… sort of information is not properly safeguarded by strong and comprehensive encryption. As a result, this points out the significant necessity to enhance security in wireless communication, in order to deal with cybercriminal actions, bearing in mind that at the present moment, progressively more individuals are utilizing … in the home and workplace settings (Ijemaru et al., 2018).
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The enormous worldwide infrastructure does not have any fundamental security mechanisms that are embedded to safeguard itself. As a result, it is set for incredible sharing on both levels of insignificance and extreme … itself. As a result, it is set for incredible sharing on both levels of insignificance and extreme necessity and therefore the need for security in communication network technologies is paramount to preclude incessant threats (Jain, 2013). Communication network security is a conception to safeguard both network and data transmission over wireless network. Imperatively,……
Bagheri-Karam, G. (2010). Physical-Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems. Ontario: Waterloo.
Chang, Z. (2019). Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications. University Of Jyväskylä. Retrieved from: http://users.jyu.fi/~timoh/TIES327/WPLS.pdf
Chen, Q., Zhang, C., & Zhang, S. (2008). Secure transaction protocol analysis: models and applications. Springer-Verlag.
GSMA. (2019). Number of Mobile Subscribers Worldwide Hits 5 Billion. Retrieved from: https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/press-release/number-mobile-subscribers-worldwide-hits-5-billion/
Gu, X., & Hunt, R. (2005). Wireless LAN attacks and vulnerabilities. the proceeding of IASTED Networks and Communication Systems.
Ijemaru, G. K., Adeyanju, I. A., Olusunyi, K. O., Ofusori, T. J., Ngharamike, E. T., Sobowale, A. A. (2018). Security Challenges of Wireless Communications Networks: A Survey. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13 (8): 5680 – 5692.
IJEMARU, G. K., UDUNWA, A. I., NGHARAMIKE, E. T., & OLEKA, E. U. (2015). Evaluating the Challenging Issues in the Security of Wireless Communication Networks in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Vol. 3, Issue 12, pp. 1-5, 2014.
Jain, A. (2013). Network Security-The Biggest Challenge in Communication. Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. Research India Publications.
Private Security and the Law
Private security operatives are held liable for their actions based on existing federal and state laws. Potential liability for these operatives occur when attempting to … occur when attempting to stop or arrest criminals or when carrying out their daily operations. The most common potential liability issues for private security operatives are assault and battery. In addition, private security operatives can be found guilty under vicarious liability for the torts of another and for a violation of 42 U.S.C. 1983 (Reid, 2017). … the torts of another and for a violation of 42 U.S.C. 1983 (Reid, 2017). An example of a recent court case involving private security operatives accused or found liable for a 42 U.S.C. 1983 violation and under vicarious liability for the torts of another is State v. … was involved in a verbal altercation at the Coronado Mall on July 20, 2005……
FindLaw. (2010). State of New Mexico, Plaintiff-Petitioner, v. Luis SANTIAGO, Defendant-Respondent. Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://caselaw.findlaw.com/nm-supreme-court/1001193.html
Reid, B. (2017, April 14). A Legal Overview of Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation. The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/a-legal-overview-of-section-1983-civil-rights-litigation_us_58f0e17ee4b048372700d793
Wakefield, J. (2018, April 19). As Alberta’s Private Security Industry Surges, What Happens When Guards Behave Badly? Edmonton Journal. Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://edmontonjournal.com/news/crime/as-albertas-private-security-industry-surges-what-happens-when-guards-behave-badly
Yee, M. (2018, June 24). Security Guard Liability. Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/security-guard-liability.html
Protecting U.S. Skies and Airports: Israeli Security Methods in U.S. Airports
As Gaines and Miller (2013) point out, American security forces focus on finding weapons while Israeli security focuses on finding terrorists. The difference gets to the heart of why the Israeli system is so much more efficient. However, Israel has … as big and open to the rest of the world as the U.S. The fact of the matter is, too, that Israel’s airport security is really only different from that of the U.S. in terms of place and intensity—and who is scrutinized. In the U.S. everyone is … the special relationship between the U.S. and Israel means that the U.S. is not far behind and many American airports have implemented Israeli security methods.
