… sort of information is not properly safeguarded by strong and comprehensive encryption. As a result, this points out the significant necessity to enhance security in wireless communication, in order to deal with cybercriminal actions, bearing in mind that at the present moment, progressively more individuals are utilizing … in the home and workplace settings (Ijemaru et al., 2018).
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The enormous worldwide infrastructure does not have any fundamental security mechanisms that are embedded to safeguard itself. As a result, it is set for incredible sharing on both levels of insignificance and extreme … itself. As a result, it is set for incredible sharing on both levels of insignificance and extreme necessity and therefore the need for security in communication network technologies is paramount to preclude incessant threats (Jain, 2013). Communication network security is a conception to safeguard both network and data transmission over wireless network. Imperatively,……
Bagheri-Karam, G. (2010). Physical-Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems. Ontario: Waterloo.
Chang, Z. (2019). Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications. University Of Jyväskylä. Retrieved from: http://users.jyu.fi/~timoh/TIES327/WPLS.pdf
Chen, Q., Zhang, C., & Zhang, S. (2008). Secure transaction protocol analysis: models and applications. Springer-Verlag.
GSMA. (2019). Number of Mobile Subscribers Worldwide Hits 5 Billion. Retrieved from: https://www.gsma.com/newsroom/press-release/number-mobile-subscribers-worldwide-hits-5-billion/
Gu, X., & Hunt, R. (2005). Wireless LAN attacks and vulnerabilities. the proceeding of IASTED Networks and Communication Systems.
Ijemaru, G. K., Adeyanju, I. A., Olusunyi, K. O., Ofusori, T. J., Ngharamike, E. T., Sobowale, A. A. (2018). Security Challenges of Wireless Communications Networks: A Survey. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13 (8): 5680 – 5692.
IJEMARU, G. K., UDUNWA, A. I., NGHARAMIKE, E. T., & OLEKA, E. U. (2015). Evaluating the Challenging Issues in the Security of Wireless Communication Networks in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Vol. 3, Issue 12, pp. 1-5, 2014.
Jain, A. (2013). Network Security-The Biggest Challenge in Communication. Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. Research India Publications.
Protecting U.S. Skies and Airports: Israeli security Methods in U.S. Airports
As Gaines and Miller (2013) point out, American security forces focus on finding weapons while Israeli security focuses on finding terrorists. The difference gets to the heart of why the Israeli system is so much more efficient. However, Israel has … population of 8 million—less than that of New York City. And New York City is home to just one of many hubs and international airports in the U.S. Approximately 17 million travelers flew into Ben-Gurion Airport in Israel last year, as well—which is about a third of … as big and open to the rest of the world as the U.S. The fact of the matter is, too, that Israel’s airport security is really only different from that of the U.S. in terms of place and intensity—and who is scrutinized. In the U.S. everyone is … the special……
Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Nelson Education.
Haaretz & Reuters. (2017). U.S. Airport Security Is Becoming a Bit More Israeli Today –Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s What You Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/u-s-airport-security-rules-are-changing-today-here-s-what-you-need-to-know-1.5460568
Hasisi, B., Margalioth, Y., & Orgad, L. (2012). Ethnic profiling in airport screening: Lessons from Israel, 1968–2010. American law and economics review, 14(2), 517-560.
Lowrey, A. (2010, January 8). Foreign policy: The costs of Israel level security [Opinion]. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122352039
NBC. (2018). NYC-Area Airports Set Record for Passenger Traffic, Rank Among Worst in U.S. for On-Time Performance. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/JFK-LaGuardia-Newark-Airports-Record-Passenger-Traffic-Worst-On-Time-Performance-475559363.html
Zeff, M. (2017). 2016 record year for Israeli air traffic. Retrieved from https://www.jpost.com/Business-and-Innovation/2016-record-year-for-Israeli-air-traffic-477180
… much to these crimes and, hence, must come up with plans to prevent such future occurrences. In this paper, the processes information technology security audits entail and how such audits enhance organizational IT security will be dealt with. According to research on the subject, IT security auditing constitutes a significant step in the safeguarding of corporate data against cybercrime, data breaches, and fraud. It must be performed from time … data, which also creates considerable risks to the data itself, computer systems, and critical infrastructures and operations it supports. Despite developments in information security, numerous information systems continue to display susceptibility to both external and internal breaches (Suduc, Bîzoi & Filip, 2010). Internal information security auditing enhances the likelihood of implementation of suitable security measures for averting such breaches and reducing their adverse impacts.
