… themselves, in each other, and in their school. Thus, this paper will show that school uniforms can promote positive self-esteem and self-belief in elementary school age children.
The good conduct basis for this argument comes from a study by Stanley (1996) on the Long Beach Unified School … the conduct of the district’s nearly 100,000 students was demonstrated following the mandatory adoption of school uniforms. Suspension rates declined 28% in the elementary schools and 36% in the middle schools; fights decreased by 51% in grades K-8, and assault and battery incidents decreased 34% in the … schools and 36% in the middle schools; fights decreased by 51% in grades K-8, and assault and battery incidents decreased 34% in the elementary and middle schools (Stanley, 1996). In short, a significant correlation between uniform-wearing in public schools and improved student conduct was evident.
The statistically … shows how simply from a……
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Bodine, A. (2003). School uniforms, academic achievement, and uses of research. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(2), 67-71.
Caruso, P. (1996). Individuality vs. conformity: The issue behind school uniforms. NASSP Bulletin, 80(581), 83-88.
Fox, K. R., & Lindwall, M. (2014). Self-esteem and self-perceptions in sport and exercise. In Routledge Companion to Sport and Exercise Psychology (pp. 58-72). Routledge.
Murray, R. K. (1997). The impact of school uniforms on school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 81(593), 106-112.
NAESP. (2013). National Survey of School Leaders Reveals 2013 School Uniform Trends. Retrieved from https://www.naesp.org/national-survey-school-leaders-reveals-2013-school-uniform-trends
School connectedness: Strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. (2010). Reclaiming Children and Youth, 19(3), 20-24.
Stanley, M. S. (1996). School uniforms and safety. Education and Urban Society, 28(4), 424-435.
… names such as pre-kindergarten and pre-school. (Advameg, 2020).
Name of Public School Selected for the Project: Chicago Public Schools – Bennett Elementary
Demographic overview of the early childhood setting
The school is meant for pre-school kids (aged between 3 to … wheelchairs. The students are of African-American ethnicity, and 95.6 percent of the students are from low-income families. When it comes to diversity, Bennett Elementary has 10.2 percent, diverse learners.
Early childhood programs
The local school districts are the ones responsible for the provision of pre-school … can also offer consultation services to pupils that do not necessarily qualify for the language-speech services. When it comes to special education, Bennett Elementary has a counselor, case manager, and speech therapist.
Bennett presently has two full-day classes. One of the classes is for children aged four ……
Avdameg. (2020). Early childhood education. Retrieved from http://www.healthofchildren.com/E-F/Early-Childhood-Education.html
Illinois Early Learning Project. (2020). 2013 Illinois early learning and development standards. Retrieved from https://illinoisearlylearning.org/ields/
Rock, A. (2020). What your child will learn in pre-school. Retrieved from https://www.verywellfamily.com/all-about-preschool-curriculum-2764977
Assessment is a critical element of education as it allows for the monitoring, learning, creation of educational programs, and the identification of pupils who require specific services. For deaf and hard hearing learners, participating in meaningful education tests is a multifaceted and complex process (Pizzo & Chilvers, 2019). Assessments that are done well will support growth and learning, while poorly and inaccurately designed assessments have the potential to cause wrong decision-making in schools for deaf and hard of hearing learners. This report, therefore, presents three language assessment instruments for deaf and hard of hearing learners, namely Arizona™-4: Arizona Articulation and Phonology Scale™ Fourth Revision, The American Sign Language Proficiency Assessment (ASL-PA), and Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language—Fourth Edition (TACL-4).
Report 1: Arizona Articulation and Phonology Scale™, Fourth Revision
? Name of Test: Arizona™-4: Arizona Articulation and Phonology Scale™, Fourth Revision
? Author(s): Fudala, Janet Barker, and Stegall, Sheri……
Bond, L. A. (1996). Norm-and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 5(1), 2.
Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (2014). Test for auditory comprehension of language (4th ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Carrow-Woolfolk, E., & Allen, E. A. (2014). TEXL: Test of expressive language. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Fudala, J.B. & Stegall, S. (2017). Arizona-4: Arizona Articulation and Phonology Scale, Fourth Revision. Western Psychological Services.
Fudala, J.B. (2000). Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Haug, T. (2005). Review of sign language assessment instruments. Sign Language & Linguistics, 8(1-2), 61-98.
Maller, S., Singleton, J., Supalla, S., & Wix, T. (1999). The development and psychometric properties of the American Sign Language Proficiency Assessment (ASL-PA). Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4(4), 249-269.
Pizzo, L., & Chilvers, A. (2019). Assessment of Language and Literacy in Children Who Are d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Education Sciences, 9(3), 223.
...Elementary How Technology Enhances ESL Students’ Learning Experience
In the COVID-19 era, education has taken a dramatic turn towards distance learning, meaning that virtual classrooms are now more popular than ever. But what is the effect of the use of technology in an ESL classroom? Evidence shows that technology actually does enhance ESL students’ learning experience (Kasapoglu-Akyol, 2010). The fact is that ESL students use technology tools in their daily lives and thus not to use technology for learning purposes is akin to taking a fish out of water and then asking it to learn to swim. In the digital era, digital natives have been using technology since birth and it is older teachers and educational systems that are slow to recognize this fact. This paper will show how technology enhances ESL students' learning experience related to ESL instructional practices and analyze how that topic or trend impacts the district,……
Alvarez-Marinelli, H., Blanco, M., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B. J., Tong, F., Stanley, K., & Fan, Y. (2016). Computer assisted English language learning in Costa Rican elementary schools: an experimental study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(1), 103-126.
Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. NY: Routledge.
Cassady, J. C., Smith, L. L., & Thomas, C. L. (2017). Supporting emergent literacy for English language learners with computer?assisted instruction. Journal of Research in Reading.
Jiang, H., Tang, M., Peng, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Learning design and technology through social networks for high school students in China. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28(1), 189-206.
Kahai, S. S., Carroll, E., & Jestice, R. (2007). Team collaboration in virtual worlds. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 38(4), 61-68.
Kasapo?lu-Akyol, P. (2010). Using educational technology tools to improve language and communication skills of ESL students. Novitas-Royal, 4(2).
Meskill, G., & Mossop, J. (2003). Technologies use with learners of ESL in New Your State: Preliminary report. Retrieved from https://www.albany.edu/lap/Papers/technology%20use.htm
Park, J. Y. (2011). Design education online: Learning delivery and evaluation. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 30(2), 176-187.
… on the part of early to middle-grade students may include reading books on other cultural, racial, and ethnic groups. Students at the upper elementary level may cultivate friendships with students belonging to other ethnic and racial groups, in addition to taking part in cross-racial projects and activities ……
Banks, J. A. (1995). Multicultural Education: Its Effects on Students\\\\\\\\\\\\' Racial and Gender Role Attitudes. Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 617-627). New York: Macmillan.
Gándara, P., & Escamilla, K. (2017). Bilingual education in the United States. Bilingual and multilingual education, 1-14.
Ovando, C. J. (2003). Bilingual education in the United States: Historical development and current issues. Bilingual research journal, 27(1), 1-24.
Saravia-Shore, M., & Arvizu, S. F. (2017). Cross-cultural literacy: An anthropological approach to dealing with diversity. In Cross-cultural Literacy (pp. xv-xxxviii). Routledge.
Wei, L. (2013). Integration of Multicultural Education into English Teaching and Learning: A Case Study in Liaoning Police Academy. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 3(4).
