within the area where it is implemented.
Successful model initiative implementation ought to decrease levels of overall youth ……
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. L. (2013). Gang-related crime: The social, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(7), 611-627.
FBI, (n.d.). Gangs. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/violent-crime/gangs#The-Gang%20Threat on 12 June 2020
Finelli, G. A. (2019). Slash, Shoot, Kill Gang Recruitment of Children, and the Penalties Gangs Face. Family Court Review, 57(2), 243-257.
Hesketh, R. F. (2018). A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chester, United Kingdom).
Hesketh, R.F. (2019). Joining gangs: living on the edge?. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5 No. 4; 280-294.
Higginson, A., Benier, K., Shenderovich, Y., Bedford, L., Mazerolle, L., & Murray, J. (2018). Factors associated with youth gang membership in low?and middle?income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1-128.
Howell, J. C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Klein, M.W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
...Police Transgender- The Behaviors and Acts Leading up to a Transition
Transgender, as a terminology, alludes to individuals whose sense of their gender is different from what would be anticipated based on the sex individualities that they are naturally born with. A transgender individual may identify as a trans woman, which means a person who has a self-concept that is female, with the endeavor to or has transitioned to living as a woman after being born with male genitalia. On the other hand, an individual who identifies as a trans man implies having a male self-concept despite being born with female genitalia. Furthermore, an individual who is non-binary does not identify stringently as a woman or a man (Sangganjanavanich, 2016).
Starting as early as a child, a transgender individual may have continuous and perpetual feelings of gender dysphoria. This refers to a detachment between the individual's primary as well as……
Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne Romine, R. E., Hamilton, A., & Coleman, E. (2013). Stigma, mental health, and resilience in an online sample of the US transgender population. American journal of public health, 103(5), 943-951.
Bockting, W., Coleman, E., Deutsch, M. B., Guillamon, A., Meyer, I., Meyer III, W., ... & Ettner, R. (2016). Adult development and quality of life of transgender and gender-nonconforming people. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity, 23(2), 188.
Catelan, R. F., Costa, A. B., & Lisboa, C. S. D. M. (2017). Psychological interventions for transgender persons: a scoping review. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(4), 325-337.
Divan, V., Cortez, C., Smelyanskaya, M., & Keatley, J. (2016). Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 19, 20803.
Drydakis, N. (2020). Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life, and Job Satisfaction. Handbook of Labor, Human Resources and Population Economics, 1-22.
Glynn, T. R., & van den Berg, J. J. (2017). A systematic review of interventions to reduce problematic substance use among transgender individuals: A call to action. Transgender Health, 2(1), 45-59.
Grossman, A. H., Haney, A. P., Edwards, P., Alessi, E. J., Ardon, M., & Howell, T. J. (2009). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth talk about experiencing and coping with school violence: A qualitative study. Journal of LGBT Youth, 6(1), 24-46.
Jellestad, L., Jäggi, T., Corbisiero, S., Schaefer, D. J., Jenewein, J., Schneeberger, A., ... & Garcia Nuñez, D. (2018). Quality of life in transitioned trans persons: a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. BioMed research international, 2018.
The recent riots over the death of George Floyd has stemmed not so much from the killing of an unarmed black man by police but rather from the perception that the black community in general has been marginalized and oppressed for years. High profile celebrities like LeBron ……
Carbado, Devon W. \\\\\\"Racial naturalization.\\\\\\" American Quarterly 57.3 (2005): 633-658.
Graber, Shane M., Ever J. Figueroa, and Krishnan Vasudevan. \\\\\\"Oh, Say, Can You Kneel: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Colin Kaepernick’s Racial Protest.\\\\\\" Howard Journal of Communications (2019): 1-17.
Morrison, Toni. “Recitatif.” Skin Deep. Doubleday, 1995.
Naber, Nadine. “Osama’s Daughters: Cultural Racism, Nation-Based Racism, and the Intersectionality of Oppressions after 9/11.” Review of Women’s Studies, 5 (2009), 50-63.
Sabo, Samantha, et al. \\\\\\"Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US– Mexico border.\\\\\\" Social Science & Medicine 109 (2014): 66-74.
… shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop members of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious … The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious of the law enforcement authorities. Indeed, any government departments, including but not limited to the police, are under thorough scrutiny regarding the treatment of people of color. There are calls for reforms in the justice system owing to the ……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
… For instance, Hehman, Flake and Calanchini (2018) showed that implicit bias can lead to the deaths of more minorities at the hands of police who rely on stereotyping to determine who is a bad guy and who is a good guy. The “bad guys” end up being … being gunned down more frequently and their study showed that implicit bias scores could serve as a predictor of violence towards minorities by police. The researchers pointed also that there are really two ways that stereotyping can occur—consciously and unconsciously. The authors believe that explicit bias is ……
Adorno, T. & Horkheimer, M. (2007). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34, 2007.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617699280
Breger, M. L. (2017). Reforming by re-norming: How the legal system has the potential to change a toxic culture of domestic violence. J. Legis., 44, 170.
Cashmore, E. (2006). The Black culture industry. Routledge.
Coleman, L. (1974). Carl Van Vechten Presents the New Negro. Studies in the Literary Imagination, 7(2), 85.
Cramer, E. P., Choi, Y. J., & Ross, A. I. (2017). Race, Culture, and Abuse of Persons with Disabilities. In Religion, Disability, and Interpersonal Violence (pp. 89-110). Champaign, IL: Springer.
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Decker, J. L. (1993). The state of rap: Time and place in hip hop nationalism. Social Text, (34), 53-84.
...Police Weapons of Mass Destruction
An electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) attack could crash the American economy and bring virtually every industry to a standstill—such is the reliance of modern business upon the digital infrastructure. Thus, considering an EMP attack is something that government should take very seriously. As more and more of the world becomes dependent upon cyber infrastructure for the maintenance of other systems, the complexity of the security services of a country grows and intensifies. Is it possible therefore that there is an overreliance upon technology and that this overreliance can actually compromise a country’s progress and increase its risk of falling into ruin should a sudden attack like an EMP attack hit where it hurts most? Absolutely—and both state and non-state actors know that, which is why either one could conduct a high altitude EMP attack upon the US. The consequences would be devastating.
Non-state actors are just……
Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).
Christenson, G. (2015). CBRN response. National Guard Bureau.
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Garellek, A. (2016, March 4). The ISIS WMD Threat. The Cipher Brief. Retrieved from https://www.thecipherbrief.com/article/middle-east/isis-wmd-threat
Jennings, P. (2006). Miami port poses serious risks. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=131634&page=1
Johnston, W.R. (2016, November 30). Summary of historical attacks using chemical or biological weapons. The Johnston Archive. Retrieved from http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/terrorism/chembioattacks.html
Klein, A. (2019). From Twitter to Charlottesville: Analyzing the Fighting Words Between the Alt-Right and Antifa. International Journal of Communication, 13, 22.
Maras, M-H. (2014). Transnational Security. Florida: CRC Press.
How to Use Employee Referrals to Increase Workforce but Still be Able to Maintain Diversity within an Organization
Table of Contents
Research Findings 3
Theoretical Framework 4
Findings of Literature Research 6
As Frank (2018) points out, over 33% of all US employees obtained their job with their current organization by way of referral from another employee there. Although employee referrals are an easy, fast and often tempting way to staff positions, the risk is that doing so can lead to a less diverse workplace, with 40% of all referrals tending to be white men (Payscale, 2018). The central question is: How can HR use employee referrals to increase the workforce but still be able to maintain diversity within the organization? The solution is to consider closely the source of the referral. Different relationships between the referring source and the referral……
Bussin, M., & Christos, D. (2018). Blind hiring not as crazy as it sounds. HR Future, 2018(Sep 2018), 36-39.
CBS News (2017). Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/meet-bozoma-saint-john-the-woman-tasked-with-fixing-ubers-image/
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.
Frank, L. (2018). How to Use Employee Referrals Without Giving Up Workplace Diversity. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/03/how-to-use-employee-referrals-without-giving-up-workplace-diversity
Jensen, M., & Meckling, W. (1976) Theory of the firm: Man- agerial behavior, agency costs, and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3, 305-360.
Larcker, D. F., & Tayan, B. (2017). Governance Gone Wild: Epic Misbehavior at Uber Technologies. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Closer Look Series: Topics, Issues and Controversies in Corporate Governance No. CGRP-70, 18-3.
Payscale. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.payscale.com/data/job-referral s
ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/
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