corruption weakens the strength of a democracy, undermining public trust, and leading to a downward spiral of apathy and discontent. Low voter participation itself … trust, and leading to a downward spiral of apathy and discontent. Low voter participation itself becomes a major factor perpetuating the possibility of corruption. A feeling of powerlessness pervades even the most robust of the world’s democracies. If democratic government are to be responsive to the people they serve, corruption needs to be uprooted whenever it manifests. Reforming corruption and reducing the likelihood of corrupt individuals maintaining their positions of power requires a multifaceted approach taking into account variables like ethical culture … power requires a multifaceted approach taking into account variables like ethical culture and political climate. Public perceptions of the reliability and accountability of government are also important factors, influenced in part by the media but also by social norms, ethics, and……
… the Federal Budget Process
The federal budget process is overseen by US Congressmen, who are fundamentally immersed in the political nature of government. As Elwood (2008) notes, members of Congress are influenced in three ways: 1) by money that is used to finance their political campaigns; … the federal budget process.
Politics and Agency Theory
The political nature of the federal budget process is tied to the political nature of government in general. The budget itself is a representation of how government expenditure is allocated to various sectors, programs, agencies and departments. It reflects the extent to which society deems certain programs and departments as … the extent to which society deems certain programs and departments as important. However, as Elwood (2008) points out, where money is a factor, corruption is sure to be found. The problem with the federal budget process is that it is overseen by……
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.
Elwood, T. W. (2008). Politics of the US Federal Budget Process. International quarterly of community health education, 28(1), 3-12.
Jennings, M. (2008). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage.
Machold, S., Ahmed, P.K., & Farquhar, S.S. (2007). Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 81:665-678.
ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/
… be ruled by monarchs. Today, monarchs thrive in the Middle East, particularly in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where a monarchical system of government has enabled the UAE to bring stability and leadership. However, challenges remain, and this paper will describe the pros and cons of a … next. Monarchies are more stable in this respect.
With more stability there is also the opportunity to engage in reform and root out corruption. However, if the monarch himself is corrupt or appoints corrupt officials throughout his court, corruption can undermine the advantages of the system. This can lead to civil unrest, especially if the governed feel that the monarch looks more … sense of accountability in a democratic country in terms of the people having a legitimate method of removing a leader from office. Still, corruption can occur, elections can be manipulated or stolen, and just because it is a……
Brookings Institute. (2013). Kings for all seasons. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Resilience-Arab-Monarchies_English.pdf
Katz, N. (2019). How super pacs shape u.s. Elections with advertisements that portraym candidates in ways publicly identified campaign ads often avoid. Retrieved from https://scholars.org/contribution/how-super-pacs-shape-us-elections-advertisements-portray-candidates-ways-publicly
Lumen. (2020). Forms of government. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/atd-herkimer-introsociology/chapter/reading-forms-of-government/
Soskis, B. (2017). George Soros and the Demonization of Philanthropy. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2017/12/soros-philanthropy/547247/
… for a Theoretical Framework
CI Literature Review
Deception is at the core of counterintelligence: yet, it is a problematic core because of the corruption associated with deception in ethical systems. Mattox (2002), for example, observed that the practice of deception “is subject to limitations imposed by the … is being tasked with too many objectives that are foreign to its mission. The issues identified by Tromblay (2017) are that “the U.S. government has attempted to partner with the private sector on counterintelligence (CI) awareness and response, [but that] these efforts have been plagued by a … Bernardi (2013) states, “Usually, information control generates an escalation of counterintelligence measures, because information control on the part of one State invites other government and agencies to counteract, by means of countermeasures against espionage and deception” (50). In this context, the Intelligence and National Security Alliance (2020) … no easy solution and that……
2020-2022 National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States. 2020. Washington, DC: National Counterintelligence and Security Center
Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. 2012. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35 (2): 77-99.
Bernardi, Beatrice. 2013. \\\\\\"The Role of Intelligence in the Fight Against International Terrorism: Legal Profiles.\\\\\\" Bachelor\\\\\\'s thesis, Università Ca\\\\\\'Foscari Venezia.
