Education law Policy and Social Justice Mother Tongue Instruction
The population of students receiving their instruction in another language apart from their mother tongue is … the increased migration. Indeed, as Bingol (2012) points out, “migration and language are clearly linked issues…. because the language of instruction in the school is different from the language spoken at home, some arrangements must be done for these children in these bilingual situations” (1016). Quite a … the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent, students tend to have more positive attitudes towards education – and the school at large – when instruction has a strong mother tongue foundation. It therefore follows that there is sufficient basis for the maintenance of … is sufficient basis for the maintenance of a learner’s mother tongue as the primary language of instruction – particularly at the onset of school. In seeking to assess……
Awopetu, A.V. (2016). Impact of Mother Tongue on Children’s Learning Abilities in Early Childhood Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 58-63.
Busse, V., Cenoz, J., Dalmann, N. & Rogge, F. (2019). Addressing Linguistic Diversity in the Language Classroom in a Resource?Oriented Way: An Intervention Study with Primary School Children. Language Learning.
Bingol, A.S. (2012). Mother tongue instruction policies towards Turkish migrant children in Europe. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1016-1023.
Mcmahon, T., Griese, E.R. & Kenyon, D.B. (2019). Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14, 77-110.
Ozfidan, B. (2017). Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study. English Language Teaching; 10(12), 15-23.
Peyton, J.K. (2015). Language of Instruction: Research Findings and Program and Instructional Implications. Reconsidering Development, 4(1), 71-79.
Philips, J.S. (2015). The rights of indigenous peoples under international law. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 75-82.
Sahin, I. (2018). A look at mother tongue education in the context of the right to education. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(9), 343-353.
… collar crimes
Q1. What is insider trading and why can it be so detrimental to the economy and society?
According to the Cornell law school Legal Information Institute, “Insider trading is the trading of a company’s stocks or other securities by individuals with access to confidential or non-public … does not have to be solely perpetuated through technology, although the use of technology is its primary element.
Insider trading. (2019). Cornell law school Legal Information Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/insider_trading
Kelly, M. (2030). Technocrime: Forms and examples. Study.com. Retrieved from: https://study.com/academy/lesson/technocrime-forms-examples.html…
Insider trading. (2019). Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute. Retrieved from:
Kelly, M. (2030). Technocrime: Forms and examples. Study.com. Retrieved from:
… its legitimacy and view as an acceptable state behavior. [3: William C. Banks, “Cyber Espionage and Electronic Surveillance: Beyond the Media Coverage”, Emory law Journal 66, (2017):513.]
Cyber espionage involves illegal practices that result in information theft that could be used to attack an adversary. … and espionage, there are additional contributing factors. According to Lotrionte (2015), cyber espionage, particularly economic espionage is brought by the failure by international law to provide public order.[footnoteRef:5] Prescriptive norms of international law are not strong enough to provide public order that would deter cyber espionage, especially economic espionage. Similarly, Libicki (2017) contends that despite objections … widespread use of cyber espionage to promote cyberattacks on a nation’s critical infrastructure. [5: Catherine Lotrionte, “Countering State-Sponsored Cyber Economic Espionage Under International law”, North Carolina Journal of International law and Commercial Regulation 40, (2015):445] [6: Martin Libicki, “The Coming of Cyber Espionage Norms”,……
Ablon, L. “Data Thieves: The Motivations of Cyber Threat Actors and Their Use and Monetization of Stolen Data.” RAND Corporation, March 2018. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/CT400/CT490/RAND_CT490.pdf
Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013. https://www.cert-in.org.in/Downloader?pageid=5&type=2&fileName=CIPS-2013-0128.pdf
Banks, W.C. “Cyber Espionage and Electronic Surveillance: Beyond the Media Coverage.” Emory law Journal 66, (2017).
Baxter, P. & Jack, S. “Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers.” The Qualitative Report 13, no. 4 (2008).
Brown, G. “Spying and Fighting in Cyberspace: What is Which?” Journal of National Security Law & Policy 8, (2017).
