Introduction: What Is Known About Elder Abuse
Elder abuse occurs at an alarming rate: around one million incidences a year and perhaps more due to under-reporting and inconsistencies in defining what constitutes … at an alarming rate: around one million incidences a year and perhaps more due to under-reporting and inconsistencies in defining what constitutes elder abuse (Falk, Baigis, Kopac, et al., 2012). Roberto (2016) estimates as many as one in every ten American elders experience some kind of abuse. Unfortunately, “there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates,” (Roberto, 2016, … and advocates,” (Roberto, 2016, p. 302). Cultural and religious diversity further impedes the evolution of a comprehensive and universally applicable definition of elder abuse, in spite of the fact that some forms of abuse and certain instances can be considered unequivocal (Saghafi, Bahramnezhad, Poormollamirza, et al.,……
Falk, N. L., Baigis, J., Kopac, C., (August 14, 2012) \\\\\\\\\\\\"Elder Mistreatment and the Elder Justice Act\\\\\\\\\\\\" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 17(3).
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Lacher, S., Wettstein, A., Senn, O., et al. (2016). Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse. Swiss Medical Weekly 2016(146): 1-10.
Lachs, M.S., Teresi, J.A., Ramirez, M., et al. (2016). The prevalence of ersident-to-resident elder mistreatment in nursing homes. Annals of Internal Medicine 165(4):229-236.
Malmedal, W., Iversen, M.H. & Kilvik, A. (2014). Sexual abuse of older nursing home residents: A literature review. Nursing Research and Practice 2015(Article 902515): http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/902515
Roberto, K.A. (2016). The complexities of elder abuse. American Psychologist 71(4): 302-311.
Saghafi, A., Bahramnezhad, F., Poormollamirza, A., et al. (2019). Examining the ethical challenges in managing elder abuse: a systematic review. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 2019(12): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642445/
Wangmo, T., Nordstrom, K. & Kressig, R.W. (2017). Preventing elder abuse and neglect in geriatric institutions: Solutions from nursing care providers. Geriatric Nursing 38(5): 385-392.
Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Substance Abuse
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to describe current government initiatives for addressing substance abuse by adolescents in the United States. An analysis of what is being done as well as what is not being done is followed … discussion concerning the long-term requirements of the envisioned intervention is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescent substance abuse in the United States today in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Current government initiatives/plans for addressing adolescent substance abuse
Given the severity, scope and importance of the problem, it is not surprising that there are a number of initiatives and programs that … that have been devoted to this issue over the past several decades. For instance, according to one authority, “We have been fighting drug abuse for almost a century. Four Presidents……
A public health-based approach. (2019). Rural Health. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealth info.org/toolkits/substance-abuse/1/public-health-based-approach.
Barker, P. (2009). Psychiatric and mental health nursing: The craft of caring. London: Hodder Arnold.
Burrow-Sanchez, J. J. (2009, Summer). Understanding adolescent substance abuse: Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(3), 283-288.
Guy, X. & Slesnick, N. (2016, April). Changes in family relationships among substance abusing runaway adolescents: A comparison between family and individual therapies. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 42(2), 299-302.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Principles of adolescent substance use disorder treatment: A research-based guide. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/ publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment.
Schwartz, R. C. & Smith, S. D. (2009, October). Screening and assessing adolescent substance abuse: A primer for counselors. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 24(1), 23-26.
The United States war on drugs. (2017 ). Stanford University. Retrieved from https://web. stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html.
Youth.gov. (2019). Substance abuse agencies. Retrieved from https://youth.gov/youth-topics/substance-abuse/prevalence-substance-use-abuse-and-dependence .
Fraud and abuse present significant problems for the healthcare sector, leading to both financial losses and reduced quality of care. The outcomes of fraud and abuse are similar; but fraud and abuse are legally differentiated based on motive. According to Magellan Healthcare (2019), fraud is committed with clear intent, whereas abuse “involves actions that are inconsistent with sound fiscal, business or accepted behavioral healthcare practices,” (p. 1). Determining intent to differentiate between fraud and … “involves actions that are inconsistent with sound fiscal, business or accepted behavioral healthcare practices,” (p. 1). Determining intent to differentiate between fraud and abuse can be challenging, which is why healthcare leaders need to treat all forms of waste and deception with equal severity.
Healthcare fraud is … illustrate the high stakes involved in healthcare fraud, showing that the lure of financial gain leads multiple stakeholders to make poor ethical decisions.
