Gun Violence Effect on African American community
The African American community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of gun violence. For starters, the violence takes a toll on … communities. The violence that emanates from the use of guns and other incidences of shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop members of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious of the law enforcement authorities. Indeed, any government departments, including but not limited to the police, are under thorough scrutiny regarding … be avoided whenever possible (Schopper, Lormand&Waxweiler, 2006). Mental health professionals will also be included in the policy development process. The trauma of a community may be an outcome of the violent……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
… that 87% of African American homicides are killed by guns. It is evident from these statistics that gun violence among the African American community is a real problem. This paper will provide an overview of the problem, who it affects and why it is important for social … the offender. 71% of the killings were totally unrelated to any other crime being committed (Violence Policy Center, 2020). These statistics show a community that is being destroyed by gun violence but also by violent attitudes. This problem, moreover, is cultural.
The culture of the African American … that is being destroyed by gun violence but also by violent attitudes. This problem, moreover, is cultural.
The culture of the African American community has been hurt by a number of factors. Candace Owens has pointed out the three biggest problems facing black America today are father … three biggest problems facing black……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work
Jones, N. (2014). “The regular routine”: Proactive policing and adolescent development among young, poor black men. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2014(143), 33-54.
Llewellyn, J. J., Archibald, B. P., Clairmont, D., & Crocker, D. (2013). Imagining success for a restorative approach to justice: Implications for measurement and evaluation. Dalhousie LJ, 36, 281.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
Violence Policy Center. (2020). Black homicide victimization. Retrieved from http://vpc.org/revealing-the-impacts-of-gun-violence/black-homicide-victimization/
Integrated Public service
PPPs, as they have come to be popularly referred, are methods of procurement by governments where there is a larger number of … procurement by governments where there is a larger number of stakeholders involving the government, the private sector, and the general public is securing service and, or goods. The model focuses on the delivery of service, products, and infrastructure to the public. The areas under focus transcend a broad span, including water treatment, transportation, health, education, energy, environment, among … transportation, health, education, energy, environment, among others. It is a common belief that PPP is a great approach to handle the provision of service and products to the public. The procurement strategy is known as the Public-Private Partnership. As the name suggests, the program is meant to … suggests, the program is meant to encourage the government to involve the private sector and the……
Duff, V. (2020). What is organizational integration? Retrieved from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-integration-82053.html
Friedman, S. (2016). Successful public/private partnerships from principles to practices. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
Ma, L., Li, J., Jin, R., &Ke, Y. (2019). A holistic review of public-private partnership literature published between 2008 and 2018. Advances in Civil Engineering. Retrieved from http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/ace/2019/7094653.pdf
PrivacySense. (2016). Public sector. Retrieved from http://www.privacysense.net/terms/public-sector/
Reddy, C. (2016). Staff training: Importance, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages. Retrieved from https://content.wisestep.com/staff-training-importance-benefits-advantages-disadvantages/
Sekhri, N., Feachem, R., & Ni, A. (2011). Public-private integrated partnerships demonstrate the potential to improve health care access, quality, and efficiency. Health Affairs, 30(8).
Some of the demographic data that could come in handy in the assessment of the need for hearing service in this case could comprise of occupation, age, and gender. With regard to gender, it should be noted that hearing loss happens to … in hearing loss. A good example in this case would be nightclub work.
In an attempt to evaluate the need for hearing service in the community, various approaches could be used in the analysis of data in this scenario. The approach recommended on this front is named-entity recognition (NER). … in one ear than in the other ear?
The other factors which are likely to influence the need for hearing service in the community include, but they are not limited to; attitudes towards help seeking, income levels, and maladaptive behaviors of persons experiencing hearing difficulties.
Hull, R.H. (2013). Hearing and Aging. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.
GENDER DIFFERENCE AMONG VETERANS
Does Gender Affect the Utilization of Mental Health Care service among Veterans?
