Federal Budget Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Influence Of Political Interests Groups On The Educational Policy

Pages: 6 (1844 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Essay Document #:31534900

budget and Resource Allocation Influence of Political Interest Groups on the Educational Policy Making Process
State support for public education has wavered over … on state fiscal policy. This text concerns itself with the influence of political interest groups on the educational policy-making process, with regard to budget and resource allocation. The context of this particular discussion will be Florida and Texas.
Interest groups do not have an assigned definition. … so the case when it comes to the provision of research data on factors including, but not limited to, the viewpoints of constituents, federal and state reporting agencies, colleagues, and interest groups.
It is important to note that campaign contributions happen to be one of the most … relevance of assessing the influence that special interest groups have on the educational policy-making process and how this influences resource as well as budget allocation is of great relevance.……



Abbott, I., Rathbone, M. & Whitehead, P. (2012). Education Policy. New York, NY: SAGE.

Anderson, J.E. (2003).Public Policy-Making. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Delaney, J. A., & Doyle, W. R. (2007). The role of higher education in state budgets. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4), 343-268.

Grapevine. (2016). Appropriations: State Tax Funds for Operating Expenses of Higher Education, 1983-1984. Retrieved from:  https://education.illinoisstate.edu/grapevine/tables/ 

Larrabee, B. (2016). Education groups put big money into political causes. Retrieved from  https://www.gainesville.com/news/20160828/education-groups-put-big-money-into-political-cause s

Tandberg, D. A. (2009). Interest groups and governmental institutions: The politics of state funding of public higher education. Educational Policy, 24(5), 104-117.

Vote Smart (2020). Texas Education Special Interest Groups. Retrieved from  https://votesmart.org/interest-groups/TX/27#.XrVCzsBRW00 

Vote Smart (2020). Florida Education Special Interest Groups. Retrieved from  https://votesmart.org/interest-groups/FL/27#.XrVKScBRW01

Study Document

Agency Theory And The Limitations Of Representative Government

Pages: 11 (3159 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:26643855

The Political Nature of the federal budget Process
The federal budget process is overseen by US Congressmen, who are fundamentally immersed in the political nature of government. As Elwood (2008) notes, members of Congress … by obtaining the votes necessary for reelection; and 3) by obtaining expert advice on topics that are of personal importance to them. The federal budget process is particularly impactful on the first two and vice versa. For example, “the ability to funnel money into a congressional district or … for a legislator to remain in office” (Elwood, 2008, p. 3). This ability creates a conflict of interest among the politicians overseeing the budget process. On the one hand they are tasked with producing a budget resolution and allocating funds based on the duty to serve the collective good; on the other hand they have a vested self-interest in … diverted in ways that will……



Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of management review, 14(1), 57-74.

Elwood, T. W. (2008). Politics of the US Federal Budget Process. International quarterly of community health education, 28(1), 3-12.

Jennings, M. (2008). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage.

Machold, S., Ahmed, P.K., & Farquhar, S.S. (2007). Corporate Governance and Ethics: A Feminist Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics (2008) 81:665-678.

ProActive Solutions. (2020). Agency theory. Retrieved from http://knowledgegrab.com/learners-zone/study-support/performance-management-review/framework-introduction-to-hrm/agency-theory/

Study Document

Virtual Learning Solutions For English As Second Language Students

Pages: 11 (3230 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:70086670

… opportunities for enhancing the ESL educative experience can be found that were not present before. Schools should be supportive of this endeavor and federal money should be available as districts re-think how to approach education in the coming years.
ESL learners are in a position to … able to afford all these tools, so schools may need to be the ones to provide them. Schools should receive funding from the federal budget, and the COVID-19 era has literally reshaped the way teachers and students think about learning. The trend towards using digital technology to enhance ……



Alvarez-Marinelli, H., Blanco, M., Lara-Alecio, R., Irby, B. J., Tong, F., Stanley, K., & Fan, Y. (2016). Computer assisted English language learning in Costa Rican elementary schools: an experimental study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(1), 103-126.

Beetham, H., & Sharpe, R. (Eds.). (2013). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: Designing for 21st century learning. NY: Routledge.

Cassady, J. C., Smith, L. L., & Thomas, C. L. (2017). Supporting emergent literacy for English language learners with computer?assisted instruction. Journal of Research in Reading.

Jiang, H., Tang, M., Peng, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Learning design and technology through social networks for high school students in China. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 28(1), 189-206.

