Ethical Decision Making Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Ethical Issues In Criminal Justice

Pages: 4 (1197 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Essay Document #:16567736

Epistemology and Duty Ethics in Criminal Justice
ethical Issues
1 Ethics in Law Enforcement Agencies
As Roufa (2019) notes, ethics in law enforcement are essential to prevent behaviors from going unchecked … to codify the ethics they want their officers to follower. The reason for this is that they want their officers to engage in ethical decision making, which means making the right decision morally. Sometimes officers can have an unconscious or implicit bias and this can affect their decision making (Hehman, Flake & Calanchini, 2018). Having a code of ethics in place helps officers to remember to base their decision on the ethical code’s guidance. That way they are not basing decision on any potential implicit bias they may have.
In order for the ethical code to be implemented effectively, officers need to engage in critical thinking. This means they have to ask themselves a series of questions ………



Cahn, S. & Markie, P. (2011). Ethics: History, Theory and Contemporary Issues, 5th Edition. UK: Oxford University Press.

Hehman, E., Flake, J. K., & Calanchini, J. (2018). Disproportionate use of lethal force in policing is associated with regional racial biases of residents. Social psychological and personality science, 9(4), 393-401.

Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Roufa, T. (2019). Ethics in law enforcement. Retrieved from 

Study Document

End Of Life Decision Making Ethics

Pages: 6 (1761 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:74655175

When a family has to decide how much is too much, as Plakovic (2016) puts it during end-of-life care, there is a clear ethical dilemma that crops up for family members and care providers. That dilemma is related to the issue of how to approach end-of-life treatment. … or kept alive by a machine. Others have no instructions set aside before hand for care providers and family to go by. The ethical dilemma is complicated by the fact that care providers have an oath to care for all life—but at the end-of-the-life, what is the … it comes to end-of-life care and the “do not resuscitate” (DNR) clause are related to the principles of nonmaleficence and autonomy and the ethical theory that is discussed in relation to this issue is deontology, also known as duty ethics.
What is the ethical Dilemma?
The ethical dilemma associated with end-of-life care and……



Bronzino, J. D., & Peterson, D. R. (2016). Bene?cence, Nonmale?cence, and Medical Technology. In Tissue Engineering and Artificial Organs (pp. 1259-1266). CRC Press.

Garrido, M. M., Balboni, T. A., Maciejewski, P. K., Bao, Y., & Prigerson, H. G. (2015). Quality of life and cost of care at the end of life: the role of advance directives. Journal of pain and symptom management, 49(5), 828-835.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2016). Ethical issues surrounding end-of-life care: a narrative review. In Healthcare (Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 24). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.

Marijic, P., Buss, A., & Strupeit, S. (2017). Autonomy and social participation of nursing home residents: nurses’perspectives. Innovation in Aging, 1(Suppl 1), 886.

Plakovic, K. (2016). Burdens Versus Benefits: When Family Has to Decide How Much Is Too Much. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 18(5), 382-387.

Sen, A. (1983). Evaluator relativity and consequential evaluation. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 113-132.

Weissman, D. E. (1999). Do not resuscitate orders: a call for reform. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 2(2), 149-152.

Yuen, J. K., Reid, M. C., & Fetters, M. D. (2011). Hospital do-not-resuscitate orders: why they have failed and how to fix them. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(7), 791-797.

Study Document

Developing Ethical Leaders In Law Enforcement

Pages: 4 (1297 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:54962328

Developing ethical Leaders in Law Enforcement
At any point in time but especially during periods of social and political unrest, American citizens look to law … successfully. It is therefore incumbent upon law enforcement agencies at every level to create an organizational culture that places a high priority of ethical policing practices and to develop ethical leaders that can model the way for their subordinates. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of … subordinates. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to explicate the importance of ethical leadership and to identify strategies for developing ethical leaders in law enforcement today. A summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper’s conclusion.
Review … today. A summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues are presented……



Hughes, P. J. (2017, January 1). A new sheriff in town. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31, 8-13.

