Research Ethics Essays (Examples)


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Psychology And The Role Of Ethics

Pages: 6 (1774 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:14642099

… usually pose societal, interpersonal, professional, emotional, and intellectual challenges to psychologists. Furthermore, every psychologist can act unethically and harm their clients. In brief, ethics is important in the field of psychology, for it guides psychologists and various aspects of the field they are married to.
ethics, as a field, emerged from the inquiries about moral life by ancient Greek philosophers. The term ethics is now described as a set of principles or a system that can significantly alter previous considerations regarding choices and actions. Philosophers argue … now described as a set of principles or a system that can significantly alter previous considerations regarding choices and actions. Philosophers argue that ethics is a sub-discipline of philosophy that deals with the dynamics of what is right and what is wrong when making decisions. Concerning research, ethics is an evolving field; some of the research practices that were tolerated and supported……



Hardicre, J. (2014). An overview of research ethics and learning from the past. British Journal of Nursing, 23(9), 483-486.

Kjellström, S., Ross, S. N., & Fridlund, B. (2010). Research ethics in dissertations: ethical issues and complexity of reasoning. Journal of medical ethics, 36(7), 425-430.

Simelane-Mnisi, S. (2018). Role and importance of ethics in research.  Ensuring research integrity and the ethical management of data (pp. 1-13). IGI Global.

Smith, D. (2003). Five principles for research ethics. Monitor on Psychology, 34(1), 56.

Resnik, D. B. (2015). What is ethics in research & why is it important? Retrieved May 26, 2020, from 

Walsh, R. T. (2015). Introduction to ethics in psychology: Historical and philosophical grounding. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 35(2), 69.


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Intelligence Oversight Ethics

Pages: 11 (3311 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:23829007

This literature review first looks at the history if intelligence oversight (IO) and then explains the current problem it faces in terms of ethics and the arrival of the Digital Age, which has complicated the matter. It next synthesizes the literature on what the various ethical theories … next synthesizes the literature on what the various ethical theories are and how this further complicates the issue of IO. Finally, it discusses research on the fundamentals of ethics and gives recommendations for future research.
History of IO
The history of IO begins with the purpose for which it was established, which was to safeguard the privacy and … intelligence functions most effectively (Ford 2006, 721). The question that has always been at the forefront of IO, however, is the question of ethics. As Goldman (2013) notes, as far back as 1929 this question of ethics and its role in intelligence……



Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35.2 (2012), 77-99.

Brown, William F., and Americo R. Cinquegrana. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Warrantless Physical Searches for Foreign Intelligence Purposes: Executive Order 12,333 and the Fourth Amendment.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Cath. UL Rev. 35 (1985): 97.

Cantarella, Michele. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Intelligence ethics in the digital age.\\\\\\\\\\\\" (2016).

Congressional Research Service, “CIA Ethics Education: Background and Perspectives” (2018).

Ferrari, Rachel. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Moral Relativism and Dangerous Ethical Dilemmas in the US Intelligence Community.\\\\\\\\\\\\" (2018).

Ford, Christopher M. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Intelligence Demands in a Democratic State: Congressional Intelligence Oversight.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Tul. L. Rev. 81 (2006): 721.

Goldman, Jan. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Teaching About Intelligjence and Ethics.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Journal of US Intelligence Studies 20, no. 2 (2013): 79.

Hayes, Jonathan. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Cinema of Oliver Stone: Art, Authorship and Activism by Ian


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Code Of Ethics For Managers In Acquisition

Pages: 11 (3162 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:25977313

… a devastating impact on economies, and on the effectiveness of government. For that reason, it is best practice to have a code of ethics for managers who are involved in acquisitions, purchasing and contracts. Ethical lapses contribute to a wide array of issues, including waste, a decline … or economy.
Combatting corruption is a complex task, but one of the elements of this task is to develop an effective code of ethics to govern acquisitions. Managers who are involved in acquisitions would then need to adhere to this code of ethics, and their performance could be weighed against it. Yet, there is little research that has been conducted to define the elements of an effective code of ethics for managers in acquisition. This research paper will examine this topic, and seek to identify some of the key elements of an effective code of ethics that governments can implement in……



Adelstein, J. & Clegg, S. (2016) Code of ethics: A stratified vehicle for compliance. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 138 (1) 53-66.