One of the big ways that American airports are importing Israeli security methods is through the use of security…[break]…must go through. The fast……
Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Nelson Education.
Haaretz & Reuters. (2017). U.S. Airport Security Is Becoming a Bit More Israeli Today –Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/u-s-airport-security-rules-are-changing-today-here-s-what-you-need-to-know-1.5460568
Hasisi, B., Margalioth, Y., & Orgad, L. (2012). Ethnic profiling in airport screening: Lessons from Israel, 1968–2010. American law and economics review, 14(2), 517-560.
Lowrey, A. (2010, January 8). Foreign policy: The costs of Israel level security [Opinion]. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122352039
NBC. (2018). NYC-Area Airports Set Record for Passenger Traffic, Rank Among Worst in U.S. for On-Time Performance. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/JFK-LaGuardia-Newark-Airports-Record-Passenger-Traffic-Worst-On-Time-Performance-475559363.html
Zeff, M. (2017). 2016 record year for Israeli air traffic. Retrieved from https://www.jpost.com/Business-and-Innovation/2016-record-year-for-Israeli-air-traffic-477180
… key unlocks allows full retrieval of the user's data. With non-cryptographic systems, rag killing is put to use, which is better for reducing security costs. The kill command is built within the tag so that when the user sends the code to make it ineffectual at the … is built within the tag so that when the user sends the code to make it ineffectual at the point of sale. Another security method is the utilization of tags that have read-writable memory.
· In case the wrist band is stolen or lost, the RFID function … actions.
RFID is undoubtedly an emerging and time-saving technology capable of handling user data for music festivals on a large scale. Security concerns have to be handled following the government rules and regulations to guarantee attendees' safety. Recommendations for this would include precautions in terms ……
Event Tribe. (n.a.). The top 10 benefits of using RFID for events. Retrieved from https://www.eventbrite.com/blog/academy/the-top-10-benefits-of-using-rfid-for-events/
ID&C. (n.a.). How to RFID wristbands work? Retrieved from https://www.idcband.com/blog/how-do-rfid-wristbands-work/
Kacicki, T. (2019, July 15). 4 commonly overlooked facts about RFID wristbands. Intellitix. Retrieved from https://intellitix.com/hub/four-commonly-overlooked-facts-rfid
OECD. (2008). OECD policy guideline on RFID. https://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/40892347.pdf
Quirk, R.E. & Borrello, S.J. (2005). RFID: Rapid deployment and regulatory challenges. Retrieved from https://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/assets/Media/MediaManager/VenableRFIDpaper.pdf?SESSID=62935cf41f5a19909f5bb3ae3a598490
Williamson, A., Tsay, L., Kateeb, I.A. & Burton, L. (2013). Solutions for RFID smart tagged card security vulnerabilities. AASRI Procedia, 4, 282-287. DOI: 10.1016/j.aasri.2013.10.042
… much to these crimes and, hence, must come up with plans to prevent such future occurrences. In this paper, the processes information technology security audits entail and how such audits enhance organizational IT security will be dealt with. According to research on the subject, IT security auditing constitutes a significant step in the safeguarding of corporate data against cybercrime, data breaches, and fraud. It must be performed from time … data, which also creates considerable risks to the data itself, computer systems, and critical infrastructures and operations it supports. Despite developments in information security, numerous information systems continue to display susceptibility to both external and internal breaches (Suduc, Bîzoi & Filip, 2010). Internal information security auditing enhances the likelihood of implementation of suitable security measures for averting such breaches and reducing their adverse impacts.
Two classes of risks exist, against which corporate information systems require protection: logical……
Almatari, O. and Helal, I., and Mazen, S., and El Hennawy, S. (2018). \\\\\\"Cybersecurity Tools for IS Auditing.\\\\\\" The 6th International Conference on Enterprise Systems, At Limassol, Cyprus 10.1109/ES.2018.00040.
