Study Document

PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is Term Paper

Pages:5 (1410 words)

Sources:7

Subject:Health

Topic:Ptsd

Document Type:Term Paper

Document:#90540162


It is difficult to get an accurate record of the actual number of children that have been sexually abused. Many cases never come to light and because of differences in definitions of sexual assault, some cases are missed (658).

Researchers have begun to explore the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with children and adults that were victims of sexual assault. Many times people associate particular events with particular stimuli. For example, certain orders, colors, sounds, and people can trigger a memory of a past event. This is truer for victims of sexual assault. According to Wolf, Sas, and Wekerle, 'traumatic episodes become associated with particular eliciting stimuli and can lead to maladaptive or a typical reactions. Such conditioning can play an important role in the formation of children's adjustment disorders subsequent to sexual abuse (Wolf et al. 38).'

Because people do not anticipate an abusive episode, there are usually things the victim cannot control. Sexual abuse is such a stressful event to where it has the capability to produce a form of a coping reaction. Since children are impressionable, the perpetrator may threaten the child not to confess. Child victims of child sexual assault are also tortured by nightmares, recurring images of the event, and troubling memories. 'Based on interviews with children who have been exploited by adults through sex rings and pornography, 65 of 60 children reported intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. Physical symptoms (eg. Somatic complaints, sleep problems, excessive crying) and greater social withdraw and distrust of others were also noted among a sizeable proportion of this sample (Wolf et al. 39).'

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is diagnosed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist. The test consists of a list of 43 'adjustment problems' with 23 items spanning the range of symptoms characterizing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as defined in the DSM-III Categories for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Participants were considered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder positive if they indicated on the test that they had re-experienced the traumatic event, became avoidant, and had increased arousal. The test also indicated whether or not the participant had a 'moderate problem' or 'partial' Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Rowan 55).'

PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy and drug therapy. There is no definitive treatment, and no cure, but some treatments appear to be quite promising, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy, group therapy, and exposure therapy. Exposure therapy involves having the patient repeatedly relive the frightening experience under controlled conditions to help him or her work through the trauma. Studies have also shown that medications help ease associated symptoms of depression and anxiety and help with sleep. The most widely used drug treatments for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as Prozac and Zoloft. At present, cognitive-behavioral therapy appears to be somewhat more effective than drug therapy. However, it would be premature to conclude that drug therapy is less effective overall since drug trials for PTSD are at a very early stage. Drug therapy appears to be highly effective for some individuals and is helpful for many more. In addition, the recent findings on the biological changes associated with PTSD have spurred new research into drugs that target these biological changes, which may lead to much increased efficacy.

References

Famularo R, Fenton T, Kinscherff R, Ayoub C, Barnum R. Maternal and child posttraumatic stress disorder in cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1994;18:27 -- 36

Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T. Symptom differences in acute and chronic presentation of childhood post-traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse Negl 1990;14:439 -- 44.

Saigh, P.A. (2004). A structured interview for diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Children's PTSD Inventory. San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp.

Walker, J. (2009). Anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder: The role of quantitative electroencephalograph in diagnosis and in guiding neurofeedback training to remediate the anxiety. Biofeedback, 37(2), 67-70

Harris, H.N., & Valentier, D.F. (2002). World assumptions, sexual assault, depression and fearful attitudes toward relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 286-305.

Murray, J.B. (1992). Posttraumatic-stress-disorder: A-review. Genetic, Social,& General Psychology-Monographs, 118, 313-338.

Wolf, E.J., Miller, M.W., Orazem, R.J., Weierich, M.R., Castillo, D.T., Milford, J., et al. (2008).…


Sample Source(s) Used

References

Famularo R, Fenton T, Kinscherff R, Ayoub C, Barnum R. Maternal and child posttraumatic stress disorder in cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1994;18:27 -- 36

Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T. Symptom differences in acute and chronic presentation of childhood post-traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse Negl 1990;14:439 -- 44.

Saigh, P.A. (2004). A structured interview for diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Children's PTSD Inventory. San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp.

Walker, J. (2009). Anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder: The role of quantitative electroencephalograph in diagnosis and in guiding neurofeedback training to remediate the anxiety. Biofeedback, 37(2), 67-70

Cite this Document

Join thousands of other students and "spark your studies."

Sign Up for FREE
Related Documents

Study Document

PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and

Pages: 2 (625 words) Sources: 2 Subject: Psychology Document: #32526516

In civilian life, such individuals will have gained a traditional ethical education whereas in a combat context, such individuals will have been instructed on the use of lethal force. According to Willis, "habit and practice help the willingness and capacity to kill on command. The new recruit or volunteer may, and likely has, the innate reservation against killing anyone. Yet day in and day out, the 'normal' person is

Study Document

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is

Pages: 3 (870 words) Sources: 5 Subject: Psychology Document: #80932247

While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTSD as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTSD has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys. Causative Factors

Study Document

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is Given As

Pages: 4 (1437 words) Sources: 2 Subject: Psychology Document: #51446215

Post traumatic stress disorder is given as psychological reaction which take place after one has gone through a stressful event .the characteristics of PTSD are anxiety, depression, recurrent nightmares, flashbacks and avoiding things that are a reminder of the event. There have been increased reports of mental health problems among soldiers who have been deployed in war zones like Afghanistan and Iraq. The paper will look at two articles that

Study Document

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction

Pages: 15 (4543 words) Sources: 1+ Subject: Sports - Drugs Document: #57309421

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction Narrative Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The Role of Trauma Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion Genetic and Environmental Influences Models of Assessment/Conclusions Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1" This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to

Study Document

PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Pages: 5 (1360 words) Sources: 1+ Subject: Sports - Drugs Document: #83750786

, 2003). The results of the study found that cocaine/PTSD were younger that alcohol/PTSD subjects (Back et al., 2003). Additionally, the researchers found that the alcohol/PTSD participants were more likely to be married and have more intimate friends than the cocaine/PTSD participants. In addition, the study found that alcohol/PTSD participants were more likely to be employed full time (Back et al., 2003). The alcohol/PTSD participants were also more likely to be

Study Document

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on War

Pages: 3 (970 words) Sources: 1+ Subject: Psychology Document: #6765310

PTSD Post=traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder caused by extreme stress under dangerous or potentially dangerous situations. People with PTSD may have been raped, or abused, sexually or otherwise in childhood, have witnessed or experienced some disaster, such as earthquake, fire or flood, or it may be acquired from wartime experiences. Although PTSD was first entered into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980 (Harbert, 2002), its effects

Join thousands of other students and

"spark your studies".