Racial Discrimination Essays (Examples)

Study Document

Bilingual Education Handbook Compare And Contrast

Pages: 4 (1292 words) Sources: 5 Document Type:Essay Document #:99565133

… Act forms the basis of the ESOL program. It is also consistent with bilingual language policy that calls on teachers to practice gender, racial, socioeconomic, and cultural equity (U.S. Department of Justice, 2019).
Castaneda v. Pickard 1981 (5th Circuit Court)
This is a three-pronged approach to deciding ……



Danville School District ESOL Program Handbook. (2019, October). Cloud Object Storage | Store & Retrieve Data Anywhere | Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).  https://s3.amazonaws.com/scschoolfiles/364/esl_handbook_updated_oct_2019_1.pdf 

Díaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Sutton, L. C., Cornelius, L., & McDonald-Gordon, R. (2012). English language learners and judicial oversight: Progeny of Castaneda. Educational Considerations, 39(2).  https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1111 

U.S. Department of Education. (2012, May). Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature. https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/title-iii/language-instruction-ed-programs-report.pdf

U.S. Department of Justice. (2019, October 15). Types of educational opportunities discrimination. https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-educational-opportunities-discrimination

Study Document

Education Law Policy And Social Justice

Pages: 11 (3232 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Essay Document #:71943061

...Racial discrimination Education Law Policy and Social Justice Mother Tongue Instruction
The population of students receiving their instruction in another language apart from their mother tongue is increasing as a consequence of the increased migration. Indeed, as Bingol (2012) points out, “migration and language are clearly linked issues…. because the language of instruction in the schools is different from the language spoken at home, some arrangements must be done for these children in these bilingual situations” (1016). Quite a number of research studies conducted in the past indicate that learners could have better comprehension of curriculum in those instances whereby learning is firmly rooted in their mother tongue. This is particular the case in early learning. In one such study, it was found out that in early childhood classroom education, mother tongue was a key factor in the further advancement of the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent,……



Awopetu, A.V. (2016). Impact of Mother Tongue on Children’s Learning Abilities in Early Childhood Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 58-63.

Busse, V., Cenoz, J., Dalmann, N. & Rogge, F. (2019). Addressing Linguistic Diversity in the Language Classroom in a Resource?Oriented Way: An Intervention Study with Primary School Children. Language Learning.

Bingol, A.S. (2012). Mother tongue instruction policies towards Turkish migrant children in Europe. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1016-1023.

Mcmahon, T., Griese, E.R. & Kenyon, D.B. (2019). Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14, 77-110.

Ozfidan, B. (2017). Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study. English Language Teaching; 10(12), 15-23.

Peyton, J.K. (2015). Language of Instruction: Research Findings and Program and Instructional Implications. Reconsidering Development, 4(1), 71-79.

Philips, J.S. (2015). The rights of indigenous peoples under international law. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 75-82.

Sahin, I. (2018). A look at mother tongue education in the context of the right to education. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(9), 343-353.

Study Document

Healthcare Professionals Undergoin Ethics Training

Pages: 2 (723 words) Sources: 2 Document Type:Essay Document #:91819783

...Racial discrimination Framework for Ethics Training
Ethical behavior plays a critical role in the healthcare industry as the industry is faced with numerous difficult decisions that need to be made quickly (Fiske et al., 2020). In many cases, healthcare professionals are faced with ethical dilemmas, and in some cases, they end up making the wrong ethical choice. The framework being developed will educate the healthcare professionals on how to tackle some of the common ethical dilemmas they might face when they are treating patients. All healthcare professionals are required to always demonstrate appropriate knowledge, behaviors, skills, and judgment anytime they are in a clinical setting (Manson, 2018). In case a healthcare professional feels they are not capable to handle a case they should consult with a colleague or refer the patient to a professional they are certain has the knowledge and skills to treat the patient. This way they can be certain……



Fiske, A., Tigard, D., Müller, R., Haddadin, S., Buyx, A., & McLennan, S. (2020). Embedded ethics could help implement the pipeline model framework for machine learning healthcare applications. The American Journal of Bioethics, 20(11), 32-35.

Manson, L. (2018). Ethical Integrated Healthcare Training to Deliver Integrated Care (pp. 213-224). New York, NY: Springer.

