Research Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Research On Cancer

Pages: 1 (183 words) Document Type:abstract Document #:22632410

… paper reviews of literature on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor. It examines potential prevention strategies and discusses recent research findings as well as important conclusions regarding HPV as a major but preventable risk factor for cervical cancer. The etiological connection between the … should prevention strategies be implemented. However, the implementation of these strategies will depend upon women and adolescent girls undergoing screening tests. Thus, the research shows that progress has been made in treating and preventing HPV-related cervical cancer, but more studies are needed to see whether these strategies ……

Study Document

Understanding The Value Of Qualitative Research

Pages: 6 (1754 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:52738822

Understanding the Value of Qualitative Research
Qualitative researchers have a number of different research strategies available to them, including case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory and ethnography. Each of these research strategies has its respective strengths and weaknesses, but ethnography in particular represents a special challenge since it seeks to learn more about a … insider. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to identify and describe and benefits of ethnographical research as a strategy for developing a better understanding concerning the lived experiences of others. A critique of Dr. Loïc Wacquant’s ethnographical work and … Loïc Wacquant’s ethnographical work and a discussion concerning its implications for social change are followed by a description concerning the potential impact of research in supporting positive social change through public policy in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Role of the qualitative researcher
The role of the……



Abrahams, M. (2011, March 10). Boxing proves a hit for French sociologist. The Guardian. Retrieved from .

Asselin, M. E. (2009, March-April). Insider research: Issues to consider when doing qualitative research in your own setting. Nurses in Professional Development, 19(2), 99-103.

Burress, C. (2003, December 8). UC’s ‘boxing sociologist’ / Combative French professor spent 3 years in ring. SFGate. Retrieved from .

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Retrieved from 

Ishioka, T. (2015, March). How can one be a boxer?: Pain and pleasure in a Manila boxing camp. International Journal of Japanese Sociology, 24(1), 92-105.

Neuman, W. L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Wacquant, L. (2011). Habitus as topic and tool: Reflections on becoming a prizefighter. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 8(1), 81-92.

Study Document

Discriminating Between Phenomenology And Grounded Theory Qualitative

Pages: 7 (2226 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Case Study Document #:86692193

Phenomenology and Grounded Theory Approaches
Both phenomenology and grounded theory are commonly used approaches to qualitative research in the social sciences. While grounded theory and phenomenology can sometimes be used simultaneously in ways that “slur” or “blur” the distinction between … sciences. While grounded theory and phenomenology can sometimes be used simultaneously in ways that “slur” or “blur” the distinction between multiple qualitative methods, researchers in education should ultimately focus their attention on the best method for exploring single, focused research questions and their real-world applications (Baker, Wuest, & Stern, 1992, p. 1355). Grounded theory has been described as a “practical method for conducting … questions and their real-world applications (Baker, Wuest, & Stern, 1992, p. 1355). Grounded theory has been described as a “practical method for conducting research” that shows how people construct meaning about their social world (Suddaby, 2006, p. 633). Therefore, grounded theory is sociological in origin……



Baker, C., Wuest, J., & Stern, P. N. (1992). Method slurring: the grounded theory/phenomenology example. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(11), 1355–1360.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1992.tb01859.x 

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. eBook.

Norton, S.M. (2013). A phenomenological investigation into the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers who have presisted in the teaching profession. Liberty University Dissertation.

Starks, H., & Brown Trinidad, S. (2007). Choose Your Method: A Comparison of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, and Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380.doi:10.1177/1049732307307031 

Suddaby, R. (2006). From the Editors: What Grounded Theory is Not. Academy of Management Journal, 49(4), 633–642.doi:10.5465/amj.2006.22083020 

Wimpenny, P. & Gass, J. (2001). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing 31(6): 1485-1492.

Yalof, B. (2014). Marshaling resources. The Grounded Theory Review 13(1).