The decision one takes when choosing a career poses a lifelong effect on his own life as well as of his … stands true for the army. Generally, it is observed that women need special care for small illnesses and therefore require outpatient health care service more frequently as compared to men; the same stands true for reproductive and depression care as well. So, per person, the medical costs … the army. The thesis statement of the following literature review highlights that there is a gender difference in the utilization of health care service among veterans, specifically military women. Although women's presence is large, since they are either young or belong to minorities, but the benefits they … need special mental health care. The reason for this being that they suffer from severe mental……
Adams, R.E., Urosevich, T.G., Hoffman, S.N., Kirchner, H.L., Figley, C.R., Withey, C.A., Boscarino, J.J., Dugan, R.J. & Boscarino, J.A. (2019). Social and psychological risk and protective factors for veteran well-being: The role of veteran identity and its implications for intervention. Military Behavioral Health, 7(3), 304-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2019.1580642
Allore, H.G., Ning, Y., Brandt, C.A., & Goulet, J.L. (2013). Accounting for the hierarchical structure in veterans’ health administration data: Differences in healthcare utilization between men and women veterans. International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, 2(2), 94-103. DOI: 10.6000/1929-6029.2013.02.02.03
Brooks, C. & Chopik, W. (2010, June 17). Research finds deployment affects mental health of veterans differently. Michigan State University. https://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2020/research-finds-deployment-affects-mental-health-of-veterans-differently/
Duggal, M., Goulet, J.L., Womack, J., Gordon, K., Mattocks, K., Haskell, S.G., Justice, A.C. & Brandt, C.A. (2010). Comparison of outpatient health care utilization among returning women and men veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq. BMS Health Services Research, 10 (175). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-175
Harpaz-Rotem, I. & Rosenheck, R.A. (2011). Serving those who served: Retention of newly returning veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan in mental health treatment. Psychiatric Services, 62(1), 22-27. DOI: 10.1176/ps.62.1.pss6201_0022.
Haskel, S.G., Brandt, C.A., Krebs, E.E., Skanderson, M., Kerns, R.D., & Goulet, J.L. (2009). Pain among veterans of operations enduring freedom and Iraqi freedom: Do women and men differ? Pain Medicine, 10(7), 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526- 4637.2009.00714.x
Kaur, S., Stechuchak, K.M., Coffman, C.J., Allen, K.D., & Bastain, L.A. (2007). Gender differences in health care utilization among veterans with chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 228-233. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-006-0048-5
Koo, K.H., Madden, E. & Maguen, S. (2015). Race, ethnicity, and gender differences in V.A. health care service utilization among U.S. veterans of recent conflicts. Psychiatric Services, 66(5), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201300498
… of important tasks that I did not expect to perform in my internship. My tasks mainly involved providing assistance and support for offender community service, sex offender treatment, offender substance abuse treatment, and offender reintegration. I also helped offenders with housing and court costs. My main responsibility in … included visiting the homes of the offenders with senior probation officers, attending court hearings for offenders under the office’s supervision, contacting employers and community members regarding offenders under the offices supervision, helping write probation reports, meeting with offenders at the office, conducting urine screens, and interviewing offenders … criminal history, mental health status, medical status, financial status, family status, strengths, special circumstances surround their case, and disposition recommendations meant to balance community safety needs, victim needs, offender needs, and offender accountability. Generally, the investigations are conducted by…[break]…a combination of field and office contacts.
The bureau ……
… and defined organizational structure (Cole, 2000). Firstly, the Incident Action Plan is responsible for assigning individuals and group functions and roles in economic, community, and ecological restoration processes across federal, state, and local disaster recovery hierarchy levels. Secondly, despite external alignment with outside organizations, such as volunteer … experiences and inter-organizational training can further increase ICS deployment to promote cooperation between individuals and organizations working on disaster response techniques, plans, and community development (Lutz and Lindell, 2008).
According to Cole (2000), the ICS model also presents various potential issues such as multi-agency integration effectiveness, limited … intrinsic attributes of command and control cause it to function well in quasi-military agencies only. A good example is the police department. A community of professional responders with interpersonal trust and technical proficiency can utilize ICS during disaster response due to its social sophistication (Buck et al., … agency type and disaster type……
AmeriCorps St. Louis. (2016). “Missouri Winter Flooding 2016.” Retrieved from https://www. americorps-stl.org/our-teams/emergency-response-team/disaster-deployment-archive/missouri-winter-flooding-2016/.
Buck, Dick A., Joseph E. Trainor, and Benigno E. Aguirre. (2006). “A Critical Evaluation of the Incident Command System and NIMS.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3).
Bigley, Gregory A. and Karlene H. Roberts. (2001). “The Incident Command System: High-Reliability Organizing for Complex and Volatile Task Environments.” Academy of Management Journal, 44(6): 1281-1299.
Butterfield, Karen. (2016, January 21). “AmeriCorps Helping Flood Victims Find Place to Stay.” The Missourian. Retrieved from http://www.emissourian.com/local_news/washington/americorps-helping-flood-victims-find-place-to-stay/article_56f75bab-87de-5198-843e-bdfdb8229b5a.html .
Cardwell, Michael D. and Patrick T. Cooney. (2000). “Nationwide Application of the Incident Command System: Standardization Is the Key.” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 69.10: 10-16.
Cole, Dana. (2000). The Incident Command System: A 25-Year Evaluation by California Practitioners. National Fire Academy.
Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). (2014). “Disaster Response Framework.” Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/CNCS%20DSU%20 Disaster%20Response%20Framework.pdf.