A far greater number of US citizens become victims of gang-initiated violence as compared to mass shootings or terrorist attacks. Gang members contribute to a disproportionately high percentage of the violence and crimes witnessed in the nation. Roughly two-thousand gang-linked murders are reported across the country per annum, which makes up 13% of overall murders in the nation. America's gang-connected murder rate alone (approximately 2 for every 100,000 individuals) goes beyond the overall rate of murders in almost every nation in the EU (Pyrooz & Densley, 2018). The FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) claims that as many as 33,000 motorcycle gangs, prison gangs, and aggressive street gangs are currently offending across the country (FBI, n.d.), several of them being highly organized and advanced. Further, they all resort to violence for maintaining their control over localities and boosting their illicit commercial activities, such as theft, firearms and illegal drug trafficking,……
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. L. (2013). Gang-related crime: The social, psychological, and behavioral correlates. Psychology, Crime & Law, 19(7), 611-627.
FBI, (n.d.). Gangs. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/violent-crime/gangs#The-Gang%20Threat on 12 June 2020
Finelli, G. A. (2019). Slash, Shoot, Kill Gang Recruitment of Children, and the Penalties Gangs Face. Family Court Review, 57(2), 243-257.
Hesketh, R. F. (2018). A critical exploration of why some individuals with similar backgrounds do or do not become involved in deviant street groups and the potential implications for their future life choices. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Chester, United Kingdom).
Hesketh, R.F. (2019). Joining gangs: living on the edge?. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, Vol. 5 No. 4; 280-294.
Higginson, A., Benier, K., Shenderovich, Y., Bedford, L., Mazerolle, L., & Murray, J. (2018). Factors associated with youth gang membership in low?and middle?income countries: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 14(1), 1-128.
Howell, J. C. (2010). Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Klein, M.W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York: Oxford University Press.
...Elementary Public Administration
How Public Administrative Discretion Works
The main difference between public and private administration is that in the former the administration both administers to the public and is accountable to the public; in the latter, the administration is accountable only to stakeholders, which may or may not include members of the community/public. Other differences include the fact that in private administration, the idea is that the administration is overseeing some business organization that focuses on a goal related to its mission, its business model. Public administration, on the other hand, refers to a political process wherein official administrators are elected or appointed to do a job for the good of the public. They typically control or use public funds; must give a public accounting of how funds are used, and must to all intents and purposes fulfill a mandate given them by the public—though, of course, it is……
Cann, S. (2007). The Administrative State, the Exercise of Discretion, and the Constitution. Public Administration Review, 67(4), 780–782.
EPA. (2015). Administrative discretion. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/administrative_discretion_nonotesclean.pdf
Reyes, P., & Pounder, D. G. (1993). Organizational orientation in public and private elementary schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 86-93.
Reyes, D. R. (1998). Public sector reengineering: Practice, problems and prospects.
Rinaldi, M., Montanari, R., & Bottani, E. (2015). Improving the efficiency of public
administrations through business process reengineering and simulation: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 21(2), 419-462.
Rubenstein, D. S. (2015). Administrative Federalism as Separation of Powers. Wash. & Lee L. Rev., 72, 171.
Savoie, D. J. (2006). What is wrong with the new public management?. In Comparative Public Administration (pp. 593-602). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
...Elementary Education Law Policy and Social Justice Mother Tongue Instruction
The population of students receiving their instruction in another language apart from their mother tongue is increasing as a consequence of the increased migration. Indeed, as Bingol (2012) points out, “migration and language are clearly linked issues…. because the language of instruction in the schools is different from the language spoken at home, some arrangements must be done for these children in these bilingual situations” (1016). Quite a number of research studies conducted in the past indicate that learners could have better comprehension of curriculum in those instances whereby learning is firmly rooted in their mother tongue. This is particular the case in early learning. In one such study, it was found out that in early childhood classroom education, mother tongue was a key factor in the further advancement of the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent,……
Awopetu, A.V. (2016). Impact of Mother Tongue on Children’s Learning Abilities in Early Childhood Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 58-63.
Busse, V., Cenoz, J., Dalmann, N. & Rogge, F. (2019). Addressing Linguistic Diversity in the Language Classroom in a Resource?Oriented Way: An Intervention Study with Primary School Children. Language Learning.
