… and support in Germany as native Germans have expressed their discontentment with their leader’s willingness to give refuge to millions of Middle Eastern refugees. The Germans, like the Hungarians, the Italians and the British are all concerned about the safety risks, the economic risks, the health risks, … risks, the economic risks, the health risks, the social risks, the cultural risks, and the political risks that come from allowing so many refugees through their borders. Considering that the threat of terrorism is still high in Europe and that many new terrorist attacks have occurred in … are rallying behind leaders like Nigel Farage, Boris Johnson and Marine Le Pen. As the Graph 1 image below shows, many Europeans see refugees as an existential threat.
Graph 1. European perception of immigrants as threat. Pew Research Center (2016).
As the Pew Research Center (2016) graph ……
Amadeo, K. (2019). Eurozone debt crisis. Retrieved from https://www.thebalance.com/eurozone-debt-crisis-causes-cures-and-consequences-3305524
BBC. (2020). Brexit. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-32810887
Chadwick, L. (2020). Recession could tip EU. Retrieved from https://www.euronews.com/2020/02/27/could-covid-19-coronavirus-trigger-a-european-economic-recession
Grose, T. (2020). Coronavirus tests Europe’s open borders. Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2020-03-02/europes-open-border-agreement-may-become-casualty-to-coronavirus
Herszenhorn, D. (2019). Europe’s NATO problem. Retrieved from https://www.politico.eu/article/europe-nato-problem-defense-procurement-training-research/
Pew Research Center. (2016). European opinions of the refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/16/european-opinions-of-the-refugee-crisis-in-5-charts/
Wirtz, B. (2019). The Beginning Of The End Of Open Borders In Europe. Retrieved from https://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/the-beginning-of-the-end-of-open-borders-in-europe/
...Refugees Prevalence of Depression in Massachusetts
Prospectus: Depression Among Older Immigrant African Women in Metro West Massachusetts
In West Massachusetts United States, the most common health disorders are anxiety and depression. These health disorders are prevalent in elderly immigrant women aged between 50 and 79 years (Agbemenu, 2016). Despite a variety of efficacious interventions for depression and anxiety, elderly immigrant women experience mental health care disparities in their access to mental health services and the quality of treatment they receive (Sánchez et al., 2014). Researchers have determined that African American heterogeneity influences access to depression and anxiety treatment. In addition, African Americans are becoming an increasingly visible minority within the United States, especially in West Massachusetts. The intention in this current study is to understand the causes and prevalence of depression among older immigrant African American women in Metro West Massachusetts as well as how the older immigrants cope with……
Agbemenu, K. (2016). Acculturation and Health Behaviors of African Immigrants Living in the United States: An Integrative Review. ABNF Journal, 27(3).
Alegría, M., Álvarez, K., & DiMarzio, K. (2017). Immigration and mental health. Current epidemiology reports, 4(2), 145-155.
Baldwin-Clark, T., Ofahengaue Vakalahi, H. F., & Anderson, B. (2016). What about African American older women and depressive symptoms? Educational Gerontology, 42(5), 310-320.
Cassel, J. (1995). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance: the fourth wade Hampton frost lecture. American journal of epidemiology, 141(9), 798-814.
Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic medicine.
Delara, M. (2016). Social determinants of immigrant women’s mental health. Advances in Public Health, 2016.
Dow, H. D. (2011). An overview of stressors faced by immigrants and refugees: A guide for mental health practitioners. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 23(3), 210-217.
Emadpoor, L., Lavasani, M. G., & Shahcheraghi, S. M. (2016). Relationship between perceived social support and psychological well-being among students based on mediating role of academic motivation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(3), 284-290.
The year 2019 marked the 150th birthday of the “Father of the Indian Nation,” Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869- 1948), who is remembered as one among the key figures of India’s twentieth-century independence struggle. Several commemorative events were observed in the country as well as abroad in celebration of his legacy of a peaceful struggle against British colonialism and India’s ultimate freedom from colonial rule. One simply cannot underestimate the motivation provided by Gandhian nonviolence tactics to all kinds of freedom struggles to later crop up, right from the US Civil Rights Movement, other wars against colonialism (e.g., Ghana), anti-war, anti-nuclear, and peace movements, some elements of South Africa’s apartheid movement, and the latest Palestinian struggles, to the modern-day climate change-related Extinction Rebellion (Ahmed, 2019).
The degree of peaceful resistance employed against colonial forces was different for different nations: peaceful resistance was, perhaps, most actively utilized in the Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, and……
Ahmed, T. (2019). Mohandas Gandhi: Experiments in civil disobedience. USA: Pluto Press. Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/supadu-imgix/plutopress-uk/pdfs/look-inside/LI-9780745334288.pdf
Anthology. (n.d.). World war II and peace 1939-1945.