Law enforcement code of ethics. (2020). The International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from .

Law enforcement facts. (2020). National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund. Retrieved from .

McCarthy, N. (2019, May 8). The number of U.S. police officers killed in the line of duty increased law year. Forbes. Retrieved from 

Owens, K. M. & Pfeifer, J. (2009, June). Police leadership and ethics: Training and policy recommendations. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services, 1(2), 124-130.

Steirheim, M. (2020, March). The importance of ethical leadership and moral courage in pubic management. Public Management, 102(3), 19-23.

Study Document

Legal And Ethical Issues In Healthcare

Pages: 9 (2618 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:17702391

Legal and ethical Issues in Healthcare
Healthcare ethics have to do with the wide range of moral decision that have to be made in medical practice. These are the other considerations that have to be made besides the regular policies and … consequently, understood, healthcare quality as it is received and practiced should be improved qualitatively (Taylor, 2015).
There is a need to make an ethical decision whenever a healthcare expert meets a situation where there is a competition between values or uncertainty. These dilemmas could arise at personal, professional, … dilemma, they must take into consideration various influencing factors. These factors include the law, beneficence, autonomy, and nonmaleficence, and juxtapose them with professional, ethical codes of conduct. There are many reasons why there is a growing concern over ethical issues in the practice of medicine and healthcare in general. Such issues as accessibility, quality, the safety of patients, acquisitions……



Chen, Y. Y., Chu, T. S., Kao, Y. H., Tsai, P. R., Huang, T. S., &Ko, W. J. (2014). To evaluate the effectiveness of health care ethics consultation based on the goals of health care ethics consultation: a prospective cohort study with randomization. BMC medical ethics, 15(1), 1.

Morrison, E. E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: a practical approach for decision-makers. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Nora, C. R. D., Deodato, S., Vieira, M. M. D. S., &Zoboli, E. L. C. P. (2016). Elements and strategies for ethical decision-making in nursing. Texto&Contexto-Enfermagem, 25(2).

Reddy, M. S., &Mythri, S. V. (2016). Health-care Ethics and the Free Market Value System. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 38(5), 371–375. 

Taylor, S. C. (2015). Health Care Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from

Yip, C., Han, N. R., &Sng, B. L. (2016). Legal and ethical issues in research. Indian Journal of anesthesia, 60(9), 684–688. 

Webster, G., Bayliss, F., Rubin, S., &Zoloth, L. (2000). Moral Residue. Margin of Error: The Ethics of Mistakes in the Practice of Medicine. Hagerstown, MD: University Publishing Group.

Study Document

Healthcare Ethics Bioethics Decisions

Pages: 5 (1545 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Case Study Document #:55208071

… resources equitably remains one of the most pressing dilemmas in bioethics. Given that the dying patient did consent to organ donation, the primary ethical dilemmas in this case arise when determining the recipient. The case presents four different options, two of which (Michael and Mario) seem relatively … suitable candidates for the liver.
This case raises several moral questions. If every patient is deemed equally as worthy and valuable, according to ethical principles like equity and justice, then how is it possible to favor one person over the other? The answer to that question would … the infant would have trouble with bile production even with a new liver.
In fact, the only way to really make an informed decision in this case is to eschew any immediate emotional response to the four candidates and consider only the issue of which candidate will … compatibility and the least likely……



“Ethical Theory and Bioethics,” (n.d.).

“Principles of Ethics,” (n.d.).

Steinbock, B., London, A.J. & Arras, J.D. (n.d.). Ethical issues in modern medicine. 8th edition. McGraw Hill.