Kahai, S. S., Carroll, E., & Jestice, R. (2007). Team collaboration in virtual worlds. ACM SIGMIS Database: the DATABASE for Advances in Information Systems, 38(4), 61-68.

Kasapo?lu-Akyol, P. (2010). Using educational technology tools to improve language and communication skills of ESL students. Novitas-Royal, 4(2).

Meskill, G., & Mossop, J. (2003). Technologies use with learners of ESL in New Your State: Preliminary report. Retrieved from  https://www.albany.edu/lap/Papers/technology%20use.htm 

Park, J. Y. (2011). Design education online: Learning delivery and evaluation. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 30(2), 176-187.

Study Document

Public Policy Of Agriculture Farm Bill 2018

Pages: 2 (712 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:94429716

… farm gets due to the subsidies which rule out the small scale farmer from the picture based on competitiveness. Also, there has been budget deficit of $1.09 trillion (Amadeo, 2019) caused due to certain factors, a lot of programs and policies have been under funded like Medicare … 2019) caused due to certain factors, a lot of programs and policies have been under funded like Medicare (Us, 2019) which required the budget allocation rather than allocating the tax money on farmers, because of which only rich are getting richer. There could have been other policies ……



Aid, F. (2018, December). What’s in the 2018 Farm Bill? The Good, The Bad and The Offal…. Farm Aid. Retrieved from  https://www.farmaid.org/issues/farm-policy/whats-in-the-2018-farm-bill-the-good-the-bad-and-the-offal/ 

Amadeo, K. (2019, November 24). Current US Federal Budget Deficit. The Balance.

Coalition, N. S. (2019). WHAT IS THE FARM BILL? National Sustainable Agricultural Coalition. Retrieved from  https://sustainableagriculture.net/our-work/campaigns/fbcampaign/what-is-the-farm-bill/ 

Queck-Matzie, T. (2018, December 12). GRASSLEY SEES FARM BILL PROS AND CONS. Successful Farming. Retrieved from  https://www.agriculture.com/news/business/grassley-sees-farm-bill-pros-and-cons 

Us, I. U. (2019, November 12). Breaking down the US Federal Budget for the Fiscal Year 2019. It\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Up To Us.

Study Document

The Rising Cost Of Public Education In United States

Pages: 7 (2143 words) Sources: 13 Document Type:Essay Document #:91796938

… for marriages by young adults sue to loan paybacks. The most effective method to solve this problem are to cut down or eliminate federal funding for education and hiring of part-time faculty.
Facts Regarding the Problem
In line with a 2019 report from the Centre on budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP), the tuition has increased by 37 percent, and the net costs have even risen further by 24 percent (Hess … tuition costs is the cuts in state funding to the public educational institutes. According to the GI bill of rights, in 1944, the federal government tried to enroll more students into the educational institutes. For that, they continued to give aids to the families (Toppo “For-Profit Tuition … to the same reason.
Pragmatic Solutions
One of the solutions for the stated problem can be eliminated, or at least cutting down of federal educational funds and loans. This can……


Works Cited

Amour, Madeline. “Report: living expenses, not tuition, are the problem.” Inside Higher Ed, 13 May 2020,  https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/13/living-expenses-are-larger-  barrier-students-tuition-report-finds. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Cude, Katherine. The Rising Cost Of Tuition At Four Year Public Universities: A Comparison Of The Explanations Offered By The Academic Literature And University Decision Makers. 2016. University of Vermont, Undergraduate theses. Scholar Works, https://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=castheses

Davidson, Adam. “Is College Tuition Really Too High?” The New York Times Magazine, 8 Sep. 2015,  https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/magazine/is-college-tuition-too-high.html . Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Desrochers, Donna, and Kirshstein, Rita. Labor Intensive or Labor Expensive? 2014. American Institutes for Research, Delta Cost Project. Lumina Foundation, https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/deltacostair-labor-expensive-higher- education-staffing-brief-feb2014.pdf

Dickler, Jessica. “Why College Tuition Keeps Rising.” CNBC, 24 Oct. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/10/24/why-college-tuition-keeps-rising.html, Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. Rising Tuition And Enrollment In Public Higher Education. 2008. IZA, Discussion Paper. IZA,  http://ftp.iza.org/dp3827.pdf 

Hemelt, Steven, and Marcotte, Dave. “The Impact of Tuition Increases on Enrollment at Public Colleges and Universities.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 33, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 435-457.

