...Violence Vicarious trauma (VT) includes the harmful changes in the views of professionals, such as K-12 educators, of themselves, the world, and others, due to exposure to traumatic material or graphic of their clients or students. Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a set of psychological symptoms acquired through exposure to individuals exhibiting the impacts of trauma. K-12 educators who work with students exposed to trauma are susceptible to indirect traumatization due to hearing about the experiences of their students and witnessing the negative influence of VT or PTS in them. Distress associated with PTS results from hearing traumatic stories, seeing distress at high levels post a traumatic event, retelling a victim’s story, and/or viewing trauma-related images. Personal trauma history, supervision experiences evidence, and perceived coping style evidence are predictors for vicarious trauma. Personal trauma history and exposure to trauma material with reasonable evidence are precursors for PTS. K-12 educators’ stressors can force……
Alschuler, Alfred S. Teacher Burnout. , 1980. Print.
Lipsky, Laura D, and Connie Burk. Trauma Stewardship: An Everyday Guide to Caring for Self While Caring for Others. , 2009. Internet resource.
Saigh, Philip A, and J D. Bremner. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Comprehensive Text. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999. Print.
...Violence The thesis of Klarman’s Brown v Board of Education and the Civil Rights Moment is that Brown v. Board of Education was a pivotal and massively important moment in American history—but not for the reasons that are typically given. The common understanding of Brown v. Board of Education is that it ended segregation in schools and helped make America a more equal place. Klarman views this is a very superficial approach to the subject, somewhat like a myth and one that needs to be dispelled. He begins by bringing up the dominant theme of the book—racism—which Klarman points out had remained “strong in the North in the years after the Civil War.”[footnoteRef:2] Racism was not just a regional issue; rather, it had been entrenched in American politics throughout the country and to a large degree it was institutionalized. The Jim Crow Era was proof of the institutionalization of racism and……
Cripps, Thomas and and David Culbert. “The Negro Soldier (1944): Film Propaganda in Black and White.” American Quarterly Vol. 31, No. 5, Special Issue: Film and American Studies (Winter, 1979), pp. 616-640: The Josh Hopkins University Press.
German, Kathleen M. Promises of Citizenship: Film Recruitment of African Americans in World War 2. University Press of Mississippi, 2017.
Klarman, Michael. Brown v Board of Education and the Civil Rights Moment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007.
...Violence Chicago Public School (CPS) system is the most understaffed in Illinois, where throughout the state the average student to staff ratio is 11 to one. In the CPS system, it is 16 to one—16 students to every one teacher, and that is just going by averages (Sepeda-Miller, 2018). As Laraviere (2019) puts it, “the 20 most adequately staffed school districts in Illinois have 100 staff members for every 500 students.” Yet in CPS, it is just 29 staff for every 500 students (Laraviere, 2019)—which means when compared to the best that Illinois has to offer, Chicago looks like the worst. That is a serious shame for a city and school system that should be recognized and hailed as the state’s top district. Instead, the reality is that there is no maximum limit on classroom size in the CPS system (Guerrero, 2019), and some classes can grow much larger than already……
Blatchford, P., & Russell, A. (2019). Class size, grouping practices and classroom management. International Journal of Educational Research, 96, 154-163.
Guerrero, M. (2019). Understaffed and overcrowded: Chicago teachers on strike. Retrieved from https://depauliaonline.com/43619/news/understaffed-and-overcrowded-chicago-teachers-on-strike/
Laraviere, T. (2019). Is the teachers' union demanding enough? Retrieved from https://www.chicagobusiness.com/opinion/teachers-union-demanding-enough
Leone, H. (2019). Chicago Public Schools’ enrollment drops another 6,000 students, extending long downward trend. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/breaking/ct-cps-chicago-public-schools-enrollment-decline-20191108-u7qkibaptnb7ljyob3frclgldy-story.html
Sepeda-Miller. (2018). Is CPS the most understaffed district in Illinois? Retrieved from https://www.politifact.com/illinois/statements/2018/jun/21/troy-laraviere/cps-most-understaffed-district-illinois/
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