Isalska, A. (2018). A French village committed to deception. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20180806-a-french-village-committed-to-deception
Sinclair, I. (2017). Resisting the Nazis in numerous ways: nonviolence in occupied Europe. Retrieved from https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/non-violence-against-nazis-interview-with-george-paxton/
...Refugees How the Quakers Opposed the Detainment of Japanese Americans during WWII
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous, as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, the AFSC embraced pacifism and began taking part in the fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc.……
Franklin, S. (2020). American Friends Service Committee. Retrieved from https://www.mtsu.edu/first-amendment/article/1167/american-friends-service-committee
Frost, J. W. (1992). " Our Deeds Carry Our Message": The Early History of the American Friends Service Committee. Quaker History, 81(1), 1-51.
Ingle, H.L., (2016). "Truly Radical, Non-violent, Friendly Approaches": Challenges to the American Friends Service Committee. Quaker History 105(1), 1-21. DOI:10.1353/qkh.2016.0004.
Mechling, E. W., & Mechling, J. (1992). Hot pacifism and cold war: The American friends service committee's witness for peace in 1950s America. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 78(2), 173-196.
The Nobel Prize. (2020). American Friends Service Committee. Retrieved from https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1947/friends-committee/facts/
Weir, A. (2014). Against Our Better Judgment. IN: CreateSpace.
...Refugees Social Policy Analysis Report
Definition of Social Problem
In recent decades, sex trafficking has become a substantial social problem affecting the whole world and continues to necessitate worldwide collaboration to combat it (Brooks and Heaslip, 2019) entirely. Human trafficking is a violation of the fundamental human rights of men, women, and children all over the world. Based on research conducted by the United Nations, statistics indicated that persons across 106 different nations across the globe had experienced trafficking either for labor or sex, or both. Twenty-eight percent of this statistic comprised of children, with the number of girls surpassing that of boys by 40 percent (Greenbaum, 2017). The United Nations defines sexual traffic to encompass the act of recruiting, transferring, harboring, or receiving of individuals, by way of either threat or through use of force as well as other kinds of intimidation, fraud, trickery, abuse of power or authority, capitalizing……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
Every traditional culture has its norms, which ultimately affect what is considered right or wrong. A clear distinction of this is best illustrated in the Middle East as compared to Western culture, where in the Middle East certain behaviors, e.g., kissing in public, in public is illegal as compared to in the west. This is basically as a result of the differences in the traditional cultures of these two regions, bearing in mind that religion is a core part of any culture. To this effect, it would be argued that culture affects law and identity, and to ensure that there is fairness and justice in any given society, then the cultural context of the people cannot be ignored. In her book, The Cultural Defense, Alison Dundes Renteln argues that \"Culture shapes individual identity in crucial ways. The failure of the law to recognize this has resulted in injustices\" (Renteln……
Renteln, A. D. (2004). The cultural defense. Oxford University Press.
… national and legal policies that impact upon counterintelligence threats is significant and more needs to be done to take precautions with regard to refugees, immigration, vetting, and monitoring those who come into the country.
Liaison is one way to help bring that better monitoring system about. The ……
Counter intelligence for National Security, CIA, 1993. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol2no4/html/v02i4a10p_0001.htm
Johnston, David and James Risen, “U.S.had evidence of espionage,” New York Times, 2001. https://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/23/us/us-had-evidence-of-espionage-but-fbi-failed-to-inspect-itself.html
National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America 2016 (Strategy). https://www.dni.gov/files/NCSC/documents/Regulations/National_CI_Strategy_2016.pdf
Prunckun, Hank. 2012. Counterintelligence Theory and Practice, Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield Publishers Inc. Read the following: Chapters 8 to 14, pages 131 to 217. Appendices A to D, pages 219 to 231.
Richelson, Jeffrey. 2007. “The Pentagon’s Counterspies: The Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA).” (September 17). National Security Archive. Accessed January 19, 2017. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB230/ .
Van Cleave, Michelle. “Strategic Counterintelligence: What Is It and What Should We Do About It ?” 2007. CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol51no2/strategic-counterintelligence.html
...Refugees Introduction: the Policy Problem under Consideration
When it comes to foreign policy, there are many different issues in foreign policy that the government needs to address—from tensions regarding missile treaties with Russia to wars in the Middle East to money given to the state of Israel, which has been recognized by the United Nations as a violator of human rights for its treatment of Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and on the West Bank (Human Rights Watch, 2018). Of these, America’s special relationship with Israel is perhaps the most unsettling. Israel receives more than $3 billion in foreign aid from the U.S. every year, which is one-fifth of the entire foreign aid budget of the U.S., and the U.S. is further committed to giving $38 billion in military financial aid over the next several years (Sharp, 2018). Essentially, the U.S. is helping to fund a human rights violator by continuing……
Facione, P. (2006). Critical thinking: what it is and why it counts. Insight Assessments.