Study Document

Determinate Versus Indeterminate Sentencing Policies

Pages: 4 (1299 words) Sources: 3 Document Type:Capstone Project Document #:36128387

… whole with a diversity of opinion governing the outcome of any given sentence. This way, indeterminate sentencing could potentially reduce some forms of discrimination in the criminal justice system by introducing more variables into the decision-making process. Indeterminate sentencing also potentially offers states the chance to reduce … frequently used as a “retributive response,” whereas parole or early release is issued in an “ad hoc” manner (p. 1247). In other words, discrimination and personal bias might cause corrections officers and parole boards to make decisions out of spite or malice rather than on objective…[break]…regularly such ……



Allen, J. (2016). CU rape case sparks debate over Colorado’s indeterminate sentencing law. The Denver Channel. Retrieved from:  https://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/local-news/colorados-indeterminate-sentencing-criticized 

Baker, J. (2020, Aug 10). Davis sentenced to 15 years in 2017 Wheeling hotel killing. WTOV. Retrieved from:  https://wtov9.com/news/local/davis-sentenced-to-15-years-in-2017-wheeling-hotel-killing 

Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute (n.d.). Indeterminate sentence. Retrieved from:  https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/indeterminate_sentence 

Gant, J. & Hussain, D. (2020, 5 Aug). Hero PC Andrew Harper’s mother slams ‘unduly lenient sentences for her son’s killers. Daily Mail. Retrieved from:  https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8592283/Attorney-General-review-jail-terms-handed-three-teenagers-killed-PC-Andrew-Harper.html 

Green, S.J. (2020, Aug 6). Brothers sentenced to 40 years in prison for 2016 shooting at Seattle homeless encampment. Bakersfield. Retrieved from: https://www.bakersfield.com/ap/national/brothers-sentenced-to-40-years-in-prison-for-2016-shooting-at-seattle-homeless-encampment/article_5c5d040d-0e0c-532e-9fd7-794232746f5d.html

O’Hear, M.M. (2011). Beyond rehabilitation. 48 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 1247 (2011).

Puzauskas, K. & Morrow, K. (2018). No indeterminate sentencing without parole. 44 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 263 (2018).

Rhine, E.E., Watts, A. & Reitz, K.R. (2018). Parole boards within indeterminate and determinate sentencing structures. Robina Institute of Law and Criminal Justice. Retrieved from: https://robinainstitute.umn.edu/news-views/parole-boards-within-indeterminate-and-determinate-sentencing-structures

Study Document

War On Drugs

Pages: 1 (339 words) Sources: 1 Document Type:Essay Document #:91374995

… of color for drug crimes, and 80% of individuals in federal prison are either Black or Latino (“Race and the Drug War,” 2018). discrimination in the prosecution of the drug war has also had an indirect effect upon the electoral policy of the United States, given that … as an illness.
Race and the drug war. (2018). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved from: https://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/race-and-drug-war
Resing, C. (2018). Marijuana legalization is a racial justice issue. ACLU. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform/drug-law-reform/marijuana-legalization- racial-justice-issue…



Race and the drug war. (2018). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved from:  https://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/race-and-drug-war 

Resing, C. (2018). Marijuana legalization is a racial justice issue. ACLU. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform/drug-law-reform/marijuana-legalization- racial-justice-issue

Study Document

Gun Violence Among African American Community

Pages: 8 (2438 words) Sources: 7 Document Type:Essay Document #:71870574

… have been proactive by implementing Stop and Frisk laws to try to reduce gun violence among the community. However, this created problems of racial profiling of African Americans (Carbado, 2017).
It is important that social workers advocate for alternatives to Stop and Frisk to reduce the risk … of African Americans (Carbado, 2017).
It is important that social workers advocate for alternatives to Stop and Frisk to reduce the risk of racial stigmatization while also addressing the issue of gun violence. Policy alternatives to Stop and Frisk that social workers could advocate for include: 1) … pursued while gun violence specifically is being targeted and reduced.
The principles of the black perspective are 1) to respond to oppression and discrimination experienced by minorities and 2) to maintain sensitivity to all experiences of the oppressed (Howard University, 2020). Social workers can help ensure that ……



Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.

Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.

Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from  https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">

Study Document

Building Resilience In Travis County

Pages: 7 (1950 words) Sources: 10 Document Type:Essay Document #:90529532

...Racial discrimination Introduction of Strategy
Almost ten years back, the Austin History Center launched a new permanent exhibit on African American history in Travis County that has since inspired local activism, awareness, and community self-empowerment (Castillo, 2018). This strategy builds upon the success of the Austin History Center projects, which include the vast resources contained in the Austin History Center’s African American Community Archivist (2019). Building resilience through the arts, culture, and community pride will be the solution-focused approach to addressing persistent disparities in Travis County, Texas.
A needs assessment of the African American community in Travis County reveals several areas of vulnerability this strategy aims to address by coordinating with existing ongoing initiatives and organizations.
Physical and Mental Health Disparities
Physical and mental health disparities are among the top vulnerabilities for the African American community in Travis County. Research reveals several major disparities in mental and physical health that render the……



Austin History Center (2019). African American Community Archivist. Retrieved from  https://library.austintexas.gov/ahc/african-american-community-archivist 

Castillo, J. (2018). Exhibit on African Americans in Travis County tells stories, reveals gaps. Statesman. 27 Sept, 2018. Retrieved from  https://www.statesman.com/article/20120925/NEWS/309259130 

Chang, J. (2018). Black children in Travis County 8 times more likely to be removed by CPS than white children. Statesman. 25 Oct, 2018. Retrieved from  https://www.statesman.com/news/20181020/black-children-in-travis-county-8-times-more-likely-to-be-removed-by-cps-than-white-children 

Craver, J. (2017). African-Americans spend more time in Travis County jail for same offenses as whites. Austin Monitor. 14 Jul 2017. Retrieved from  https://www.austinmonitor.com/stories/2017/07/african-americans-spend-time-travis-county-jail-offenses-whites/ 

Davis, C. (2018). African-Americans are moving to Austin again, but many don’t feel welcome. KXAN. 15 Jan, 2018. Retrieved from  https://www.kxan.com/news/local/austin/african-americans-are-moving-to-austin-again-but-many-dont-feel-welcome/ 

Menon, S. (2019). Conference aims to help more African-Americans get mental health care. KUT. 25 Feb, 2019. Retrieved from  https://www.kut.org/post/conference-aims-help-more-african-americans-get-mental-health-care 

“New report points to racism and longer confinement of African Americans in Travis County Jail,” (2017). Grassroots Leadership. 13 July, 2017. Retrieved from  https://grassrootsleadership.org/releases/2017/07/new-report-points-racism-and-longer-confinement-african-americans-travis-county 

Prosperity Now (2019). Racial wealth divide in Austin. Retrieved from https://www.austincf.org/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Reports/Racial%20Wealth%20Divide%20Profile%20Austin_February%202019_%20Final3.pdf

Study Document

Psychological Test Evaluation Beck Anxiety Inventory BAI

Pages: 10 (3024 words) Sources: 14 Document Type:question answer Document #:27835511

...Racial discrimination Psychological Test Evaluation: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
Section 1: General Features
a) Title: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
b) Author(s): Aaron T Beck, Robert A Steer
c) Publisher: Pearson Education, Inc.
d) Publication Year: 1993
e) Age Range: 17 years to adult (Beck & Steer, 1993)
f) Qualification Code: CL2
Section 2: Instrument Description
a) Instrument Function: What does it measure?
BAI is a tool used to measure the level of anxiety in persons aged 18 and above. It is the criteria referenced assessment instrument. The Beck Anxiety Inventory provides professionals with a strong basis on which to anchor their diagnosis and decisions about the same (Beck et al., 1988; Beck & Steer, 1993). The instrument can be used to measure baseline anxiety to establish how effective treatment is as it goes on. It can also be applied as an outcome measure during the post-treatment period.
(a) Population: Who does the……



Arnold, L. M., Clauw, D., Wang, F., Ahl, J., Gaynor, P. J., &Wohlreich, M. M. (2010). Flexible dosed duloxetine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of rheumatology, 37(12), 2578-2586.

Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993). Beck Anxiety Inventory manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893–897.

Biggs, Q. M. (2008). Transportation trauma and psychological morbidity: Anxiety, depression, PTSD, and perceived control in a hospitalized sample. (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas).

DeFeo, J. (2005). Beck Anxiety Inventory. NCTSN Measure Review Database. Retrieved from  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= 

Gillis, M. M., Haaga, D. A., & Ford, G. T. (1995). Normative values for the beck anxiety inventory, fear questionnaire, Penn state worry questionnaire, and social phobia and anxiety inventory. Psychological Assessment, 7(4), 450.

Halfaker, D. A., Akeson, S. T., Hathcock, D. R., Mattson, C., &Wunderlich, T. L. (2011). Psychological aspects of pain. Pain procedures in clinical practice (pp. 13-22). Hanley &Belfus.

Julian, L. J. (2011). Measures of anxiety: state?trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale?anxiety (HADS?A). Arthritis care & research, 63(S11), S467-S472.

Study Document

Impact Of Culture On Domestic Violence

Pages: 12 (3547 words) Sources: 21 Document Type:Research Paper Document #:31105337

...Racial discrimination Representations of Black Culture in the Media
Culture theory is one theory that can be used to explain domestic violence. As Serrat (2017) notes, culture is the set of “distinctive ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge” that define the way people behave and think (p. 31). This theory suggests that the way people act is based on the inputs they receive from their environment; and peers, groups, and media all go into shaping their perception of themselves and those around them (Bandura, 2018). If the culture in which they grow up signals to them that treating people in an inhumane way is acceptable, then those individuals are likely to engage in domestic violence acts as they feel or believe that it is an acceptable mode of behavior, sanctioned by the culture in which they live. The culture of media, friends, family, schools, churches and other organizations may all play a……



Adorno, T. & Horkheimer, M. (2007). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34, 2007.

Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections.  Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617699280 

Breger, M. L. (2017). Reforming by re-norming: How the legal system has the potential to change a toxic culture of domestic violence. J. Legis., 44, 170.

Cashmore, E. (2006). The Black culture industry. Routledge.

Coleman, L. (1974). Carl Van Vechten Presents the New Negro. Studies in the Literary Imagination, 7(2), 85.

Cramer, E. P., Choi, Y. J., & Ross, A. I. (2017). Race, Culture, and Abuse of Persons with Disabilities. In Religion, Disability, and Interpersonal Violence (pp. 89-110). Champaign, IL: Springer.

Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.

Decker, J. L. (1993). The state of rap: Time and place in hip hop nationalism. Social Text, (34), 53-84.

Study Document

The History Of Dorothea Dix

Pages: 7 (2009 words) Sources: 6 Document Type:Essay Document #:92748970

… study and train to be a professional nurse in the U.S. She graduated from nursing school in 1879 and helped to fight against discrimination and assist other minority women to receive an education in nursing so that they could have a profession in the nursing field (Darraj, … of the movement. With few opportunities to engage in meaningful work, nursing presented itself as an obvious choice for women regardless of their racial and ethnic background.
Part 2
This paper provides a description of the historical figure in nursing, Dorothea L. Dix (1802-1887). She was ……



Brown, T. J. (1998). Dorothea Dix: New England Reformer (Vol. 127). Harvard University Press.

Darraj, S. M. (2009). Mary Eliza Mahoney. Infobase Publishing.

Fantel, H. (1974). William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co.

Gollaher, D. L. (1993). Dorothea Dix and the English origins of the American asylum movement. Canadian Review of American Studies, 23(3), 149-176.

Hardy, S., & Corones, A. (2017). The nurse’s uniform as ethopoietic fashion. Fashion Theory, 21(5), 523-552.

Hathway, M. (1934). Dorothea Dix and Social Reform in Western Pennsylvania, 1845-1875. Western Pennsylvania History: 1918-2018, 17(4), 247-258.

Howard, A. & Kavenick, F. (1990). Handbook of American women’s history. New York, NY: Garland.

Modak, T., Sarkar, S., & Sagar, R. (2016). Dorothea dix: A proponent of humane treatment of mentally ill. Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour, 21(1), 69.

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