Two classes of risks exist, against which corporate information systems require protection: logical……
Almatari, O. and Helal, I., and Mazen, S., and El Hennawy, S. (2018). \\\\\\"Cybersecurity Tools for IS Auditing.\\\\\\" The 6th International Conference on Enterprise Systems, At Limassol, Cyprus 10.1109/ES.2018.00040.
Davis, W. S., & Yen, D. C. (Eds.). (2019). The information system consultant\\\\\\'s handbook: Systems analysis and design. CRC press.
Diamantopoulou, V., Tsohou, A., & Karyda, M. (2019). From ISO/IEC 27002: 2013 Information Security Controls to Personal Data Protection Controls: Guidelines for GDPR Compliance. In Computer Security (pp. 238-257). Springer, Cham.
Khan, M. (2017). Computer security in the human life. International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), 6(1), 35-42.
Lenghel, R. D., & Vlad, M. P. (2017). INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDITING. Quaestus, (11), 178.
Manaseer, S., & Alawneh, A. (2019). ON CYBERSECURITY AUDITING AWARENESS: CASE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), 17(7).
Suduc, A. M., Bîzoi, M., & Filip, F. G. (2010). Audit for information systems security. Informatica Economica, 14(1), 43.
… Before the September 11 attacks, Americans had never experienced a large scale terrorist incident within their country’s borders. Moreover, most local and state security agencies had no experience with such attacks and were, therefore, very ill-prepared to respond to them. The only historic attacks or incidents that … significant way to prevent such attacks from reoccurring. This is what resulted in major changes in the United States government’s foreign and domestic security policies. It also led to the government getting into several wars and supporting various governments and militias across the world to fight its … paper reviews some of the key government reactions to the September 11 attacks and the role of the private sector in the country’s security policy after the attacks.
Public Opinion After 9/11 Attack
After the September 11 attacks, most Americans called for and supported the creation of … the attacks.
Public Opinion After……
Chanley, V. (2002). Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences. Political Psychology, 23(3), 469-483. Retrieved May 11, 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3792588
Dugulin, R., & Niglia, A. (2015, May 17). The private sector in the protection of critical infrastructure - GRI. Global Risk Insights. https://globalriskinsights.com/2015/05/the-private-sectors-vital-role-in-the-protection-of-critical-infrastructure/
Gramlich, J. (2018, September 11). Since 9/11, Americans have seen anti-terrorism policy as a top priority. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/09/11/defending-against-terrorism-has-remained-a-top-policy-priority-for-americans-since-9-11/
Morgan, D. (2019). Homeland Security Research and Development: Homeland Security Issues in the 116th Congress. Current Politics and Economics of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 21(1), 43-46.
Moteff, J., Copeland, C., & Fischer, J. (2003, January). Critical infrastructures: What makes an infrastructure critical?. Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
… that seem to have a step forward in adopting technological solutions. As a result of this growth and development in technological solutions, the security of data and other sensitive information has increasingly become a huge concern for the industry (Bueger, 2015). security has become a priority for the maritime industry. With many of the operational and critical system having already been digitized, automated, and integrated, … and integrated, the concern has now shifted to how entities within the maritime industry should implement appropriate procedures and policies to respond to security incidents effectively.
security refers to the ability of entities to prepare for possible attacks initiated through the internet, react to those attacks, and be able to … prepare for possible attacks initiated through the internet, react to those attacks, and be able to recover from those cyber incidents (Kimberly, 2018). security in the maritime industry is not an……
Bowen, B.M. (2011). Measuring the Human Factor of Cyber Security. Rerieved from http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~bmbowen/papers/metrics_hst.pdf
Bueger, C. (2015). What is Maritime Security? Maritime Policy, 53, 159-164.