Dynes, Russell Rowe. (1970). Organized Behavior in Disaster. Lexington, MA: Heath Lexington.
… the school s a whole, improving that school’s performance ratings, its reputation, and its effectiveness in forming strong ties with other governmental, human service, and community organizations (Ma, Shen, Krenn, et al., 2015). Therefore, one of the most important subjects in educational research and educational administration is parental involvement. … learn how to increase parental involvement in meaningful ways, ways that yield desired outcomes for individual students and also for the school and community. Furthermore, researchers need to learn the best ways of increasing parental involvement while taking into account the socioeconomic and cultural diversity among the … of their children, then school administrators may need to work harder to shift those perceptions by forming strategic partnerships with public health and community service organizations. Alternatively, school administrators and teachers could learn how to mitigate negative parental attitudes by reaching out more strategically to high potential students. ……
Benner, A.D., Boyle, A.E. & Sadler, S. (2016). Parental Involvement and Adolescents’ Educational Success: The Roles of Prior Achievement and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 45(6): 1053-1064.
Castro, M., Esposito-Casas, E., Lopez-Martin, E., et al. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 14(2015): 33-46.
Creswell, J.W. & Poth, C.N. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry Research Design. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Hill, N.E., Witherspoon, D.P. & Bartz, D. (2016). Parental involvement in education during middle school: Perspectives of ethnically diverse parents, teachers, and students. The Journal of Educational Research 111(1): 12-27.
Ma, X., Shen, J., Krenn, HY., et al. (2016). A meta-analysis of the relationship between learning outcomes and parental involvement. Educational Psychology Review 28(4): 771-801.
Park, S. & Holloway, S. (2018). Parental Involvement in Adolescents\\' Education: An Examination of the Interplay among School Factors, Parental Role Construction, and Family Income. School Community Journal 28(1): 9-36.
Ule, M., Zivoder, A. & duBois-Reymond, M. (2015). ‘Simply the best for my children’: patterns of parental involvement in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 28(3): 329-348.
… accountable adult. The aim of them is to promote prosocial attitudes. As Fritz (2015) points out, diverting children away from incarceration is a service to them and to the community because it promotes a more humane vision of what society should be about and it demonstrates to the juvenile that the world is … posits when applying Strain Theory to why juveniles engage in crime.
Types of Punishment
Types of punishment include: incarceration, home confinement, electronic monitoring, community service, probation, diversion programs (though this can also fall under the treatment category in some cases), or placement in a foster home. Punishment does … are ways the justice system can go about handling this without destroying the young person’s life. Treatment through therapy, counseling, and other support service would help to rehabilitate the individual and make it possible for that person to leave the justice system with a greater sense……
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Cramer, M. (2014). Parole Board releases 2nd man convicted of murder as juvenile. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/06/parole-board-releases-man-convicted-murder-while-juvenile/REwVVe3aR9leuRVMpZsN6O/story.html
Diskin, M. (2018). New law will put limits. Retrieved from https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/2018/10/11/new-california-law-means-teen-suspect-oxnard-murders-cannot-tried-adult/1535518002/
Fritz, J. K. (2015). Diverting young offenders from prison is ‘smart justice.’ Education Digest, 81(2), 53-55.
Jannetta, J., & Okeke, C. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement. Building Ladders of Opportunity for Young People in the Great Lakes States, brief, 4. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement_2.pdf
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Meli, L. (2014). Hate Crime and Punishment: Why Typical Punishment Does Not Fit the Crime. U. Ill. L. Rev., 921.
… are likely to be at risk of neglect and abuse
· Continue with healthcare provision as the cases are processed
· Report to community service and the children's court where there are requests for health service
· Respond to calls from the police and community service personnel to carry out medical examinations
· Help out in proceedings of the children's courts when called upon to do so.
Young … courts when called upon to do so.
Young people have a right to be kept safe in their homes and around the community. They should be raised in an environment free from violence and abuse. It is criminal to neglect children and abuse them, but the ……
Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC). (2010). Family violence: A national legal response. Canberra: ALRC.
Child Family Community Australia (CFCA). (2016). Australian legal definitions: When is a child in need of protection? (CFCA Resource Sheet). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
New South Wales Government. (1998). Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998.
NSW Government, (2018a). Child wellbeing and child protection fact sheet for NSW Health workers. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/parvan/childprotect/Pages/child-wellbeing.aspx
NSW Government, (2018b). About child protection and wellbeing. Retrieved from https://www.health.nsw.gov.au/parvan/childprotect/Pages/default.aspx
WHO (2002). \\\\\\\\\\\\"Chapter 3: Child abuse and neglect by parents and other caregivers.\\\\\\\\\\\\" World report on violence and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap3.pdf
World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing child maltreatment: a guide to taking action and generating evidence. Geneva, WHO.
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