Davis, W. S., & Yen, D. C. (Eds.). (2019). The information system consultant\\\\\\'s handbook: Systems analysis and design. CRC press.
Diamantopoulou, V., Tsohou, A., & Karyda, M. (2019). From ISO/IEC 27002: 2013 Information Security Controls to Personal Data Protection Controls: Guidelines for GDPR Compliance. In Computer Security (pp. 238-257). Springer, Cham.
Khan, M. (2017). Computer security in the human life. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), 6(1), 35-42.
Lenghel, R. D., & Vlad, M. P. (2017). INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDITING. Quaestus, (11), 178.
Manaseer, S., & Alawneh, A. (2019). ON CYBERSECURITY AUDITING AWARENESS: CASE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), 17(7).
Suduc, A. M., Bîzoi, M., & Filip, F. G. (2010). Audit for information systems security. Informatica Economica, 14(1), 43.
… Before the September 11 attacks, Americans had never experienced a large scale terrorist incident within their country’s borders. Moreover, most local and state security agencies had no experience with such attacks and were, therefore, very ill-prepared to respond to them. The only historic attacks or incidents that … significant way to prevent such attacks from reoccurring. This is what resulted in major changes in the United States government’s foreign and domestic security policies. It also led to the government getting into several wars and supporting various governments and militias across the world to fight its … paper reviews some of the key government reactions to the September 11 attacks and the role of the private sector in the country’s security policy after the attacks.
Public Opinion After 9/11 Attack
After the September 11 attacks, most Americans called for and supported the creation of … the attacks.
Public Opinion After……
Chanley, V. (2002). Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences. Political Psychology, 23(3), 469-483. Retrieved May 11, 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3792588
Dugulin, R., & Niglia, A. (2015, May 17). The private sector in the protection of critical infrastructure - GRI. Global Risk Insights. https://globalriskinsights.com/2015/05/the-private-sectors-vital-role-in-the-protection-of-critical-infrastructure/
Gramlich, J. (2018, September 11). Since 9/11, Americans have seen anti-terrorism policy as a top priority. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/09/11/defending-against-terrorism-has-remained-a-top-policy-priority-for-americans-since-9-11/
Morgan, D. (2019). Homeland Security Research and Development: Homeland Security Issues in the 116th Congress. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 21(1), 43-46.
Moteff, J., Copeland, C., & Fischer, J. (2003, January). Critical infrastructures: What makes an infrastructure critical?. Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
Federal Government Policy Program: Social Security
It should be noted, from the onset, that the federal government has in place a number of programmes and policies to enable … every economic sector has specific/special policies. Examples of federal government policy programs include, but they are not limited to energy independence, welfare, Social Security, healthcare programs, etc. This text concerns itself with Social Security. In so doing, it will amongst other things evaluate the said policy with an intention of establishing how successful it has been.
Social … In so doing, it will amongst other things evaluate the said policy with an intention of establishing how successful it has been.
Social Security Platforms
According to the Social Security Administration – SSA (2020), Social Security has for the past 80 years advanced financial protection to citizens of the U.S. Indeed, according to SSA (2020), “with retirement, disability, and … past 80……
Burkhauser, R.V. & Daly, M.C. (2011). The Declining Work and Welfare of People with Disabilities: What Went Wrong and a Strategy for Change. Washington, DC: AEI Press.
Biggs, S. & Helms, L.B. (2006). The Practice of American Public Policymaking. New York, NY: Routledge.
Council of Economic Advisers (2014). Economic Report of the President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Social Security Administration – SSA (2020). Benefits. Retrieved from https://www.ssa.gov/benefits/
… that seem to have a step forward in adopting technological solutions. As a result of this growth and development in technological solutions, the security of data and other sensitive information has increasingly become a huge concern for the industry (Bueger, 2015). Cybersecurity has become a priority for the maritime industry. With many of the operational and critical system having already been digitized, automated, and integrated, … and integrated, the concern has now shifted to how entities within the maritime industry should implement appropriate procedures and policies to respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively.