Fitton, O. P. (2015). The Future of Maritime Cyber Security. Retrieved from https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/72696/1/Cyber_Operations_in_the_Maritime_Environment_v2.0.pdf
Hadlington, L. (2018). The \\\\\\"Human Factor\\\\\\" in cybersecurity: Exploring the accidental insider. Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security, 4(6), 46-63.
Hareide, O. S. (2018). Enhancing Navigator Competence By Demonstrating Maritime Cyber Security. The Journal of Navigation, 71(5), 1025-1039.
Hayes, C. R. (2016). Maritime Cybersecurity: The Future of National Security. Monterey, California: Naval Post Graduate School.
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(2), 49-60.
Hoffmann, J. (2018). Review of Maritime Transport. New York: UNCTAD.
The private security industry will become generalists in the next century. The industry must be well versed in a number of disciplines. It must base its … a number of disciplines. It must base its operations and decisions on demographic and economic trends, and rapid technological changes. Traditionally, the private security industry focused mainly on security and safety of its subjects. Although they continue to be a major focus of the industry, prevailing trends indicate that the industry requires … areas to become successful. The additional areas include, but are not limited to law, computers and management (Dempsey, 2008).
Current and future private security companies require extensive knowledge of the law. Legislations governing the industry have either been passed by various states or in the processed of … passed by various states or in the processed of being passed. Furthermore, several federal laws indirectly or directly affect management of the……
Dempsey, John S. Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008. Print.
Encyclopedia of Security Management: Techniques & Technology. Place of publication not identified: Elsevier Science, Inc, 1993. Print.
Nemeth, C.P. (2018), Private Security: An Introduction to Principles and Practices, CRC Press
Nemeth, Charles. Private Security and the Law. , 2011. Internet resource.
… second such directive the Administration had issued. The Quadrennial Defense Review in 2010 emphasized on how WMD’s proliferation was a threat to global security. In April of the same year, the Administration unclassified the Nuclear Posture Review for the first time and it was released alongside the … created. These attacks have the potential to cause a lot of social and economic disruption and lead to the infection of humans…[break]…domestic and international security. Going forward, there is need for a more collaborative effort between all concerned agencies that stresses on consistency in both policy and actions. … posed by non-state actors (Jennings 2013, 6).
Methods of Evaluation
There is need to put in place frameworks that can integrate domestic and international security efforts more effectively. To this end, there will be a policy analysis to identify the alternatives and options available. The data for this … alternatives and options……
Busch, Nathan, and Joyner, Daniel (ed). 2009. “Introduction: Nonproliferation at a Crossroads.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of Nonproliferation Policy. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Reiss, Mitchell. 2009. “Foreword.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of Nonproliferation Policy. Edited by Nathan Busch, and Daniel Joyner. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.
Cameron, Gavin, Pate, Jason & Vogel, Kathleen. (2001). “Planting Fear: How Real is the Threat of Agricultural Terrorism?” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 57(5), 38-44.
Jennings, Elain. 2013. U. S. proliferation policy and the campaign against transnational terror: Linking the U.S. non-proliferation regime to homeland security efforts. Master’s Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School.
Levi, Michael. 2009. “On Nuclear Terrorism.” Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Mauroni, Albert. J. 2010. “A Counter-WMD Strategy for the Future.” Parameters, 58-73.
Ogilvie-White, Tanya. 2008. “Facilitating Implementation of Resolution 1540 in South- East Asia, and the South Pacific.” In Implementing Resolution 1540: The Role of Regional Organizations. Edited by Lawrence Scheinman. New York: United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
Pilat Joseph F. 2009. “Dealing with Proliferation and Terrorism.” In Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Future of International Nonproliferation Policy, edited by Nathan E. Busch and Daniel H. Joyner. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
The assassination of Major General Qassem Soleimani
In early 2020, January 3, the U.S. launched airstrike attacks around Baghdad international Airport and killed two of the most influential leaders in Iran, Iraq, and the surrounding regions. The strike killed Qassem Soleimani, the Islamic … killing of General Soleiman amounted to inhibiting the U.S. interest in the region or promoted it, 3) whether the act constituted what the international Law refers to state-sponsored terrorism.
Soleiman was considered the brainchild and facilitator of the extensive reach of Iran in the region. He, indeed, … insurrection (Vladeck, 2004).