Bingol, A.S. (2012). Mother tongue instruction policies towards Turkish migrant children in Europe. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1016-1023.
Mcmahon, T., Griese, E.R. & Kenyon, D.B. (2019). Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14, 77-110.
Ozfidan, B. (2017). Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study. English Language Teaching; 10(12), 15-23.
Peyton, J.K. (2015). Language of Instruction: Research Findings and Program and Instructional Implications. Reconsidering Development, 4(1), 71-79.
Philips, J.S. (2015). The rights of indigenous peoples under international law. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 75-82.
Sahin, I. (2018). A look at mother tongue education in the context of the right to education. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(9), 343-353.
...Elementary A Personal Philosophy of Education
In sum, I believe the long-range impact that educational leadership should have on stakeholders and on the community includes providing young learners with the critical thinking skills they will need to succeed in the 21st century workplace as well as developing good citizens that actively participate in the political process. Today, the United States invests enormous sums in its public educational system, but these scarce taxpayer resources are being wasted without the positive long-range impact that effective leadership should have on stakeholders and on the community. Because effective leadership has been shown time and again to be inextricably associated with organizational performance, it is not surprising that there has been a growing body of scholarship devoted to this topic over the years. Drawing on this body of knowledge, it is possible to improve the effectiveness of educational leadership in a number of ways, including……
Black’s Law Dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Blakesley, S. (2011, July). Defining educational leadership in Canada\\'s Yukon Territory: \\"Hmmm, that\\'s a good question ...\\" Canadian Journal of Education, 34(1), 4-7.
Bowser, A. & Hux, A. (2014, September). The roles of site-based mentors in educational leadership programs. College Student Journal, 48(3), 468-471.
Chan, T. C. (2014, March). Educational leadership: The research agenda. New Waves, 17(1), 1-4.
Cushman, K. (2009, December). Subjects, or citizens? High school students talk about investing in their schools: If we want to know what students think, Ms. Cushman suggests that we ask them. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(4), 316.
Demirci, F. & Ozyurek, C. (2017, December). The effects of using concept cartoons in astronomy subjects on critical thinking skills among seventh grade students. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(2), 243.
Erstad, W. (2018, January 22). Six critical thinking skills you need to master now. Rasmussen College. Retrieved from https://www.rasmussen.edu/student-experience/college-life/critical-thinking-skills-to-master-now/ .
Litvinov, A. (2017, March 16). Forgotten purpose: Civics education in public schools. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2017/03/16/civics-education-public-schools/ .
...Elementary Introduction: the Policy Problem under Consideration
When it comes to foreign policy, there are many different issues in foreign policy that the government needs to address—from tensions regarding missile treaties with Russia to wars in the Middle East to money given to the state of Israel, which has been recognized by the United Nations as a violator of human rights for its treatment of Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and on the West Bank (Human Rights Watch, 2018). Of these, America’s special relationship with Israel is perhaps the most unsettling. Israel receives more than $3 billion in foreign aid from the U.S. every year, which is one-fifth of the entire foreign aid budget of the U.S., and the U.S. is further committed to giving $38 billion in military financial aid over the next several years (Sharp, 2018). Essentially, the U.S. is helping to fund a human rights violator by continuing……
Facione, P. (2006). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts. Insight Assessments.
Hooks, B. (1999). Black looks: Race and representation. South End Press.
Human Rights Watch. (2018). Israel and Palestine. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/israel/palestine
Johnson, S. A. (2011). Women, Shared Leadership, and Policy: The Mano River Women's Peace Network Case Study. Journal of Pan African Studies, 4(8).
Mearsheimer, J. J., & Walt, S. M. (2007). The Israel lobby and US foreign policy. Macmillan.
Richards, R. (2010). Everyday creativity. The Cambridge handbook of creativity, 189-215.
Sharp, J. (2018). U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf
Verhaeghe, P. (2014). Neoliberalism has brought out the worst in us. The Guardian. Annotated Bibliography
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