Federal Reserve Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Federal Reserve Operations And Market Impact

Pages: 4 (1239 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Essay Document #:28039044

What tools are used by the federal reserve to implement monetary policy?
Monetary policy refers to the actions undertaken by the federal reserve, which is the central bank, to control credit and its flow within the United States economy. Significantly, what occurs with money and credit … States economy. Significantly, what occurs with money and credit influences interest rates and also the performance of the nation’s economy as a whole (federal reserve Education, n.d).
The federal reserve presently utilizes numerous tools in the implementation of monetary policy about its statutory obligation to nurture maximum employment and stability in prices. The … are the tools:
1. Open market operations (OMO)
The Fed carries out OMO in domestic markets. The terminology open market implies that the federal reserve does not decide on its own concerning the kind of securities dealers it will carry out business with on a certain day. Instead, ………



Brandl, M. (2020). Money, banking, financial markets & institutions. New York: Cengage Learning.

Federal Reserve Education. (n.d). Monetary Policy Basics. Retrieved from:  https://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/structure-and-functions/monetary-policy 

Federal Reserve. (2017). Monetary Policy Tools. Retrieved from:  https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/bsd-monetary-policy-tools-201711.htm 

Lumen Learning. (n.d). Macroeconomics: How a Central Bank Executes Monetary Policy. Retrieved from:  https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-macroeconomics/chapter/tools-of-monetary-policy/ 

Study Document

The Government S Economic Policies Effect Good Or Bad Economy

Pages: 4 (1226 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:48706943

… will review the impact of monetary policy on the U.S. economy.
Monetary Policy
Monetary policy is classified as the procedure by which the federal reserve uses monetary policy tools to regulate the money supply, exchange rate, and interest rates (the price of money) to stabilize the economy (Labonte, … prices of their goods and services.
Past performance shows that monetary policy influences the economy. All through the 2007-2008 financial crisis, the federal reserve dropped its target for the federal funds rate to zero percent (Labonte, 2020). The Fed's also created special forms of loans to banks and other financial institutions. These actions … meet their long-term objectives. That is price stability and maximum employment.
Monetary policy can be classified as the procedure by which the federal reserve uses monitory tools such as open market operations and the discount rate to stabilize the economy. Their goal is to……



Federal Reserve. (2020, March 15). Federal open market committee. Retrieved March 30, 2020, from  https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/fomccalendars.htm 

Labonte, M. (2020). Monetary policy and the Federal Reserve: Current policy and conditions (RL30354). Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website:  https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL30354.pdf 

Madimutsa, C. (2008). The Policy Formulation Process. Retrieved from  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336927323_The_Policy_Formulation_Proce ss

McGraw-Hill Education. (n.d.). The role of government. Retrieved from  https://www.jasonsclassroom.com/social-studies/cc-basics/chapter-5/lesson-5.3/ 

Suman, S. (2015, October 26). Monetary policy: Objectives, advantages, and disadvantages. Retrieved from  https://www.economicsdiscussion.net/monetary-policy/advantages/monetary-policy-objectives-advantages-and-disadvantages/12768 

Study Document

Shareholder Vs Stakeholder Theory

Pages: 11 (3224 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:76323348

… long-term plan to succeed—now all they had to do was have access to cheap credit (which they all have now thanks to the federal reserve keeping the Fed Funds rate so low) and they could support their share price no matter the valuation. Companies from Apple to American ……



Augustine. (n.d.). Commentaries on Sermon on the Mount.  http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/16011.htm 

Chen, J. (2019). Market Milestones as the Bull Market Turns 10. Retrieved from  https://www.investopedia.com/market-milestones-as-the-bull-market-turns-10-4588903 

Egan, M. (2018). Tax cut triggers $437 billion explosion of stock buybacks. Retrieved from  https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/10/investing/stock-buybacks-record-tax-cuts/index.html " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