When the strike on Soleimani was ordered, there was no briefing on the legality of the attack. Nevertheless, the National security Advisor of the Trump Administration, Robert O' Brien, invoked the 2002 Authorization for the Use of Military Force when the war against Saddam … a united government. Thus, Trump failed in his executive……
Jahanbani, N. (2020). Beyond Soleimani: Implications for Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Proxy Network in Iraq and Syria. CTC Perspectives.
Vladeck, S. I. (2004). Emergency Power and the Militia Acts. Yale LJ, 114, 149.
Brands, H. (2019). Why America Can\\\\\\\\\\\\" t Quit the Middle East. Hoover Institution, 21.
Tillman, S. P. (1982). The United States in the Middle East: Interests and Obstacles (Vol. 82). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Terry, J. P. (1986). Countering State-Sponsored Terrorism: A Law-Policy Analysis. Naval L. Rev., 36, 159.
Maogoto, J. N. (2003). War on the enemy: self-defense and state-sponsored terrorism. Melb. J. Int\\\\\\\\\\\\'l L., 4, 406.
Lillich, R. B., & Paxman, J. M. (1976). State Responsibility for Injuries to Aliens Occasioned by Terrorist Activities. Am. U.L. Rev., 26, 217.
Parker, C. & Noack, R. (2020, January 2). Iran has invested in allies and proxies across the Middle East. Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s where they stand after Soleimani\\\\\\\\\\\\'s death. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/03/iran-has-invested-allies-proxies-across-middle-east-heres-where-they-stand-after-soleimanis-death/
The Influence of the PRC
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is the state that most influences contemporary international security. The globalization of the Communist superpower projects brings employment and economic growth. Since joining the World Trade Organization, China has become an increasingly … the Communist Party began the process of opening up China’s economy, but did so without opening up much else in Chinese society (“The international of China’s Economy). By 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization, and at that time it was already growing its economy rapidly. Since … that, especially if the US perceives that its interests in Asia are threatened by the PRC’s growing power.
The structural realist approach to international relations holds that the balance of power and competition between nations is the most important aspect of international politics, and it appears that the US and PRC leadership share a the realist view.……
Chatzky, A. & McBride, J. (2019) China’s massive Belt and Road Initiative. Council on Foreign Relations. In possession of the author.
“China as a Trading State” (n.d.) In possession of the author. s
“Foreign Direct Investment” (n.d.) In possession of the author.
Global Times (2018) Best strategic opportunity since the Cold War. Global Times. In possession of the author.
Hoffman, S. (2002) Clash of globalizations. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2002. 105-115.
Morrison, W. (2017) China’s economic rise: History, trends, challenges, and implications for the United States. Congressional Research Service. September 15, 2017. In possession of the author.
NIC (2017) Paradox of progress. National Intelligence Council. In possession of the author.
Pollack, J. (no date). Competing visions: China, America and the Asia-Pacific Security Order. In possession of the author.
...International security Poor Children, the Problem of Drug Therapy and Possible Alternatives
Foster children are more likely than children in the general population to have mental health issues (Polihronakis, 2008). Part of the reason for this is that foster children are in foster care because they have been neglected in their own homes, their parents are incapable of providing food, love, shelter and nourishment, and they are in need of a nurturing environment. Many of them will have experienced a traumatic event, or the transition from one home to another will be traumatic—and so they end up suffering from mental health problems. It is estimated that approximately 8 out of every 10 children in foster care have mental health issues, as opposed to 2 out of 10 children in the rest of the population (NCSL, 2019). For that reason, youths in foster homes and/or those who grow up in poverty are……
Broaddus, M. E. (2017). A Demonstration Project to Address Juvenile Drug Addiction.
Graduate Thesis, Bellarmine.
Korry, E. (2015). California Moves To Stop Misuse Of Psychiatric Meds In Foster Care.
Kutz, G. D. (2011). Foster Children: HHS Guidance Could Help States Improve
Oversight of Psychotropic Prescriptions: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, US Senate. US Government Accountability Office.
National Foster Youth Institute. (2017). Aging out of foster care. Retrieved from
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