… within the juvenile justice system will help in the sustenance of this trend and will optimistically dismiss the stigma and negative perception of juveniles (MST Services, 2018).
2. What do you think are the top three contributing factors to juvenile offenders in the United States? What can … the top three contributing factors to juvenile offenders in the United States? What can be done to help solve the problem?
Comprehending why juveniles commit crimes is pivotal to the prevention of future crimes from taking place. Dealing with these issues has given rise to the decisions … in solving this problem. First, it is essential to provide with counseling and treatment, which is the sole real; remedy to assist these juveniles. This sort of circumstance can result in their self-assurance to…[break]…juvenile delinquency, also referred to as the Riyadh Guidelines. Imperatively, these guidelines institute the ……
Baysinger Law. (2018). Factors Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved from: https://baysingerlaw.com/2018/03/factors-contributing-juvenile-delinquency/
Howell, J. C. (2003). Preventing and reducing juvenile delinquency: A comprehensive framework. New York: Sage.
International Juvenile Justice Obervatory. (2019). United Nations guidelines for the prevention of juvenile delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines). Retrieved from: http://www.oijj.org/en/preguntas-frecuentes#152481-0
Johns, B. (2018). Juvenile Justice in the United States: Juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@bjohns81/juvenile-justice-the-american-justice-system-vs-other-countries-3dc6860c77ad
MST Services. (2018). Trends in Juvenile Crime. Retrieved from: http://info.mstservices.com/blog/trends-in-juvenile-crime
National Research Council. (2013). Reforming juvenile justice: A developmental approach. National Academies Press.
Smith, H. Problems and Solutions in Juvenile Justice. Resource Center Partnership.
… both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.
The article shows that diversion programs can be helpful but that they can also put undue strain on juveniles and that the strain could be avoided……
… a unique status. Juvenile offenders also are unique in that because of their age they may be guilty of particular crimes that only juveniles can be convicted of, in the form of so-called status offenses. Status offenses such as truancy, violating age-specific curfews, running away, drinking alcohol, ……
Rovner, J. (2014). Disproportionate minority contact in the juvenile justice system. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from: https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/disproportionate-minority-contact-in-the - juvenile-justice-system/
Status offenders. (2015). Development Services Group, Inc. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Status_Offenders.pdf
… Media Wire, 2020). Law enforcement officers have increasingly concerned about the viral video tricks, which are posted on social media. Some of the juveniles questioned by the police about these activities have stated that there was no actual criminal intent in their actions (Lewinski, 2020). The disturbing … actions (Lewinski, 2020). The disturbing trend has come at a time when coronavirus continues to spread throughout the country. While some of these juveniles have argued against any criminal intent in their actions, they could be charged with disorderly conduct. In the United States, disorderly conduct is … or infractions like disorderly conduct can result in a sentence of up to a year if carried out by an adult. However, for juveniles, jail or prison sentences do not always apply since they cannot necessarily be found guilty of committing a criminal act. Given their ages, ……
Lewinski, J.S. (2020, March 22). Police Investigate New Social Media Meme of Teens Coughing on Shoppers. Forbes. Retrieved June 13, 2020, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnscottlewinski/2020/03/22/police-investigate-new-social-media-meme-of-teens-coughing-on-shoppers/#d6c6ba57dd95
Nexstar Media Wire. (2020, March 21). Police Investigate ‘Disturbing’ Video of Teens Coughing on Produce. Fox 5. Retrieved June 13, 2020, from https://fox5sandiego.com/news/trending/police-investigate-disturbing-video-of-teens-coughing-on-produce/
...Juveniles Second Chance Kids Documentary Response
The major issue addressed by the documentary Second Chance Kids is whether kids who commit violent crimes like murder should get a second chance at life. The documentary shows that teens who are convicted of murder and basically given life sentences with no chance of parole. Thus, before they are even really adults their lives have been forfeited to the state. The question this documentary asks is whether this is a fair approach to criminal justice. The documentary looks at both sides of the issue, showing that from one perspective it does not seem fair that a mistake—even one as bad as murder—should be something that a kid has to spend the rest of his life paying for behind bars; on the other hand, what if society is really dealing with an evil human being? Should it risk the safety of the rest of……
When it comes to the question of whether treatment or punishment should be used for juvenile offenders, it is important to remember that juveniles are still developing into adults: their minds, bodies, impulses and cognitive processes are still in formation phases and they do not have the … are still in formation phases and they do not have the kind of control that one might expect or assume of an adult. Juveniles are children, in other words, and if a child is ever thrown into a cage society is more than likely to label it … the better option when it comes to juvenile justice.