Connell, M. & Vogler, S. “Russia’s Approach to Cyber Warfare.” CNA Analysis and Solutions, 2017. https://www.cna.org/CNA_files/PDF/DOP-2016-U-014231-1Rev.pdf
Creswell, J.W. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Diplomacy Data. “Cyber Security and Cyber Espionage in International Relations.” Diplomacy Data, 2015. http://diplomacydata.com/cyber-security-and-cyber-espionage-in-international-relations/
Indeterminate sentencing law allow judges to give convicted felons a window of time rather a specific sentence length. With indeterminate sentencing, the judge provides a minimum … will be paroled closer to the minimum term than those who do not,” but in practice this may not be the case (Cornell law school Legal Information Institute, n.d., p. 1). As O’Hear (2011) points out, delaying a prisoner’s release within the indeterminate range is frequently used as … to make decisions out of spite or malice rather than on objective…[break]…regularly such as probation and corrections officers. When conjoined with mandatory minimum law, determinate sentencing also prevents even the trial judges from exercising discretion. Judges in states with mandatory minimum law must issue the determinate sentence in accordance with law, and cannot consider leniency—a con for those who believe in rehabilitation but a pro for those who prefer punitive policies.
Allen, J. (2016). CU rape case sparks debate over Colorado’s indeterminate sentencing law. The Denver Channel. Retrieved from: https://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/local-news/colorados-indeterminate-sentencing-criticized
Baker, J. (2020, Aug 10). Davis sentenced to 15 years in 2017 Wheeling hotel killing. WTOV. Retrieved from: https://wtov9.com/news/local/davis-sentenced-to-15-years-in-2017-wheeling-hotel-killing
Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Indeterminate sentence. Retrieved from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/indeterminate_sentence
Gant, J. & Hussain, D. (2020, 5 Aug). Hero PC Andrew Harper’s mother slams ‘unduly lenient sentences for her son’s killers. Daily Mail. Retrieved from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8592283/Attorney-General-review-jail-terms-handed-three-teenagers-killed-PC-Andrew-Harper.html
Green, S.J. (2020, Aug 6). Brothers sentenced to 40 years in prison for 2016 shooting at Seattle homeless encampment. Bakersfield. Retrieved from: https://www.bakersfield.com/ap/national/brothers-sentenced-to-40-years-in-prison-for-2016-shooting-at-seattle-homeless-encampment/article_5c5d040d-0e0c-532e-9fd7-794232746f5d.html
O’Hear, M.M. (2011). Beyond rehabilitation. 48 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1247 (2011).
Puzauskas, K. & Morrow, K. (2018). No indeterminate sentencing without parole. 44 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 263 (2018).
Rhine, E.E., Watts, A. & Reitz, K.R. (2018). Parole boards within indeterminate and determinate sentencing structures. Robina Institute of Law and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: https://robinainstitute.umn.edu/news-views/parole-boards-within-indeterminate-and-determinate-sentencing-structures
...Law school Literature Review on Coping Through The Use Of Informal Institutions during COVID 19 in South Africa, Nigeria, and Swaziland
The institutional theory deals with the outlines, regulations, standards, and procedures that are formulated in the institutions as commanding instructions for social behavior. This theory gives an understanding of how institutions are shaped, and the societal norms and frameworks are informed to all people of an organization. Communication is the sole indicator of how organizations are formulated with the help of formal rules and regulations, as that would reflect how they are conversed across all levels of the firm and in what way people are obeying them. This would ultimately build an organizational culture for coping with social and political issues. The informal institutions are socially shared instructions, typically unwritten, that are formed, transferred and imposed outside the official boundaries (Torniainen & Sasstamoinen, 2007), for example, giving tips to the food……
Coelho, A. (2019). The role of informal institutions in the enforcement of rules and how to improve corporate and public governance in Brazil: Studies based on a set of corporate governance cases involving state-owned companies (Working Paper). Retrieved from SSRN website https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3434037
Dacin, M.T., Goodstein, J. & Scott, W.R. (2002). Institutional theory and institutional change: Introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 45- 47. DOI: 10.2307/3069284
Escandon-Barbosa, D.M., Urbano, D., Hurtado-Ayala, A., Paramo, J.S. & Dominguez, A.Z. (2019). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and entrepreneurial activity: A comparative relationship between rural and urban areas in Colombia. Journal of Urban Management, 8(3), 458-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jum.2019.06.002