Hooks, B. (1999). Black looks: Race and representation. South End Press.
Human Rights Watch. (2018). Israel and Palestine. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/israel/palestine
Johnson, S. A. (2011). Women, Shared Leadership, and Policy: The Mano River Women's Peace Network Case Study. Journal of Pan African Studies, 4(8).
Mearsheimer, J. J., & Walt, S. M. (2007). The Israel lobby and US foreign policy. Macmillan.
Richards, R. (2010). Everyday creativity. The Cambridge handbook of creativity, 189-215.
Sharp, J. (2018). U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf
Verhaeghe, P. (2014). Neoliberalism has brought out the worst in us. The Guardian. Annotated Bibliography
...Refugees An understandably contentious issue, immigration cuts to the core of what it means to be American. Recent immigrants find themselves especially vulnerable to being caught in the crossfire of heated debates over American immigration policy. The migration of Mexican nationals to the United States is hardly a new phenomenon; in fact, the tide of immigration flow from Mexico ebbed in the 1970s. As Massey 1986) points out, it is a gross generalization to assume that economic factors alone drive immigration. Certainly there are a large number of immigrants from Mexico to the United States who are both pushed and pulled by financial need. Yet firmly established structures and institutions support new immigrants, and immigration is frequently a family phenomenon—particularly evident in the Mexican immigrant experience (Massey, 1986). Prevailing anti-immigration discourse in the United States obfuscates the tremendous amount of diversity within the American immigrant experience, and even among specific immigrant……
Fox, C. & Guglielmo, T.A. (2012). Defining America’s racial boundaries: Blacks, Mexicans, and European Immigrants, 1890–1945. American Journal of Sociology 118(2) (September 2012): 327-379.
Gonzales, R. G. (2011). Learning to be illegal: Undocumented youth and shifting legal contexts in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review 76(4) (AUGUST 2011): 602-619
Huntington, S.P. (2009). The Hispanic challenge. Foreign Policy, 28 Oct, 2009.
Jones-Correa, M. (2012). Contested ground. Transatlantic Council on Migration. July 2012.
Massey, D. S. (1986). The social organization of Mexican Migration to the United States.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 48(7):, Vol. 487, Immigration and American Public Policy (Sep., 1986): 102-113?
Massey, D. S. (n.d.). What were the paradoxical consequences of militarizing the border with Mexico?
Health promotion is a behavioral social science that draws from the environmental, biological, physical, psychological, and medical sciences to promote the health of individuals and prevent diseases, premature death, and disability by educating the community. The main purpose of health promotion is to positively influence the health behavior of communities and individuals. There have been increased efforts for cervical cancer screening using PAP tests, which have led to the declining mortality rates, especially in the developed countries like the United States (Abboud et al., 2017). However, this has not been the case for middle eastern women. The screening rates for these women remain low even for those who are located in developed countries, which puts them at a higher risk of advanced cervical cancer and poor health outcomes. Considering that cervical cancer is almost entirely preventable or curable if it is detected early middle eastern women must begin undergoing……
Abboud, S., De Penning, E., Brawner, B. M., Menon, U., Glanz, K., & Sommers, M. S. (2017). Cervical cancer screening among Arab women in the United States: an integrative review. Paper presented at the Oncology nursing forum.
AL-Hammadi, F. A., Al-Tahri, F., Al-Ali, A., Nair, S. C., & Abdulrahman, M. (2017). Limited understanding of pap smear testing among women, a barrier to cervical cancer screening in the United Arab Emirates. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP, 18(12), 3379.
Ali, S., Skirton, H., Clark, M. T., & Donaldson, C. (2017). Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries. Nursing & health sciences, 19(4), 414-426.
Endeshaw, M., Clarke, T., Senkomago, V., & Saraiya, M. (2018). Cervical cancer screening among women by birthplace and percent of lifetime living in the United States. Journal of lower genital tract disease, 22(4), 280-287.
National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (2019). NCLEX-RN examination blueprint. Retrieved from https://www.ncsbn.org/nclex.htm
Payton, M., Parente, M., Al-Hawarri, M., Manasseh, M., Scott, M., & Altshuler, M. (2016). Barriers and Facilitators To Cervical Cancer Screening Among Iraqi Refugees Resettled in Philadelphia: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Provider Perceptions.
Vahabi, M., & Lofters, A. (2016). Muslim immigrant women’s views on cervical cancer screening and HPV self-sampling in Ontario, Canada. BMC public health, 16(1), 868.
Ziaei, T., Farahmand Rad, H., Rezaei Aval, M., & Roshandel, G. (2017). The relationship between Sexual self-concept and sexual function in women of reproductive age referred to health centers in Gorgan, North East of Iran. Journal of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, 5(3), 969-977.
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