Abuse cases are typically……
FBI (2019). Healthcare fraud news. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/white-collar-crime/health-care-fraud/health-care-fraud-news
“Fraud and Abuse: What’s the Difference?” (2007). The Rheumatologist. 1 Nov, 2007. Retrieved from https://www.the-rheumatologist.org/article/fraud-and-abuse-whats-the-difference/
Magellan Healthcare (2019). Fraud, waste, and abuse. Retrieved from https://www.magellanprovider.com/education/fraud-waste-and-abuse/fraud-waste-abuse-faqs.aspx
The determining factors and the relationship between substance abuse and addiction include time, the build-up of tolerance, the development of craving, and the experience of withdrawal so that the individual no longer … development of craving, and the experience of withdrawal so that the individual no longer wants to ever be without the drug. One who abuses substances is likely to get into legal or social trouble; one who is addicted is one who no longer cares about the repercussions … who no longer cares about the repercussions and cares only for the high that the substances promise (Doweiko, 2015).
In my own experience, abuse can turn into addiction as the will gradually gives in to the craving. For instance, I have seen people become alcoholics as they … you are tempted, he will also provide a way out so that you can endure it” (1 Corinthians 10:13-14).
Doweiko, H. E. (2015). Concepts of chemical dependency (9th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781285455136.
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Impact of Drug Abuse on School Children Aged 10 To 18 in Developed Countries (U.S., Canada, France, England, Germany, Italy, Russia, Australia, Japan and China): Narrative Literature … Japan and China): Narrative Literature Review
The problem addressed in this literature review is that in developed countries around the world, drug abuse among school children between the ages of 10 and 18 is on the rise (UN, 2018). School children are particularly vulnerable because their … making drug culture more popular (Chu, 2015). For that reason the aim of this study is to assess the actual impact of drug abuse on young school children throughoug the developed world. The goal is to ultimately find a way to address this problem and reverse the … impact need to be known. It is in fact a global problem and even impacts third world countries like Ethiopia, where school children abuse inhalants to……
Baggio, S., Spilka, S., Studer, J., Iglesias, K., & Gmel, G. (2016). Trajectories of drug use among French young people: Prototypical stages of involvement in illicit drug use. Journal of Substance Use, 21(5), 485-490.
Bonyani, A., Safaeian, L., Chehrazi, M., Etedali, A., Zaghian, M., & Mashhadian, F. (2018). A high school-based education concerning drug abuse prevention. Journal of education and health promotion, 7.
Chu, Y. W. L. (2015). Do medical marijuana laws increase hard-drug use?. The Journal of Law and Economics, 58(2), 481-517.
Downes, D. (2017). The drug addict as a folk devil. In Drugs and politics (pp. 89-97). Routledge.
Goodchild, M., Nargis, N., & d\\'Espaignet, E. T. (2018). Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases. Tobacco control, 27(1), 58-64.
Grant, C. N., & Bélanger, R. E. (2017). Cannabis and Canada’s children and youth. Paediatrics & child health, 22(2), 98-102.
Herbert, A., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., McGhee, J., Li, L., & Gilbert, R. (2016). Time-trends in rates of hospital admission of adolescents for violent, self-inflicted or drug/alcohol-related injury in England and Scotland, 2005–11: population-based analysis. Journal of Public Health, 39(1), 65-73.
Henkel, D., & Zemlin, U. (2016). Social inequality and substance use and problematic gambling among adolescents and young adults: a review of epidemiological surveys in Germany. Current drug abuse reviews, 9(1), 26-48.
… Unnever, Hartman, Turner, and Agnew (2008) is analyzing the impact of bullying while Watts and McNulty (2013) is analyzing the impact of childhood abuse. Both articles are looking at the linkage between the negative stimuli and the development of criminal or delinquent behavior. Both authors have managed … or delinquent behavior. Both authors have managed to demonstrate there is direct like between bullying and development of criminal behavior and between childhood abuse and criminal behavior development. The strain that is being experienced by the children or individual results in anger, and as Agnew (2007) demonstrated, … been well articulated by other researchers and the two articles have managed to create a link that demonstrates that with bullying and childhood abuse, a person does develop anger that will lead them towards an escape through criminal or delinquent behavior. Family-based strains have also been shown … the impact of bullying on……
Agnew, R. (2002). Experienced, vicarious, and anticipated strain: An exploratory study on physical victimization and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 19(4), 603-632.
Agnew, R. (2007). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles,CA: Roxbury.
Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008). Gender, bullying victimization, and juvenile delinquency: A test of general strain theory. Victims and Offenders, 3(4), 346-364.
Warner, B. D., & Fowler, S. K. (2003). Strain and violence: Testing a general strain theory model of community violence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(6), 511-521.
Watts, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (2013). Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: Testing a general strain theory model. Journal of interpersonal violence, 28(15), 3023-3040.