Study Document

C Suite Executive Leadership And Ethics

Pages: 9 (2693 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:16009984

Beliefs, Practices, Challenges
Persons in positions of leadership inevitably encounter major ethical dilemmas and in fact make ethical decision on a daily basis. Interviews with senior executives can reveal the complexities of ethical decision making the executive level, as personal morals frequently disconnect from the ethical culture governing the organization or the industry’s regulatory climate (Bailey & Shantz, 2018). Bandwagon fallacies—the sense that because something is normative it is … culture governing the organization or the industry’s regulatory climate (Bailey & Shantz, 2018). Bandwagon fallacies—the sense that because something is normative it is ethical—predominate in the workplace. An interview with C. Linden (name altered to protect the individual’s privacy) shows how personal ethical beliefs clash with the prevailing norms and values in the field. Employee diversity adds to the complications involved in executive ethical decision-making, according to Linden. The predominant ethical challenges usually relate to balancing two equally compelling……



Bailey, C. & Shantz, A. (2018). Creating an ethically strong organization. MIT Sloan Management Review. 

Crossan, M., Mazutis, D. & Seijts, G. (2013). In search of virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 113(4): 567-581.

Hatcher, T. (2008). The value of values in the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 97-122.

Hoekstra, E., Bell, A. & Peterson, S.R. (2008). Humility in Leadership: Abandoning the Pursuit of Unattainable Perfection. In S.A. Quatro & R. R. Sims (Eds.), Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-Suite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp. 79-96.

MacDougall, A.E., Bagdarasov, Z. & Buckley, M.R. (2008). Applying a primary risk management model to the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Second Edition. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 211-234.

Martin, R. (2011). The CEO\\\\'s ethical dilemma in the era of earnings management. Strategy & Leadership 39(6): 43-47.

Schwartz, M.S. (2013). Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The core elements. Business Horizons 56(1): 39-50.

Study Document

Angleton S Counterintelligence Program And What Went Wrong

Pages: 9 (2657 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:36485484

Counterintelligence Thesis Proposal
This proposal describes the need for an ethical standard in counterintelligence. It discusses how an analysis of the formation of the counterintelligence program under Angleton can provide insight into what went … is qualitative with the case study approach to Angleton’s counterintelligence serving as the method. The aim of the research is to provide an ethical framework that could be used to help the counterintelligence enterprise collaborate more effectively with the private sector in the future.
Intelligence and … so by itself it is an inadequate theory—but in combination with others, and with a focus on how ethics play a part in decision-making—it can help to explain the complex nature of the subject (Bartos and Wehr 2002).
The aim of this exploration will be to fill … and Wehr 2002).
The aim of this exploration will be to fill the wide gap that remains in……


Reference List

Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35.2 (2012), 77-99.

Bartos, C. and P. Wehr. 2002. Using conflict theory. UK: University of Cambridge.

Bellaby, Ross. "What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection." Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (2012): 93-117.

Church Committee. “Final report of the Select committee to study governmental operations With respect to Intelligence activities United states senate Together with Additional, supplemental, and separate Views.”, 1976.

Coyne, John, Peter Bell, and Shannon Merrington. "Exploring ethics in intelligence and the role of leadership." Interntional Journal of Business and Commerce 2, no. 10 (2013): 27-37.

Erskine, Toni. "'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul'? Moral Agents and Intelligence Gathering." Intelligence & National Security 19, no. 2 (2004): 359-381.

Nakashima, Ellen. “Top counterintelligence official challenges the private sector to step up defenses against foreign spying.” Washington Post, 2020. 

Pfaff, T., & Tiel, J. R. (2004). The ethics of espionage. Journal of Military Ethics, 3(1), 1-15.

Study Document

Nelson Mandela

Pages: 5 (1632 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:40746883

Life of a historical leader: Nelson Mandela
Efficient leadership constitutes the main force resulting in ethical culture formation and bolstered ethical in making decision (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 2015). The term leadership denotes intrinsic capability of commanding and leading other people towards any specified goal. The process of … process of leadership entails formulation of a vision and ideas, adopting and sticking to values which support the aforementioned visions, engaging in tricky decision-making whenever needed, and utilizing one's innate charisma for inspiring followers to also stick to those values. Sound leadership aids companies with vision creation … inspiring followers to also stick to those values. Sound leadership aids companies with vision creation that serves as the basis for corporate values. ethical decision form an important component of efficient leaders, in addition to their capability of driving others towards goal attainment.
The term ethics, or moral … systematization, defense and recommendation……



Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Ferrell, O. C., & Fraedrich, J. (2015). Business ethics: Ethical decision making & cases. Nelson Education.