Estrin, S. & Prevezer, M. (2010). The role of informal institutions in corporate governance: Brazil, Russia, India, and China compared. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28, 41- 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-010-9229-1
Kaufmann, W., Hooghiemstra, R. & Feeney, M.K. (2018). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and red tape: A comparative study. Public Administration, 96(2), 386-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/padm.12397
Meluch, A.L. (2016, August). Understanding the organizational and institutional origins of social support in a cancer support center. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1466944822&disposition=inline
Torniainen, T.J. & Sasstamoinen, O.J. (2007). Formal and informal institutions and their hierarchy in the regulation of the forest lease in Russia. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research, 80(5), 489-501. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpm033
Anderson, R.D., Jones, A. & Kovacic, W.E. (2018). Preventing corruption, supplier collusion, and the corrosion of civic trust. George Mason law Review, Forthcoming TLI Think! Paper 5/2019 King's College London law school Research Paper No. 19-14
This source critiques existing tools for measuring the types and the effects of multiple forms of corruption. Claiming that ……
… juvenile system is supposed to engage in greater leniency toward young people. Teens may be influenced by external situational factors such as parents, school, and peers over which they have more limited control over (versus an adult) and also the face that cognitively they are not fully … Offenders, 2015, par.…[break]…the greater likelihood of curfews being imposed in urban areas where minority youths live, as well as the greater presence of law enforcement in such areas.
There has been a call for an end to status offenses, given that they do not appear to solve … counseling and connecting teens and their families with social workers and other forms of social assistance when they show signs of struggling in school, and only intervening through the justice system when teens have committed actual……
Rovner, J. (2014). Disproportionate minority contact in the juvenile justice system. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from: https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/disproportionate-minority-contact-in-the - juvenile-justice-system/
Status offenders. (2015). Development Services Group, Inc. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Status_Offenders.pdf
… that blacks are human and pointed out the hypocrisy of slavery apologists by asking several rhetorical questions. For example, he asked why specific law existed to limit the actions of blacks if they were beasts and incapable of making their own decisions. He also asked why the … subversion of natural rights because it subjugated the slaves and brutalized them. He also argued that slavery turned men into beasts against God's law and cited Bible passages to prove the same (Sundstrom). Douglass was an active participant and witness of the second Great Awakening. He embraced … from his works, he knew actual action was needed. This was Douglass' conception of providence.
There are arguments that Douglass' conception of natural law shows providence and destiny. There are also arguments that his view of natural law is not based on the supernatural but the cosmological ontological-theological determination. That somewhat things are……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… is meant by the Constitution through judicial review. Thus, the Constitution is now interpreted by the Supreme Court and it says what the law means. So overtime the rights and liberties supposedly guaranteed by the Constitution have been twisted and changed, giving more power to the totalitarian ……
… their duty of call to the American people.
The first Congress created the U.S. Marshals under President George Washington. The president signed into law the Judiciary act on September 24, 1789, which charged the marshals with the enforcement of law and actions in federal courts. They assisted the courts to serve subpoenas, warrants, and capture federal fugitives even though they evolved to handle … federal courts. They assisted the courts to serve subpoenas, warrants, and capture federal fugitives even though they evolved to handle day to day law enforcement duties in counties that had no local government. In the 19th century during the American Frontier, U.S. marshals served as the day … in counties that had no local government. In the 19th century during the American Frontier, U.S. marshals served as the day to day law enforcement agencies, maintaining law and order in counties with no local governments. They……
Larry K. Gaines, V. E. (2014). Policing in America. New York: Routledge.
Skocpol, T. (1999). Advocates without Members: the recent transformation of American civic life. In T. Skocpol, Civic Engagement in American Democracy (pp. 461-480). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
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