Pages:8 (2368 words)
Developing a researchable question is one of the challenging tasks a researcher encounters when initiating a project. In current clinical practice, both unanswered issues or when experiences dictate alternative therapies may provoke an investigator to formulate a clinical research question. This paper describes PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcomes) criteria in framing a research question. Finally, it assesses the characteristics of a peer-reviewed article on urinary tract infections.
EBM, shorthand for Evidence-Based Medicine, is a core aspect of the medical profession. EBM provides statistical analyses and matters of clinical concern. It is based on research, reading, analysis, and combining many papers generated within the medical fraternity. EBM applications based on research evidence and clinical knowledge and reviews of the system go a long way in improving clinical decisions. Usually, the PICO guideline is applied in developing a comprehensive, focused definition of clinical concern. In such a system, clinical problems are broken into four parts, i.e., the P: patient/problem; I; intervention; C: comparison; O: outcome (Yuan et al., 2019).
PICO is a framework for creating an effective clinical research question before commencing research. PICO is. A Mnemonic applied in the description of a sound foreground question in clinical studies. Such a question must identify the population or the patient targeted in the study, the intervention measures intended, how each intervention compares with another where applicable, and results expected. The PICO process begins with a case scenario, which helps formulate the research question. The question must relate closely to the case scenario and be designed to help find an answer. After a question is formed properly, the researcher is placed in a better situation to run studies and dig into the available literature for evidence that will anchor their PICO question (Eriksen & Frandsen, 2018).
Although there are other models, including SPIDER, SPICE, sample, design evaluation, and the phenomenon of interest, PICO is the most commonly applied technique in formulating research questions. PICO is used because of three advantages, i.e., i. it directs the questioner to concentrate on only what the patient believes to be the most significant matter and outcome, ii. It provides a platform for the next step, which is a computerized search. It does so by alerting the questioner to choose the keywords to be used in the search process, and iii. It directs the person asking to point out the problem, the intervention measure, and outcomes linked to the care extended to the patient (Eriksen & Frandsen, 2018).
The PICO framework encourages designing clinical questions based on the four categories of clinical data: i. the population referred to by the question, ii. The intervention used in the population, iii. the comparison criteria and iv. the results of the measure. Systematic review guidelines recommend PICO is creating strategies for search. Many modern systemic reviews rely on PICO for searches. Although PICO is often used to create the search strategy, it isn't utilized by the primary retrieval system running the strategy (Scells et al., 2017).
The PICO model is equally applied in structuring clinical questions concerning the synthesis of evidence, such as systematic reviews. PICO helps in ensuring that the relevant aspects of the research question are addressed. Therapy questions inform PICO. While it can be used to create research questions associated with a diagnosis or prognosis, it is not suitable for certain clinical data requirements. Apart from being used as a tool for developing concepts for research and clinical questions, the model can be applied to develop search (Eriksen & Frandsen, 2018). Considine et al. (2017) PICO should also be used for creating search terms related to the PICO question, Medical Subject Headings, and other relevant terms. It has been established in recent days that different review terms call for different question forms. It further points out that model and topic fits cannot be retailored. In other words, if a research question excluded intervention measures, then the other elements of the PICO will not apply.
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…unless subjected to the relevant sieves. Academic writing and peer review go hand in hand in modern science. Peer review also helps make sure that published papers in science journals respond to meaningful questions and provide accurate conclusions informed by professionally run experimentation. Low-quality manuscripts have become common in the modern-day. Thus, peer review helps in filtering them. Owing to peer review's trusting nature, it is a critical basis for building knowledge in a cumulative and stepwise fashion (Kelly, Sadeghieh&Adeli, 2014).
Knowledge is ordinarily built by reacting to the ideas of those who precede us across all disciplines. Scholarly articles ensure that they provide verifiable sources of the information provided. Scholarly pieces also attempt to point out and discuss the merits and demerits of alternative viewpoints for the stands they take regarding a given research matter. Thus, truth assessment is made easier. The strengths and weaknesses of research outcomes are also clearly outlined. It helps those who have the subject knowledge and are starting to learn about it (Eastern Michigan University Library, n.d).
The web is an assortment of information sources. Although one may agree with the conclusions drawn in a paper found on the internet, there is usually no evidence chain provided to assess the paper's conclusions. Similarly, articles published in popular magazines may provide opinions and information, but they are not required to offer evidence supporting or refuting the conclusions drawn. On the contrary, scholarly articles must adhere to the laid-down approaches and research protocols in a clear structure that provides evaluation mechanisms for the author's postulated claims (Eastern Michigan University Library, n.d).
Five pages, 7 Scholarly references not older than five years
Explore a research-based article. Perform a database search on urinary tract infections. There are various levels of evidence. Select the article that has the best level of evidence. Describe how this article was selected and how it meets the criteria to be considered the best evidence level. Describe how this is a peer-reviewed article. Why is it significant to find peer-reviewed versus non-peer-reviewed articles for…
Considine, J., Shaban, R. Z., Fry, M., & Curtis, K. (2017). Evidence-based emergency nursing: designing a research question and searching the literature. International emergency nursing, 32, 78-82.
Eriksen, M. B., & Frandsen, T. F. (2018). The impact of patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) as a search strategy tool on literature search quality: a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106(4), 420.
Yuan, X., Xiaoli, L., Shilei, L., Qinwen, S., & Ke, L. (2019, May). Extracting PICO elements from RCT abstracts using 1-2gram analysis and multitask classification. In Proceedings of the third International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics 2019 (pp. 194-199).
Scells, H., Zuccon, G., Koopman, B., Deacon, A., Azzopardi, L., &Geva, S. (2017, November). Integrating the framing of clinical questions via PICO into the retrieval of medical literature for systematic reviews. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 2291-2294).
Basmaci, R., Vazouras, K., Bielicki, J., Folgori, L., Hsia, Y., Zaoutis, T., &Sharland, M. (2017). Urinary tract infection antibiotic trial study design: a systematic review. Pediatrics, 140(6).
Misra, D. P., & Agarwal, V. (2018). Systematic reviews: challenges for their justification, related comprehensive searches, and implications. Journal of Korean medical science, 33(12).
Belcher, B. M., Rasmussen, K. E., Kemshaw, M. R., &Zornes, D. A. (2016). Defining and assessing research quality in a transdisciplinary context. Research Evaluation, 25(1), 1-17.
Fu, D. Y., & Hughey, J. J. (2019). Meta-Research: Releasing a preprint is associated with more attention and citations for the peer-reviewed article. Elife, 8, e52646.
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