Lazeros, M. (2008) Leaders can learn from Druyun’s ethical lapses and their consequences. USAWC Research Project. Retrieved October 25, 2019 from 

McConnnell, A. & Rood, T. (1997) Ethics in government: A survey of misuse of position for personal gain and its implications for developing acquisition strategy. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 16 (1997) 1107-1116.

McConnell, T. (2018). Moral dilemmas. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved October 25, 2019 from 

Neu, D., Everett, J. & Rahaman, A. (2015) Preventing corruption within government procurement: Constructing the disciplined and ethical subject. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. Vol. 28 (2015) 49-61.


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Healthcare Ethics Bioethics Decisions

Pages: 5 (1545 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Case Study Document #:55208071

Problem Statement
Organs are rare and expensive resources. Distributing these resources equitably remains one of the most pressing dilemmas in ethics. Given that the dying patient did consent to organ donation, the primary ethical dilemmas in this case arise when determining the recipient. The … tempting to choose an infant based on a raw emotional response, but Mario’s condition might not be resolved with the liver transplant. More research would be needed into the implications of having biliary atresia, to determine whether the infant would have trouble with bile production even with … and justice. However, confidentiality or nonmaleficence re often included to make four guiding principles that can be applied to difficult situations (“Principlesd of ethics,” n.d.). These ethical principles are based…[break]…candidate than Michael.
Before making any decision, the healthcare team needs to conduct a more thorough examination ……



“Ethical Theory and Bioethics,” (n.d.).

“Principles of Ethics,” (n.d.).

Steinbock, B., London, A.J. & Arras, J.D. (n.d.). Ethical issues in modern medicine. 8th edition. McGraw Hill.


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C Suite Executive Leadership And Ethics

Pages: 9 (2693 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:16009984

… and humility.
The subject of this interview holds ethical beliefs that align with universal principles, while veering more towards the philosophy of character ethics. As Crossan, Mazutis & Seijts (2013) point out, character ethics or virtue ethics can prove to be a more sensible model or framework for guiding the decisions made by leaders. Unlike deontological or utilitarian ethical frameworks, … be a more sensible model or framework for guiding the decisions made by leaders. Unlike deontological or utilitarian ethical frameworks, virtue and character ethics demand self-reflection, the willingness to change, and the ability to act based on intrinsic motivation to do the right thing. At the same … intrinsic motivation to do the right thing. At the same time, Linden agrees that a formal ethical code remains essential in any organization. research substantiates the subject’s belief in a formal ethical code that outlines behavioral guidelines and the ramifications……



Bailey, C. & Shantz, A. (2018). Creating an ethically strong organization. MIT Sloan Management Review.

Crossan, M., Mazutis, D. & Seijts, G. (2013). In search of virtue. Journal of Business Ethics 113(4): 567-581.

Hatcher, T. (2008). The value of values in the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 97-122.

Hoekstra, E., Bell, A. & Peterson, S.R. (2008). Humility in Leadership: Abandoning the Pursuit of Unattainable Perfection. In S.A. Quatro & R. R. Sims (Eds.), Executive Ethics: Ethical Dilemmas and Challenges for the C-Suite. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, pp. 79-96.

MacDougall, A.E., Bagdarasov, Z. & Buckley, M.R. (2008). Applying a primary risk management model to the C-suite. In Sims, R.R. & Quatro, S.A. (Eds.) Executive Ethics. Second Edition. Charlotte: IAP, pp. 211-234.

Martin, R. (2011). The CEO\\\\'s ethical dilemma in the era of earnings management. Strategy & Leadership 39(6): 43-47.

Schwartz, M.S. (2013). Developing and sustaining an ethical corporate culture: The core elements. Business Horizons 56(1): 39-50.