As Masini (2010) shows, animal-assisted therapy can be quite useful in helping patients engaging in substance abuse treatment. Masini (2010) highlights the benefits of equine-assisted psychotherapy in particular, as do Hauge, Kvalem, Berget, Enders-Slegers & Braastad (2014), who note that … horses can facilitate the perception of having a stronger social support. As social support is a necessary part to overcoming or battling substance abuse, the animal-assisted intervention can be seen as a positive influence (Birtel, Wood & Kempa, 2017; Muela, Balluerka, Amiano, Caldentey & Aliri, 2017).
Animal-assisted … 2017; Muela, Balluerka, Amiano, Caldentey & Aliri, 2017).
Animal-assisted therapy can have a positive effect on engagement and retention of individuals in substance abuse treatment. Kelly and Cozzolino (2015), for example, have shown that at-risk youth have been aided by animal-assisted therapy in their attempts to overcome … Cozzolino (2015), for example, have shown that at-risk youth have been……
Birtel, M. D., Wood, L., & Kempa, N. J. (2017). Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being. Psychiatry Research, 252, 1-8.
Contalbrigo, L., De Santis, M., Toson, M., Montanaro, M., Farina, L., Costa, A., & Nava,F. (2017). The efficacy of dog assisted therapy in detained drug users: A pilot study in an Italian attenuated custody institute. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(7), 683.
Hauge, H., Kvalem, I. L., Berget, B., Enders-Slegers, M. J., & Braastad, B. O. (2014). Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents–an intervention study. International journal of adolescence and youth, 19(1), 1-21.
Kelly, M. A., & Cozzolino, C. A. (2015). Helping at-risk youth overcome trauma and substance abuse through animal-assisted therapy. Contemporary Justice Review, 18(4), 421-434.
Kern-Godal, A., Arnevik, E. A., Walderhaug, E., & Ravndal, E. (2015). Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) for young adults. Addiction science & clinical practice, 10(1), 21.
Klemetsen, M. G., & Lindstrom, T. C. (2017). Animal-assisted therapy in the treatment of substance use disorders: A systematic mixed methods review. Human-Animal Interaction Bull, 5, 90-117.
Masini, A., PhD. (2010). Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(10), 30-34. doi: http://fir.tesu.edu:2074/10.3928/02793695-20100831-08
Muela, A., Balluerka, N., Amiano, N., Caldentey, M. A., & Aliri, J. (2017). Animal-assisted psychotherapy for young people with behavioural problems in residential care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 24(6), O1485-O1494. doi: http://fir.tesu.edu:2074/10.1002/cpp.2112
… for different reasons. Some are scared to leave. Others feel that they still love the person so to leave because they are being abused would be wrong. Some see the abuse as a trade-off that comes with the security the person provides, such as money, shelter, etc. Sometimes there is a co-dependency and the … is a co-dependency and the person feels that life would not be any better without the person because there is going to be abuse in life no matter what. Women sometimes think they deserved it or that they made the person upset and that it was just … sometimes think they deserved it or that they made the person upset and that it was just for the man to beat or abuse them.
According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2017), African American women are the most likely to suffer from abuse, as……
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Prevention of Substance Abuse among Youth: Seeking to Understand Perspectives
To understand an effective way to prevent substance abuse among youth, it is important to explore the perspectives of stakeholders and individuals who play a role in applying preventive strategies. For that … applying preventive strategies. For that reason, this study uses qualitative design to explore the perspectives of high school teachers toward successful teen substance abuse prevention program. This paper discusses the background of the problem, provides a problem statement, purpose statement, and research question, and reviews literature pertaining … to address the opioid epidemic that is scourging the nation today. Youths are among the most vulnerable population when it comes to substance abuse because they are most likely to be affected by peer pressure and media, where drug usage is most often displayed in not unfavorable … as teens turn to synthetic substances that they obtain on……
Preventing College Students from Drug Usage
Prevention of substance abuse in college is frequently discussed and researched and this makes it vital that many colleges implement multiple preventive strategies to determine the one … consumption. The college should have drug prevention programs that are targeted towards new college students and those who are most prone to drug abuse (Califano 1). These programs will demonstrate to the college students the negative effects of drug use not only on their academic performance but ……
Abelman, Dor David. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Mitigating Risks of Students Use of Study Drugs through Understanding Motivations for Use and Applying Harm Reduction Theory: A Literature Review.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Harm reduction journal 14.1 (2017): 68. Print.
Cadigan, Jennifer M, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Patterns of Alcohol Use and Marijuana Use among Students at 2-and 4-Year Institutions.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Journal of American college health 67.4 (2019): 383-90. Print.
Califano, Joseph A. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Wasting the Best and the Brightest: Alcohol and Drug Abuse on College Campuses.\\\\\\\\\\\\" 2007. Web.
Dennis, Dr. Kim. \\\\\\\\\\\\"Recognizing, Understanding and Combatting Alcohol & Drug Abuse on Campus.\\\\\\\\\\\\" n.d. Web.
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