Carson, Thomas L. 2010. Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press.
Erskine, Toni. 2004. \\\\\\"\\\\\\'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul\\\\\\'? Moral Agents and Intelligence Gathering.\\\\\\" Intelligence & National Security 19 (2): 359-381.
Godson, Roy, and James J. Wirtz. 2000. \\\\\\"Strategic denial and deception.\\\\\\" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13 (4): 424-437.
Horkheimer, Max. 1972. Critical Theory. New York: Seabury Press.
Intelligence and National Security Alliance. 2020. Counterintelligence for the 21st Century. Arlington, VA.
… insider threats is one of the core aspects of the ONCIX strategy. As a new premier counterintelligence and security agency in the U.S. government, ONCIX needs a strong understanding of how to identify and deter insider threats. According to its strategy, “the most effective safeguard against insider … Frustration could set in…[break]…refuge in sanctuary cities is a major way to harbor FIE within the nation’s borders. Fighting against this kind of corruption is difficult because state legislators are often at odds with federal legislators who are even at odds with themselves. The Trump Administration, for ……
Counter intelligence for National Security, CIA, 1993. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol2no4/html/v02i4a10p_0001.htm
Johnston, David and James Risen, “U.S.had evidence of espionage,” New York Times, 2001. https://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/23/us/us-had-evidence-of-espionage-but-fbi-failed-to-inspect-itself.html
National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America 2016 (Strategy). https://www.dni.gov/files/NCSC/documents/Regulations/National_CI_Strategy_2016.pdf
Prunckun, Hank. 2012. Counterintelligence Theory and Practice, Lanham: Rowman&Littlefield Publishers Inc. Read the following: Chapters 8 to 14, pages 131 to 217. Appendices A to D, pages 219 to 231.
Richelson, Jeffrey. 2007. “The Pentagon’s Counterspies: The Counterintelligence Field Activity (CIFA).” (September 17). National Security Archive. Accessed January 19, 2017. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB230/ .
Van Cleave, Michelle. “Strategic Counterintelligence: What Is It and What Should We Do About It ?” 2007. CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol51no2/strategic-counterintelligence.html
… of jobs have been appearing in recent years.
Fourth, telehealth systems can provide virtual care to patients who receive medical benefits from the government but cannot drive long distances or overcome obstacles related to time and distance to receive check-ups and other types of care. Telehealth systems ……
Abiad, A. & Khatiwada, S. (2019). 5 ways technology is improving governance, public service delivery in developing Asia. Retrieved from https://blogs.adb.org/blog/5-ways-technology-improving-governance-public-service-delivery-developing-asia
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McDonald, B. (2017). Measuring the fiscal health of municipalities. Retrieved from https://www.lincolninst.edu/sites/default/files/pubfiles/mcdonald_wp17bm1.pdf
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… 1990s, the hoped-for economic prosperity did not manifest and instead Ukraine lost 60% of its GDP that decade (IMF, 2007). Inflation, crime and corruption so plagued the country that soon workers were striking and protests were appearing en masse. Kuchma gave way to Berezovsky-backed Viktor Yushchenko, who ……
Alexievich, S. (2007). Secondhand Time: The Last of the Soviets. NY: Random House.
Alexievich, S. (2017). The Unwomanly Face of War: An Oral History of Women in World War II. NY: Random House.
BBC. (2012). Russian godfathers. Retrieved from https://www.documentary24.com/russian-godfathers-putin-and-the-oligarchs--848/
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Klebnikov, P. (2000). Godfather of the Kremlin. New York, NY: Harcourt.
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Mezrich, B. (2015). Once upon a time in Russia. New York, NY: Atria.
Risen, J. (2019). I Wrote About the Bidens and Ukraine Years Ago. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2019/09/25/i-wrote-about-the-bidens-and-ukraine-years-ago-then-the-right-wing-spin-machine-turned-the-story-upside-down/
… for more than three decades. Director Colby certainly felt as much in the 1970s, when it became apparent that the child the federal government had reared into adulthood was not exactly what the state had hoped for. The Church Committee noted that by 1976 the issues facing … the National Counterintelligence and Security Center, has gone so far as to warn that the challenge of counterintelligence is no longer one the government can address on its own, that the private sector must bear some of the burden and weight of protecting data and ensuring digital ……
Bailey, Christopher and Susan M. Galich. “Codes of Ethics: The Intelligence Community.” International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 35.2 (2012), 77-99.