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Discriminating Between Phenomenology And Grounded Theory Qualitative

Pages: 7 (2226 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Case Study Document #:86692193

Phenomenology and Grounded Theory Approaches
Both phenomenology and grounded theory are commonly used approaches to qualitative research in the social sciences. While grounded theory and phenomenology can sometimes be used simultaneously in ways that “slur” or “blur” the distinction between … sciences. While grounded theory and phenomenology can sometimes be used simultaneously in ways that “slur” or “blur” the distinction between multiple qualitative methods, research in education should ultimately focus their attention on the best method for exploring single, focused research questions and their real-world applications (Baker, Wuest, & Stern, 1992, p. 1355). Grounded theory has been described as a “practical method for conducting … questions and their real-world applications (Baker, Wuest, & Stern, 1992, p. 1355). Grounded theory has been described as a “practical method for conducting research” that shows how people construct meaning about their social world (Suddaby, 2006, p. 633). Therefore, grounded theory is sociological in origin……



Baker, C., Wuest, J., & Stern, P. N. (1992). Method slurring: the grounded theory/phenomenology example. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(11), 1355–1360.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01859.x 

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. eBook.

Norton, S.M. (2013). A phenomenological investigation into the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers who have presisted in the teaching profession. Liberty University Dissertation.

Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose Your Method: A Comparison of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, and Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380.doi:10.1177/1049732307307031 

Suddaby, R. (2006). From the Editors: What Grounded Theory is Not. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 633–642.doi:10.5465/amj.2006.22083020 

Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2001). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(6): 1485-1492.

Yalof, B. (2014). Marshaling resources. The Grounded Theory Review 13(1).


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The Ethics Of Clandestine Operations

Pages: 11 (3151 words) Sources: 14 Document Type:literature review Document #:69864024

ethics of Clandestine Intelligence Operations
One of the most common yet least understood methods of operations in the art of statecraft is the … that are not supportive of a unified aim or of a particular administration’s policy, as Warner and McDonald (2005) point out in their research. The Overview of the United States Intelligence Community for the 111th Congress (2009) states, for instance, that “the National Clandestine Service (NCS) has … managing these operations are not necessarily going to be working together or sharing intelligence or even pursuing the same ends simultaneously.
In their research on this issue, Warner and McDonald (2005) note that these various intelligence agencies can be politicized, meaning their actions may not always be … War when in the aftermath of 9/11 there was a push by an inner “cabal,” as Seymour Hersh (2003) called it in his research on the post-9/11 wars and……



Arnold, A. and D. Salisbury. The Long Arm, 2019. Retrieved from

Barker, Michael J. \\\\\\"Democracy or polyarchy? US-funded media developments in Afghanistan and Iraq post 9/11.\\\\\\" Media, Culture & Society 30, no. 1 (2008): 109-130.

Best, Richard A. Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress, 2002.

Carter, Ashton B. \\\\\\"Overhauling counterproliferation.\\\\\\" Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3

(2004): 257-269.

Crumpton, Henry A. The art of intelligence: lessons from a life in the CIA\\\\\\'s clandestine service. Penguin, 2013.

Hersh, Seymour. Selective Intelligence. The New Yorker, 2003. 

McCormick, G. H., & Owen, G. “Security and coordination in a clandestine organization.” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 31, no. 6-7 (2000), 175-192.


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The Cost Effectiveness In Cloud Computing Within An Accounting Organization

Pages: 15 (4615 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:23416384

… of Cloud Computing within an Accounting Organization
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 4
1.1 Background 4
1.2 Significance of the Topic 4
1.3 research Problem 5
1.4 research Questions 5
1.5 Purpose of the Study 5
1.6 Methodology 5
1.7 Good Title for Study 5
2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Cloud …
2.4.1 Cost-Savings 9
2.4.2 Remote Accessibility 10
2.4.3 Scalability and Flexibility 11
2.4.4 Security 11
2.4.5 Energy Efficiency 11
3 Methodology 12
3.1 research Approach and Design 12
3.2 Data Collection Sources & Selection Plan 12
3.3 Proposed Interview Questions 13
3.4 Sample Population 13
3.5 Ethical … of day and from varying geographical areas. Ultimately, this provides the organization with a competitive advantage because the business operations continue running smoothly.
research Problem
In the present day, the advancement of globalization has significantly increased the level of competition in industries and sectors. Multinational companies in … computing……



Bauer, E., & Adams, R. (2015). Reliability and availability of cloud computing. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Chang, W. Y., Abu-Amara, H., & Sanford, J. F. (2018). Transforming enterprise cloud services. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Chang, V. (Ed.). (2015). Delivery and adoption of cloud computing Services in Contemporary Organizations. IGI Global.