Cybersecurity refers to the ability of entities to prepare for possible attacks initiated through the internet, react to those attacks, and be able to … prepare for possible attacks initiated through the internet, react to those attacks, and be able to recover from those cyber incidents (Kimberly, 2018). Cybersecurity in the maritime industry is not an……
Bowen, B.M. (2011). Measuring the Human Factor of Cyber Security. Rerieved from http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~bmbowen/papers/metrics_hst.pdf
Bueger, C. (2015). What is Maritime Security? Maritime Policy, 53, 159-164.
Fitton, O. P. (2015). The Future of Maritime Cyber Security. Retrieved from https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/72696/1/Cyber_Operations_in_the_Maritime_Environment_v2.0.pdf
Hadlington, L. (2018). The \\\\\\"Human Factor\\\\\\" in cybersecurity: Exploring the accidental insider. Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security, 4(6), 46-63.
Hareide, O. S. (2018). Enhancing Navigator Competence By Demonstrating Maritime Cyber Security. The Journal of Navigation, 71(5), 1025-1039.
Hayes, C. R. (2016). Maritime Cybersecurity: The Future of National Security. Monterey, California: Naval Post Graduate School.
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(2), 49-60.
Hoffmann, J. (2018). Review of Maritime Transport. New York: UNCTAD.
...Security Climate change and extreme weather events pose certain risks to the energy industry and infrastructure (Maras, 2014). Vulnerabilities within the largely private energy industry pertain to regional issues: for example, in the Southeast, the energy industry sits mainly in low-lying areas where flooding can occur in the wake of hurricanes or storms. Flooding here can impair oil and gas production during certain parts of the year. In other parts of the year, heat waves there and in other regions of the U.S. can cause increased demand on the electric good and potentially lead to brownouts or blackouts. High winds in the California region have led to the electric companies implementing deliberate blackouts to reduce the risk of fires caused by damaged electric wires (Department of Energy, 2019). In other parts of the country, seasonal droughts and lack of snowfall can lead to declines in hydroelectric output which negatively impacts the……
Department of Energy. (2019). U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities and Resilience Solutions Reports. https://www.energy.gov/policy/downloads/climate-change-and-us-energy-sector-regional-vulnerabilities-and-resilience
DHS. (2016). Energy Sector-Specific Plan. https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/nipp-ssp-energy-2015-508.pdf
DOE. (2013). Electric Light & Power. Retrieved from: http://www.elp.com/articles/2013/07/energy-sector-vulnerabilities-assessed-by-doe.html
Maras, M-H. (2014). Transnational Security. Florida: CRC Press.
Pershing, J. (2013). U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather. Retrieved from http://annualmeeting.naseo.org/Data/Sites/2/presentations/Pershing-Climate-Vulnerabiities.pdf
The private security industry will become generalists in the next century. The industry must be well versed in a number of disciplines. It must base its … a number of disciplines. It must base its operations and decisions on demographic and economic trends, and rapid technological changes. Traditionally, the private security industry focused mainly on security and safety of its subjects. Although they continue to be a major focus of the industry, prevailing trends indicate that the industry requires … areas to become successful. The additional areas include, but are not limited to law, computers and management (Dempsey, 2008).
Current and future private security companies require extensive knowledge of the law. Legislations governing the industry have either been passed by various states or in the processed of … passed by various states or in the processed of being passed. Furthermore, several federal laws indirectly or directly affect management of the……
Dempsey, John S. Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008. Print.
Encyclopedia of Security Management: Techniques & Technology. Place of publication not identified: Elsevier Science, Inc, 1993. Print.
Nemeth, C.P. (2018), Private Security: An Introduction to Principles and Practices, CRC Press
Nemeth, Charles. Private Security and the Law. , 2011. Internet resource.
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