Study Document

Developing A Research Hypothesis

Pages: 8 (2368 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Essay Document #:36304259

Developing a researchable question is one of the challenging tasks a researcher encounters when initiating a project. In current clinical practice, both unanswered issues or when experiences dictate alternative therapies may provoke an investigator to … a project. In current clinical practice, both unanswered issues or when experiences dictate alternative therapies may provoke an investigator to formulate a clinical research question. This paper describes PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcomes) criteria in framing a research question. Finally, it assesses the characteristics of a peer-reviewed article on urinary tract infections.
Part 1
EBM, shorthand for Evidence-Based Medicine, is a … Evidence-Based Medicine, is a core aspect of the medical profession. EBM provides statistical analyses and matters of clinical concern. It is based on research, reading, analysis, and combining many papers generated within the medical fraternity. EBM applications based on research evidence and clinical knowledge and reviews of the system go……



Considine, J., Shaban, R. Z., Fry, M., & Curtis, K. (2017). Evidence-based emergency nursing: designing a research question and searching the literature. International emergency nursing, 32, 78-82.

Eriksen, M. B., & Frandsen, T. F. (2018). The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 420.

Yuan, X., Xiaoli, L., Shilei, L., Qinwen, S., & Ke, L. (2019, May). Extracting PICO elements from RCT abstracts using 1-2gram analysis and multitask classification. In Proceedings of the third International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics 2019 (pp. 194-199).

Scells, H., Zuccon, G., Koopman, B., Deacon, A., Azzopardi, L., &Geva, S. (2017, November). Integrating the framing of clinical questions via PICO into the retrieval of medical literature for systematic reviews. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 2291-2294).

Basmaci, R., Vazouras, K., Bielicki, J., Folgori, L., Hsia, Y., Zaoutis, T., &Sharland, M. (2017). Urinary tract infection antibiotic trial study design: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 140(6).

Misra, D. P., & Agarwal, V. (2018). Systematic reviews: challenges for their justification, related comprehensive searches, and implications. Journal of Korean medical science, 33(12).

Belcher, B. M., Rasmussen, K. E., Kemshaw, M. R., &Zornes, D. A. (2016). Defining and assessing research quality in a transdisciplinary context. Research Evaluation, 25(1), 1-17.

Fu, D. Y., & Hughey, J. J. (2019). Meta-Research: Releasing a preprint is associated with more attention and citations for the peer-reviewed article. Elife, 8, e52646.

Study Document

Qualitative Methods In Education Research

Pages: 6 (1944 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:88925548

Background of the Issue
Parental involvement has long been established as an important variable in student achievement along various outcome parameters. Prior research has shown that parental involvement can lead to the cultivation of strong reading habits (Castro, Exposito-Casas, Lopez-Martin, et al., 2015), student self-esteem and … with other governmental, human service, and community organizations (Ma, Shen, Krenn, et al., 2015). Therefore, one of the most important subjects in educational research and educational administration is parental involvement. Researchers need to learn how to increase parental involvement in meaningful ways, ways that yield desired outcomes for individual students and also for the … to increase parental involvement in meaningful ways, ways that yield desired outcomes for individual students and also for the school and community. Furthermore, researchers need to learn the best ways of increasing parental involvement while taking into account the socioeconomic and cultural diversity among the population.
Because ………



Benner, A.D., Boyle, A.E. & Sadler, S. (2016). Parental Involvement and Adolescents’ Educational Success: The Roles of Prior Achievement and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 45(6): 1053-1064.

Castro, M., Esposito-Casas, E., Lopez-Martin, E., et al. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 14(2015): 33-46.

Creswell, J.W. & Poth, C.N. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry Research Design. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Hill, N.E., Witherspoon, D.P. & Bartz, D. (2016). Parental involvement in education during middle school: Perspectives of ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and students. The Journal of Educational Research 111(1): 12-27.

Ma, X., Shen, J., Krenn, HY., et al. (2016). A meta-analysis of the relationship between learning outcomes and parental involvement. Educational Psychology Review 28(4): 771-801.