Hsien, W. F., Yang, C. C., & Hwang, M. S. (2016). A Survey of Public Auditing for Secure Data Storage in Cloud Computing. IJ Network Security, 18(1), 133-142.

Jamsa, K. (2016). Cloud computing. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Maguire, M., & Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step-by-step guide for learning and teaching scholars. AISHE-J: The All Ireland Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 9(3).

Mehmood, R., Katib, S. S. I., & Chlamtac, I. (2020). Smart Infrastructure and Applications. New York: Springer International Publishing.

Prabhu, C. S. R. (2015). E-governance: concepts and case studies. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.


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Counterintelligence Issues Within The United States

Pages: 18 (5457 words) Sources: 29 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:72238996

… Intelligence
CI Literature Review
The aim of this examination of the literature is to fill the wide gap that remains in counterintelligence research regarding an appropriate ethical standard that can guide and foster an ethical culture, as called for by Bellaby (2012) and Valentine (2016). The … by Bellaby (2012) and Valentine (2016). The purpose of this review is to identify the lessons that have been learned and presented by research on this topic, and to identify an appropriate theoretical framework for assessing the way forward. The research question for this study is: How can the US counterintelligence enterprise support collaboration among the various USIC members and the private sector in … 21st century. Therefore, the themes this review will examine are: 1) the problematic nature of deception in intelligence work; 2) the role of ethics in counterintelligence; 3) a framework for analyzing the past; and 4) the……



2020-2022 National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States. 2020. Washington, DC: National Counterintelligence and Security Center

Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. 2012. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35 (2): 77-99.

Bernardi, Beatrice. 2013. "The Role of Intelligence in the Fight Against International Terrorism: Legal Profiles." Bachelor's thesis, Università Ca'Foscari Venezia.

Carson, Thomas L. 2010. Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press.

Cohen, Shlomo. 2016. "Are There Moral Limits to Military Deception?." Philosophia 44 (4): 1305-1318.

Coyne, John, Peter Bell, and Shannon Merrington. 2013. "Exploring ethics in intelligence and the role of leadership." Interntional Journal of Business and Commerce 2 (10): 27-37.

Erskine, Toni. 2004. "'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul'? Moral Agents and Intelligence Gathering." Intelligence & National Security 19 (2): 359-381.

Godson, Roy, and James J. Wirtz. 2000. "Strategic denial and deception." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13 (4): 424-437.


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Ethical Issues In Reporting

Pages: 2 (694 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:41848263

ethics and ethical behavior can be taught, just as one can teach right and wrong to a child. A child without such an education … such an education is more likely to stumble into deviant behavior, and the same goes for an adult who is not trained in ethics and what constitutes ethical behavior. The whole point of Socrates’ teaching the youth of Athens was to train their minds and wills so … their minds and wills so that they can pursue the higher, nobler truths and live a life that aligned with the Good. Were ethics and ethical behavior incapable of being taught, Socrates would not have succeeded in laying the foundation of Western philosophy, his pupil Plato would … Western philosophy, his pupil Plato would not have succeeded in his school, and Aristotle would not have proceeded with his framework for virtue ethics and the school of character……



Bedi, A., Alpaslan, C. M., & Green, S. (2016). A meta-analytic review of ethical leadership outcomes and moderators. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(3), 517-536.

Holyoke, T. T., Brown, H., & LaPira, T. M. (2015). Learnable skills, or unteachable instinct? What can and what cannot be taught in the lobbying profession. Interest Groups & Advocacy, 4(1), 7-24.

Kalshoven, K., van Dijk, H., & Boon, C. (2016). Why and when does ethical leadership evoke unethical follower behavior?. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(2), 500-515.

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