How Interest Rates Compare Over The Last Decade Within The United

Pages: 6 (1728 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:11480675

… mismatch of interest rates (Schularick, M, and A M Taylor, 2009).
When looking over the last decade and comparing interest rates between the federal Funds Rate, Treasury Bills and Treasury Bonds and interesting trend emerges. Under all three circumstances, the interest rate has fallen rather sharply. Due ……



1. Goodhard, C and E Perotti, 2008 “Maturity mismatch stretching: Banking has taken a wrong turn”, CEPR Policy Insight 81, 6-July

2. Holston, Laubach, and Williams. 2017. “Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest: International Trends and Determinants,” Journal of International Economics 108, supplement 1 (May): S39–S75

3. Laubach and Williams. 2003. “Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest,” Review of Economics and Statistics 85, no.4 (November): 1063-70.

4. Rachel, L. and Smith, T.D., 2017. Are low real interest rates here to stay?. International Journal of Central Banking, 13(3), pp.1-42.

5. Schularick, M, and A M Taylor, (2009), “Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles and Financial Crises, 1870-2008”, NBER DP 15512

6. Stock, J.H. and Watson, M.W., 2007. Why has US inflation become harder to forecast?. Journal of Money, Credit and banking, 39, pp.3-33

Study Document

Enterprise Risk Management In Wells Fargo During The Pandemic

Pages: 15 (4587 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Essay Document #:32848070

...Federal reserve Enterprise Risk Management in Wells Fargo during the Pandemic
As Beasley (2020) points out, enterprise risk management (ERM) is especially needed during the COVID 19 pandemic because of the “number of different, but interrelated risks spread all across most organization” (p. 2). COVID 19 is not just a factor that has impacted one business or industry. It has impacted all businesses and all industries in different ways. Grocery chains like Kroger, for instance, have seen increased demand. Restaurants on the other hand have seen business dry up due to mandated quarantine orders. Small business owners and large corporations have filed for bankruptcy. All of this impacts the banking sector and Wells Fargo specifically because of its role in managing loan products, using interest rates to attract savers, and offering investment advice. “No single risk associated with the COVID-19 pandemic crisis can be managed in isolation,” as Beasley (2020) points……



Beasley, M. (2020). How to Leverage ERM Principles to Better Respond to COVID-19-Related Risks. ERM Professional Insights.

Derysh, I. (2020). Watchdog questions why Wells Fargo reported giving only one large PPP loan to a Black-owned business. Retrieved from  https://www.salon.com/2020/07/22/watchdog-questions-why-wells-fargo-reported-giving-only-one-large-ppp-loan-to-a-black-owned-business/ 

English, C. (2020). Wells Fargo Forced to Cut Its Dividend After Fed Stress Test. Here’s What Other Banks Did. Retrieved from  https://www.barrons.com/articles/wells-fargo-forced-to-cut-its-dividend-after-fed-stress-test-51593467664 

Hall, J. (2007). Internal Auditing and ERM: Fitting in and Adding Value. Retrieved from https://global.theiia.org/about/about-the-iia/Public Documents/Sawyer_Award_2007.pdf

Kaplan, R. & Mikes, A. (2012). Managing risks: A new framework. Harvard Business Review, 3.

Lewis, M. (2010). The Big Short. NY: W. W. Norton.

Lundqvist, S. (2014). Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance. Lund University.

Morgenson, G. (2020). More Wells Fargo customers say the bank decided to pause their mortgage payments without asking. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/business/personal-finance/more-wells-fargo-customers-say-bank-decided-pause-their-mortgage-n1234610

Study Document

Globalization Of Insurance

Pages: 8 (2325 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Term Paper Document #:88593479

… long-term plan to succeed—now all they had to do was have access to cheap credit (which they all have now thanks to the federal reserve keeping the Fed Funds rate so low) and they could support their share price no matter the valuation. Companies from Apple to American ……



Egan, M. (2018). Tax cut triggers $437 billion explosion of stock buybacks. Retrieved from  https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/10/investing/stock-buybacks-record-tax-cuts/index.html " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