Fisher, C., & Lovell, A. (2006). Business Ethics and Values: Individual, Corporate and International Perspectives. FT Prentice Hall.

Glad, B., & Blanton, R. (1997). FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela: A study in cooperative transformational leadership. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27(3), 565-590.

Masbagusdanta, K. (2013). Everyone Can Be a Moral Leader. Global ethics network. Retrieved from

Schoemaker, P.J.H. & Krupp, S. (2014). 6 principles that made Nelson Mandela a renowned leader. Fortune. Retrieved from 

Tutu, D. (2013). Nelson Mandela: A colossus of unimpeachable moral character. The Washington Post. Retrieved from 

Study Document

Foxtrot Phone Scandal

Pages: 6 (1877 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Case Study Document #:53518196

Foxtrot Phone Scandal - Case Study
ethical dilemmas and issues are common in different areas in public and private sectors. These dilemmas and issues are attributable to the emergence of … work setting. Therefore, addressing these issues is critical toward promoting a suitable work environment and interactions with others. Cooper (2012) states that a decision making model is essential in addressing ethical issues as it helps in moving from a problem to developing a course of action to resolve the issue. An example of an … issues as it helps in moving from a problem to developing a course of action to resolve the issue. An example of an ethical dilemma or issue relates to Foxtrot Phone Scandal. Foxtrot Company comprises nearly one hundred cadets from all four classes in the United States … the Corps of Cadets. Cadets in this class at the academy are committed to the values……



Cooper, T.L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

European Ombudsman. (2012, November 15). Ensuring Ethics in Public Administration: The Role of the Ombudsman. Retrieved June 7, 2020, from 

Kapstein, M. (2015). The Battle for Business Ethics: A Struggle Theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 144, 343-361.

Ondrova, D. (2017). Challenges of Modern Public Administration and Ethical Decision-Making. RAP, 3, 255-279.

Singh, A.K. & Mishra, N.K. (2018). Ethical Theory & Business – A Study Based on Utilitarianism and Kantianism. International Journal of Humanities and Social Development Research, 2(1), 97-113.

Stein, C. (2019, January 25). Ethical Considerations in Public Administration. PA Times. Retrieved June 7, 2020, from 

Study Document

The Karen Ann Quinlan Case Legal Aspects Of Healthcare

Pages: 6 (1922 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:87626234

… by a Superior Court judge in Morristown, New Jersey (Rosenthal, 2018). According to Rosenthal (2018), the judge in this case argued that the decision to remove Quinlan from the ventilator was not supported by her doctors. Here, the judge made a finding that the decision at hand was more medical than judicial. As Rosenthal (2018) further points out, it was also found that any move to disconnect the … course of action adopted by the doctors would not be homicide and,…[break]…happens to be in a permanent vegetative state, a physician or an ethical committee could be the designated decision maker. This could be the case pending the appointment of a guardian. As a matter of fact, the AMA Code of Medical Ethics … of fact, the AMA Code of Medical Ethics points out that in situations that involve patients with no surrogate and are incapable of making decision, the……



Drane, J.F. (1994). Clinical Bioethics: Theory and Practice in Medical Ethical Decision-making. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.

Holland, S., Kitzinger, C. & Kitzinger, J. (2014). Death, treatment decisions and the permanent vegetative state: evidence from families and experts. Med Health Care Philos., 17(3), 413-423.

Karen Ann Quinlan Hospice (2019). The Story of Karen Ann Quinlan Made Headlines! Retrieved from 

Mizzoni, J. (2011). Ethics: The Basics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Rosenthal, M.S. (2018). Clinical Ethics on Film: A Guide for Medical Educators. New York, NY: Springer.

Singer, P. (2013). A Companion to Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

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