Park, S. & Holloway, S. (2018). Parental Involvement in Adolescents\\' Education: An Examination of the Interplay among School Factors, Parental Role Construction, and Family Income. School Community Journal 28(1): 9-36.

Ule, M., Zivoder, A. & duBois-Reymond, M. (2015). ‘Simply the best for my children’: patterns of parental involvement in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 28(3): 329-348.

Study Document

A Urate Lowering Intervention

Pages: 6 (1735 words) Sources: 30 Document Type:Research Proposal Document #:38504275

… proof from little clinical preliminaries showing the antihypertensive advantage of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in immaturity through LVH relapse and vascular endothelial capacity. This research centers around urate lowering down in hyperuricaemic, and stout hypertensive patients where the principle point is to research using vascular endothelial capacity and LVH relapse methodologies.
Literature Review
This literature review would show an expansion in the commonness of both Hyperuricemia ……

Study Document

Effect Of Training And Re Education On Employee Performance

Pages: 8 (2326 words) Sources: 11 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:51360721

… increase activity that is linked with general performance requirements of the staff and the organization in its entirety.
The main objective of the research is to determine whether training and education influences employee performance in organizations.
Executive Summary
The main objective of this report is to investigate … efficacy levels of employees and their advancement through training are fundamental factors in ascertaining long-standing profitability and endurance in organizational performances. Based on research undertaken by Becker, Huselid and Beatty (2009), in order to retain quality members of staff necessitates a company to invest in the development … meet objectives. In recent times, training, education and development of employees has become a pivotal component within organizations. The main objective of the research report is to determine whether training and education influences employee performance in organizations. The sub-objectives of the study will include the following:
1. … meet the training objectives



Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., & Beatty, R. W. (2009). The differentiated workforce: Translating talent into strategic impact. Harvard Business Press.

Brayfield, A.H. and Crockett, W.H. (1955). Employee attitudes and employee performance. Psychological bulletin, 52(5), p.396.

Dessler, G. and Varrkey, B. (2005). Human Resource Management, 15e. India: Pearson Education India.

Falola, H.O., Osibanjo, A.O. and Ojo, I.S. (2014). Effectiveness of training and development on employees' performance and organisation competitiveness in the nigerian banking industry. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of bra?ov, 7(1), p.161.

Halidu, S.G. (2015). The Impact of Training and Development on Workers’ Productivity. Review Public Administration Management, 3(160).

Keep, E. (2014). Corporate training strategies: the vital component? New Perspectives, pp.109-125.

Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Age International.

Lussier, R. N. (2010). Human relations in organizations: Applications and skill building. McGraw-Hill.

Study Document

Alzhemier S Prevention Healthcare

Pages: 6 (1871 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Research Article Chart Document #:28350849

Research Article Chart
Criteria and Defining Characteristics
Article 1:
Abraham, R. P., Denton, D. A., Al?Assaf, A. S., Rutjes, A. W., Chong, L. Y., … study?
· What is the scope of the study?
· What is the rational for the study?
· What is the hypothesis or research question?
· What key concepts and terms are noted?
· Is a review of the literature provided?
The purpose of this study is … the incidence of dementia may have a significant impact on healthcare costs and the general encumbrance of dementia
There is no hypothesis or research question
The key concepts and terms noted include mild cognitive impairment and dementia
A review of the literature is provided
The purpose of …
The rationale of the study is that dietary factors have been linked to cognitive function in older individuals.
There is not hypothesis or research question delineated in the article……



Abraham, R. P., Denton, D. A., Al?Assaf, A. S., Rutjes, A. W., Chong, L. Y., Malik, M. A., & Tabet, N. (2015). Vitamin and mineral supplementation for prevention of dementia or delaying cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10).

Kwok, T. C. Y., Lam, L. C. W., Sea, M. M. M., Goggins, W., & Woo, J. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of dietetic interventions to prevent cognitive decline in old age hostel residents. European journal of clinical nutrition, 66(10), 1135.