Hess, Abigail. “The Cost of College Increased by More Than 25% In the Last 10 Years- Here’s Why.” CNBC, 13 Dec. 2019, https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/13/cost-of-college- increased-by-more-than-25percent-in-the-last-10-years.html. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

Study Document

Acquisition Process In Action At The Department Of Energy

Pages: 10 (2943 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:56403146

… (2010) describes the role of the Alpha 5 project team leader as including the responsibilities set forth below.
· In coordination with the federal Project Director, selects the areas to be reviewed;
· Based on the areas selected for review, project complexity and hazards involved, selects the … completing the Review Criteria for the various areas to be reviewed;
· Coordinates the development of the data call and forwards to the federal Project Director, a list of documents, briefings, interviews, and presentations needed to support the review;
· Forwards the final review plan to the … review team members complete and document their portions of the review and characterizes the findings;
· Coordinates incorporation of factual accuracy comments by federal and Contractor personnel on the draft report; and,
· Finally, forwards the final review report to the federal Project Director and Environmental Management for consideration in making the decision……



About DOE. (2020). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from  https://www.energy.gov/about-us ,

About Y-12. (2020). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from  https://www.y12.doe.gov/  about.

Birchfield, J. W. & Albrecht, L. (2012). Successful characterization strategies for the active high risk Y-12 National Security Complex 9201-5 (Alpha-5) Facility, Oak Ridge, TN - 12164. United States.

Recovery cleanup project at Y-12. (2010). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from  https://www.energy.gov/orem/articles/recovery-cleanup-project-y-12-leaves-alpha-5-empty-feeling .

Standard review plan: Acquisition strategy review module. (2010, March). Washington, DC: Office of Environmental Management.

Supplement analysis for the site-wide environmental impact statement for the Y-12 National Security Complex (DOE/EIS-0387-SA-02). (2018, May). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from  https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2018/05/f51/EIS-0387-SA02-2018_0.pdf .

Teamwork successfully brings down the Alpha 5 Annex. (2018). U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from

Study Document

What Is Public Administration Today

Pages: 8 (2502 words) Sources: 8 Document Type:response paper Document #:69284084

… are a complete disaster. So the lack of transparency is a major issue with respect to private administration.
The significance of administrative federal from the federal, state and local perspectives ranges from setting quality standards to deciding which projects to put in motion. At every level, administrative federal means something a little different. For example, at the federal level, it means having the power to set the scope of a project or policy (Rubinstein, 2015). At the state or local level, … to pursue based on what the will of one’s constituents appears to be (Schwager, 1999). Thus, for each of the three perspectives, administrative federal carries a unique significance.
At the federal level, administrative federal is unique because it provides the federal government with the ability to “make front-line decisions about the scope of federal policy and whether such policy should preempt state law” (Rubenstein, 2015, p.……



Cann, S. (2007). The Administrative State, the Exercise of Discretion, and the Constitution. Public Administration Review, 67(4), 780–782.

EPA. (2015). Administrative discretion. Retrieved from  https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/administrative_discretion_nonotesclean.pdf 

Reyes, P., & Pounder, D. G. (1993). Organizational orientation in public and private elementary schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 87(2), 86-93.

Reyes, D. R. (1998). Public sector reengineering: Practice, problems and prospects.

Rinaldi, M., Montanari, R., & Bottani, E. (2015). Improving the efficiency of public

administrations through business process reengineering and simulation: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 21(2), 419-462.

Rubenstein, D. S. (2015). Administrative Federalism as Separation of Powers. Wash. & Lee L. Rev., 72, 171.

Savoie, D. J. (2006). What is wrong with the new public management?. In Comparative Public Administration (pp. 593-602). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Study Document

Obesity And Role Of Government

Pages: 6 (1668 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:81197776

… social changes that will sustainably reduce the incidence of obesity in the long term (Swinburn, 2008).
What Is Being Done?
The United States federal government reduced the incidence of obesity, one of its top help priorities about ten years ago. The government did this by launching long … only part of the report that the government of Australia has implemented is the part that called for television advertisements against obesity. Both federal and state governments have run many advertisements in popular TV stations with viewership across the country. Community-level programs against obesity have also been … The problem of obesity in the country is now correctly perceived as a crisis and a dangerous one at that (Swinburn, 2008). The federal government and state governments need to act now to stop obesity before the problem becomes worse and begins negatively affecting every part of ……



AAFP. (2010). Federal government takes bigger role in combating obesity. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/news/obesity/20100517fed-initiatives.html

Institute of Medicine. 2007. Progress in preventing childhood obesity: how do we measure up?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.  https://doi.org/10.17226/11722 .