Differences between Treatment and Punishment
The concept of treatment focuses on the idea that juveniles who commit a crime, whether it is selling drugs, robbing a house, rape, or murder, are still children and they should be viewed … they should be viewed as……
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Cramer, M. (2014). Parole Board releases 2nd man convicted of murder as juvenile. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/06/parole-board-releases-man-convicted-murder-while-juvenile/REwVVe3aR9leuRVMpZsN6O/story.html
Diskin, M. (2018). New law will put limits. Retrieved from https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/2018/10/11/new-california-law-means-teen-suspect-oxnard-murders-cannot-tried-adult/1535518002/
Fritz, J. K. (2015). Diverting young offenders from prison is ‘smart justice.’ Education Digest, 81(2), 53-55.
Jannetta, J., & Okeke, C. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement. Building Ladders of Opportunity for Young People in the Great Lakes States, brief, 4. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement_2.pdf " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
...Juveniles General Strain Theory
General strain theory (GST) offers a unique explanation of delinquency and crime, which is in direct contrast to control and learning theories. The differentiation is through the type of social relationship that leads to delinquency, and the motivation for delinquency. By analyzing GST, we can determine the effect or how criminal behavior is developed. GST looks at how a negative relationship will affect and individual and their possibility of developing towards crime. A negative relationship can be defined as any relationship of other people that is not consistent with the individual's beliefs of how they should be treated. In this paper, we have analyzed two articles all focusing on GST. However, the two articles differ in the negative stimuli being researched. Cullen, Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse.……
Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.
Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.
Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.
Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.
Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.
… for treatment because they have either sexually harmed others or believe that they have that risk. Sex offender therapy is treatment available for juveniles, female adults, and male adults. Normally, the treatment is provided separately for females and males. There are special therapies or treatments for juveniles who have sexual behavior issues or problems. Generally, treatment approaches for younger children and adolescents differ from those used for adults. Treatment is ……
...Juveniles Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s attempt at social reform, a fundamental characteristic of his Quaker ideals (Fantel, 1974). The goal of Penn’s plan was to promote moral rehabilitation and it was believed that through the inmate’s lengthy time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is……
Clemmer, D. (1940). The prison community. New Braunfels, TX: Christopher Publishing House.
Compton, M. T., Anderson, S., Broussard, B., Ellis, S., Halpern, B., Pauselli, L., . . .Johnson, M. (2017). A potential new form of jail diversion and reconnection to mental health services: II. Demonstration of feasibility. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 492–500. doi:10.1002/bsl.2319
Corrections Arizona Department. (2020). Retrieved from https://corrections.az.gov/location/110/kingman
Dryburgh, M. (2009). Policy implications of whistle-blowing: The case of Corcoran State Prison. Public Integrity, 11(2): 155-170.
Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co. Florida Department of Corrections. (2020). Retrieved from
Hensley, J. & Rough, G. (2011). Kingman prison still under scrutiny. Retrieved from http://archive.azcentral.com/news/articles/2011/01/30/20110130kingman-prison-still-under-scrutiny0130.html
HIV among Incarcerated Populations. (2015). CDC. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/group/correctional.html
...Juveniles Poor Children, the Problem of Drug Therapy and Possible Alternatives
Foster children are more likely than children in the general population to have mental health issues (Polihronakis, 2008). Part of the reason for this is that foster children are in foster care because they have been neglected in their own homes, their parents are incapable of providing food, love, shelter and nourishment, and they are in need of a nurturing environment. Many of them will have experienced a traumatic event, or the transition from one home to another will be traumatic—and so they end up suffering from mental health problems. It is estimated that approximately 8 out of every 10 children in foster care have mental health issues, as opposed to 2 out of 10 children in the rest of the population (NCSL, 2019). For that reason, youths in foster homes and/or those who grow up in poverty are……
Broaddus, M. E. (2017). A Demonstration Project to Address Juvenile Drug Addiction.
Graduate Thesis, Bellarmine.
Korry, E. (2015). California Moves To Stop Misuse Of Psychiatric Meds In Foster Care.
Kutz, G. D. (2011). Foster Children: HHS Guidance Could Help States Improve
Oversight of Psychotropic Prescriptions: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information, Federal Services, and International Security, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, US Senate. US Government Accountability Office.
National Foster Youth Institute. (2017). Aging out of foster care. Retrieved from
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