The Phillips Cure And Unemployment

Pages: 7 (2166 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:92308322

...Federal reserve The Short-Run and Long-Run Relationship between Unemployment and Inflation
Phillips observed a consistent inverse relationship between wage inflation and unemployment when he analyzed data from the UK spanning nearly a century from 1861 to 1957. The explanation Phillips gave was simple: the lower the unemployment rate, the more employers had to do to attract talent and raising wages was one of the primary ways to do just that (Wulwick, 1987). In a tight labor market, companies would race to quickly raise wages, and during periods of higher unemployment there would be less pressure to incentivize workers as the latter would consider themselves fortunate just to have a job. Since wages offered laborers are linked to prices businesses charge consumers (Lucas & Rapping, 1969), it was not long before economists applied the Phillips curve to inflation in general rather than to only wages. It became evident that monetary policy could……



Amadeo, K. (2019). Unemployment rate by year since 1929 compared to inflation and GDP. Retrieved from  https://www.thebalance.com/unemployment-rate-by-year-3305506 

FRED. (2019). FRED Graph. Retrieved from  https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/LNU04000024#0 

Friedman, M. (1977). Nobel lecture: inflation and unemployment. Journal of political economy, 85(3), 451-472.

Heller, R. (2017). Monetary mischief and the debt trap. Cato Journal, 37(2), 247-261.

Lucas, R. E., & Rapping, L. A. (1969). Price expectations and the Phillips curve. The American Economic Review, 59(3), 342-350.

Stiglitz, J. (1997). Reflections on the natural rate hypothesis. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(1), 3-10.

Wulwick, N. J. (1987). The Phillips curve: which? whose? to do what? how?. Southern Economic Journal, 834-857.

Study Document

Labor Market Wages And Income Inequality

Pages: 5 (1612 words) Sources: 4 Document Type:Essay Document #:28125506

… and discusses them in terms of inflation (caused by the injection of $4 trillion worth of liquidity into the financial markets by the federal reserve after the global economic crisis threatened to derail capitalism). It describes what has been written in three news articles in recent years and … seen in terms of how one interprets labor market data (unemployment vs. labor participation rate), wages vs. inflation, and income inequality. Since the federal reserve along with the other central banks of the world engaged in unconventional monetary policy aka quantitative easing in response to the global economic ……



BBC. (2019). US economy under Trump: Is it the greatest in history? Retrieved from  https://www.bbc.com/news/world-45827430 

Bernstein, J. (2019). A tight job market is a potent force against inequality and wage stagnation. Retrieved from  https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/02/01/tight-job-market-is-potent-force-against-inequality-wage-stagnation/?utm_term=.0a531cf24efb 

Cox, J. (2019). Private payroll growth tops estimates as job market shows signs of tightening. Retrieved from  https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/31/private-payrolls-up-156k-in-july-vs-150k-est-adpmoodys.html 

Harwood, J. (2019). 5 reasons why income inequality has become a major political issue. Retrieved from  https://www.cnbc.com/2019/06/05/5-reasons-income-inequality-has-become-a-major-political-issue.html 

Study Document

Democracy In America In The 21st Century

Pages: 7 (2223 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:23576697

… level—i.e., at the state level) and authoritarianism or centralized power emerged at the beginning days of the nation. The debate was between the federal (who called for central power in the form of a federal government) and the Anti-federal (who called for autonomous governments among each and every state). The federal won the day and the centralized government, which started off small, grew over the decades and centuries into a behemoth of a machine … War occurred before a century of this system had even concluded, and the cause was the same—tension between state (local, democratic government) and federal (centralized government). Again, the federal power won out.
There are some examples of states still exercising independent systems of government at the local level—for instance, in terms of … local level—for instance, in terms of legalizing cannabis in numerous states even though it is still considered a schedule one narcotic……


Works Cited

Dahl, Robert. On Democracy.

Ferejohn, John. Is Inequality a Threat to Democracy?

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press.

Mansbridge, Jane. On the Importance of Getting Things Done. PS, 2012.

Runciman, David. The Confidence Trap. Princeton University Press.

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