Kumanyaki, S. K., Parker, L., & Sim, L. J. (2010). Bridging the evidence gap in obesity prevention: A framework to inform decision making. Retrieved from  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK220174/ 

Mitchell, N., Catenacci, V., Wyatt, H., & Hill, J. (2011). Obesity: Overview of an epidemic. Psychiatr Clin North Am, 34(4), 717-732. DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2011.08.005

Swinburn, B. (2008). Obesity prevention: The role of policies, laws, and regulations. Aust New Zealand Health Policy, 5(12). DOI: 10.1186/1743-8462-5-12

Study Document

Enterprise Risk Management In Wells Fargo During The Pandemic

Pages: 15 (4587 words) Sources: 15 Document Type:Essay Document #:32848070

… sheet” (Sartor & Dall, 2020). It looks at five components of enterprise risk: 1) unrestricted liquidity, 2) capital structure, 3) operations, 4) capital budget risks, and 5) defined benefit plans. Goldman Sachs is an international competitor of Wells Fargo and tends to succeed more than it its ……



Beasley, M. (2020). How to Leverage ERM Principles to Better Respond to COVID-19-Related Risks. ERM Professional Insights.

Derysh, I. (2020). Watchdog questions why Wells Fargo reported giving only one large PPP loan to a Black-owned business. Retrieved from  https://www.salon.com/2020/07/22/watchdog-questions-why-wells-fargo-reported-giving-only-one-large-ppp-loan-to-a-black-owned-business/ 

English, C. (2020). Wells Fargo Forced to Cut Its Dividend After Fed Stress Test. Here’s What Other Banks Did. Retrieved from  https://www.barrons.com/articles/wells-fargo-forced-to-cut-its-dividend-after-fed-stress-test-51593467664 

Hall, J. (2007). Internal Auditing and ERM: Fitting in and Adding Value. Retrieved from  https://global.theiia.org/about/about-the-iia/Public  Documents/Sawyer_Award_2007.pdf

Kaplan, R. & Mikes, A. (2012). Managing risks: A new framework. Harvard Business Review, 3.

Lewis, M. (2010). The Big Short. NY: W. W. Norton.

Lundqvist, S. (2014). Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance. Lund University.

Morgenson, G. (2020). More Wells Fargo customers say the bank decided to pause their mortgage payments without asking. Retrieved from  https://www.nbcnews.com/business/personal-finance/more-wells-fargo-customers-say-bank-decided-pause-their-mortgage-n1234610

Study Document

Deregulation Under The Trump Administration And Its Impact On The

Pages: 7 (2006 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:81227752

… non-profit sector in various beneficial ways, such as
by allowing nonprofits to keep anonymous the names of donors; and by capping the amount federal agencies can force nonprofits to spend—the idea being that this will prohibit agencies from shifting costs for regulatory ambitions onto nonprofits and other … deregulation under the Trump Administration positively impacts nonprofits can be seen with Executive Order 13771. Executive Order 13771 calls for a new regulatory budget process that will aim to control the overall cost of every agency’s regulations: President Trump wants an “annual cap on the additional cost … Graham, 2019, p. 15). Belton and Graham (2019) show that President Trump’s deregulation with EO 13771 is aimed at curbing the abuses of federal agencies by capping their ability to put costs on nonprofits and other organizations. The reason for this cap would be that agencies are … agencies that, in Trump’s eyes,……



Belton, K. & Graham, J. (2019). Trump’s Deregulatory Record: An Assessment at the Two-Year Mark. Retrieved from  http://accf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/ACCF-Report_Trump-Deregulatory-Record-FINAL.pdf 

Benson, M. L., Stadler, W. A., & Pontell, H. N. (2019). Harming America: Corporate Crime in a Context of Deregulation. Victims & Offenders, 14(8), 1063-1083.

Brookings Institute. (2020). Tracking deregulation in the Trump era. Retrieved from  https://www.brookings.edu/interactives/tracking-deregulation-in-the-trump-era/ 

Morrow, D. (2017). Deregulation in the Trump Administration will likely impact nonprofits. Retrieved from http://blog.abila.com/deregulation-trump-administration-impacting-nonprofits/

Weaver, H. L. (2018). One for the price of two: the hidden costs of regulatory reform under executive order 13,771. Administrative Law Review, 70(2), 491-512.

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