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Bellaby, Ross. "What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection." Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (2012): 93-117.
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Coyne, John, Peter Bell, and Shannon Merrington. "Exploring ethics in intelligence and the role of leadership." Interntional Journal of Business and Commerce 2, no. 10 (2013): 27-37.
Erskine, Toni. "'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul'? Moral Agents and Intelligence Gathering." Intelligence & National Security 19, no. 2 (2004): 359-381.
Nakashima, Ellen. “Top counterintelligence official challenges the private sector to step up defenses against foreign spying.” Washington Post, 2020. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/top-counterintelligence-official-challenges-the-private-sector-to-step-up-defenses-against-foreign-spying/2020/02/10/d842d83c-4c15-11ea-9b5c-eac5b16dafaa_story.html
corruption takes many forms, and can have a devastating impact on economies, and on the effectiveness of government. For that reason, it is best practice to have a code of ethics for managers who are involved in acquisitions, purchasing and contracts. … acquisitions, purchasing and contracts. Ethical lapses contribute to a wide array of issues, including waste, a decline in confidence in the institution of government, and underperformance because the wrong vendors were selected. Larezos (2008) notes that when evidence of corruption arises, government may need to recompete contracts, projects can be delayed or go way over budget, and there can be increased cost to taxpayers as … go way over budget, and there can be increased cost to taxpayers as well. If chronic weak governance leaves a populace disenchanted with government, then the political fallout can be severe as well. In essence, corruption represents the trade-off between the……
Adelstein, J. & Clegg, S. (2016) Code of ethics: A stratified vehicle for compliance. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 138 (1) 53-66.
Lazeros, M. (2008) Leaders can learn from Druyun’s ethical lapses and their consequences. USAWC Research Project. Retrieved October 25, 2019 from https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a479019.pdf
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… theory, through all echelons of the firm.
With the help of another research, it was deducted that informal institutions can entail criteria like corruption, political ideology, and culture (Kaufmann, Hooghiemstra & Feeney, 2018). Assumptions have been made that higher levels of corruption are related to tighter bureaucracy. Among the informal institutions, more bureaucracy is seen in countries where there is a conservative role of government, and the corrupt countries have more individualistic ideologies in nature. Perceptions were that informal institutions should be adhered to if there is less … the accomplishment of personal goals is the highlight of a more individualistic approach. This would entail the entrepreneur’s perceptions (informal institutions) towards the government rules and regulations and whether those would be beneficial for their independence and personal growth. Also, individual autonomy reassures persistence and an urge … in economic decisions of that region (Escandon-Barbosa et al., 2019). Prior studies……
Coelho, A. (2019). The role of informal institutions in the enforcement of rules and how to improve corporate and public governance in Brazil: Studies based on a set of corporate governance cases involving state-owned companies (Working Paper). Retrieved from SSRN website https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3434037
Dacin, M.T., Goodstein, J. & Scott, W.R. (2002). Institutional theory and institutional change: Introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 45- 47. DOI: 10.2307/3069284
Escandon-Barbosa, D.M., Urbano, D., Hurtado-Ayala, A., Paramo, J.S. & Dominguez, A.Z. (2019). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and entrepreneurial activity: A comparative relationship between rural and urban areas in Colombia. Journal of Urban Management, 8(3), 458-471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jum.2019.06.002
Estrin, S. & Prevezer, M. (2010). The role of informal institutions in corporate governance: Brazil, Russia, India, and China compared. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 28, 41- 67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-010-9229-1
Kaufmann, W., Hooghiemstra, R. & Feeney, M.K. (2018). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and red tape: A comparative study. Public Administration, 96(2), 386-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/padm.12397
Meluch, A.L. (2016, August). Understanding the organizational and institutional origins of social support in a cancer support center. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1466944822&disposition=inline
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