Dangour, A. D., Whitehouse, P. J., Rafferty, K., Mitchell, S. A., Smith, L., Hawkesworth, S., & Vellas, B. (2010). B-vitamins and fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer\\'s disease and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Alzheimer\\'s disease, 22(1), 205-224.

Study Document

Cyber Espionage

Pages: 6 (1662 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:11946972

… provide the context for this study is discussed as well as a review of existing literature on the topic. A qualitative case study research design based on the Just War Theory will be utilized to conduct this research. Data will be collected from professionals in international relations and cyber security as well as existing publications on recent cyber espionage activities by … of professionals within this field and examine existing cases on cyber espionage by China and Russia.
To identify an appropriate representative sample, the researcher will utilize purposive sampling approach. Individuals within the researcher’s professional networks will be contacted and approached to participate in the study based on their knowledge and expertise on the phenomenon being studied. … based on their knowledge and expertise on the phenomenon being studied. Some of the potential ethical issues that could emerge include privacy of research participants and confidentiality. These issues will……



Agarwal A. & CERT-IN. “Cyber Espionage, Infiltration and Combating Techniques.” Indian Computer Emergency Response Team, 2013. 

Banks, W.C. “Cyber Espionage and Electronic Surveillance: Beyond the Media Coverage.” Emory law Journal 66, (2017).

Georgieva, I. “The Unexpected Norm-Setters: Intelligence Agencies in Cyberspace.” Contemporary Security Policy (2019).

Hjortdal, M. “China’s Use of Cyber Warfare: Espionage Meets Strategic Deterrence.” Journal of Strategic Security 4, no. 2 (2011).

Libicki, M. “The Coming of Cyber Espionage Norms.” 9th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, 2017. 

National Counterintelligence and Security Center. “Foreign Economic Espionage in Cyberspace.” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, 2018. 

Rubenstein, D. “Nation State Cyber Espionage and its Impacts.” Washington University in St. Louis, December 2014. 

Weissbrodt, D. “Cyber-Conflict, Cyber-Crime, and Cyber-Espionage.” Minnesota Journal of International Law 22, no. 2 (2013).

Study Document

Virtual Learning Solutions For English As Second Language Students

Pages: 11 (3230 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:70086670

...Research How Technology Enhances ESL Students’ Learning Experience
In the COVID-19 era, education has taken a dramatic turn towards distance learning, meaning that virtual classrooms are now more popular than ever. But what is the effect of the use of technology in an ESL classroom? Evidence shows that technology actually does enhance ESL students’ learning experience (Kasapoglu-Akyol, 2010). The fact is that ESL students use technology tools in their daily lives and thus not to use technology for learning purposes is akin to taking a fish out of water and then asking it to learn to swim. In the digital era, digital natives have been using technology since birth and it is older teachers and educational systems that are slow to recognize this fact. This paper will show how technology enhances ESL students' learning experience related to ESL instructional practices and analyze how that topic or trend impacts the district,……



Alvarez-Marinelli, H., Blanco, M., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B. J., Tong, F., Stanley, K., & Fan, Y. (2016). Computer assisted English language learning in Costa Rican elementary schools: an experimental study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(1), 103-126.

Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. NY: Routledge.

Cassady, J. C., Smith, L. L., & Thomas, C. L. (2017). Supporting emergent literacy for English language learners with computer?assisted instruction. Journal of Research in Reading.

Jiang, H., Tang, M., Peng, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Learning design and technology through social networks for high school students in China. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28(1), 189-206.

Kahai, S. S., Carroll, E., & Jestice, R. (2007). Team collaboration in virtual worlds. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 38(4), 61-68.

Kasapo?lu-Akyol, P. (2010). Using educational technology tools to improve language and communication skills of ESL students. Novitas-Royal, 4(2).

Meskill, G., & Mossop, J. (2003). Technologies use with learners of ESL in New Your State: Preliminary report. Retrieved from 

Park, J. Y. (2011). Design education online: Learning delivery and evaluation. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 30(2), 176-187.

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