… sentences for the particular crime, as stipulated in the penal code. While all this sounds straightforward, there have been many cases recorded of discrimination and disparity in sentencing (Spohn, 2008).
With regards to sentencing, a disparity exists in two ways – when offenders who are different get … and criminal histories and when judges impose different punishments on offenders who have carried out identical crimes and have identical criminal past. Sentencing discrimination is a bit different from sentencing disparity, and it exists in several ways. First, sentencing discrimination exists when legally irrelevant characteristics are taken into consideration by judges when they are imposing sentences. Second, it exists when judges impose harsher … However, for the poor, for persons of color, and many other groups, this phrase does not mean much. This is because they face discrimination at sentencing and other stages of the criminal justice system. For example, the……
Daly, K., & Tonry, M. (1997). Gender, Race, and Sentencing. Crime and Justice, 22, 201-252. Retrieved May 26, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/1147574
Farrell, A., Ward, G., & Rousseau, D. (2010). Intersections of gender and race in federal sentencing: examining court contexts and the effects of representative court authorities. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 85.
Hessick, C. B. (2010). Race and gender as explicit sentencing factors. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 1, 127.
Mauer, M. (2010). Justice for all challenging racial disparities in the criminal justice system. Hum. Rts., 37, 14.
Smith, D. (2006). Narrowing Racial Disparities in Sentencing through a System of Mandatory Downward Departures. The Modern American, Summer 2006, 32–37.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide?: the search for fairness and justice in punishment. Sage Publications.
Yang, C. S. (2015). Free at last? Judicial discretion and racial disparities in federal sentencing. The Journal of Legal Studies, 44(1), 75-111.
Why discrimination Breeds More discrimination in a Vicious Cycle
Power and privilege is a two-way street: power can run both ways, depending on the circumstances or context. … context. For example, a female Latina could be in a position of privilege and power in one environment and in a position of discrimination and prejudice in another environment. I know this from experience because I have been in both types of situations before in my life. … the hotel industry for whatever prejudicial reasons that managers have. On the other hand, Barajas and Ronnkvist (2007) show that in public schools racial spaces can occur among Latina and white populations, creating tensions and hostility as these populations attempt to assert themselves in the face of … power and privilege is a two-way street. In this paper, I will describe an instance in which I as a female Latina experienced discrimination and……
Barajas, H. L., & Ronnkvist, A. (2007). Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools. Teachers College Record, 109(6), 1517-1538.
Flores, J., & Garcia, S. (2009). Latina testimonios: A reflexive, critical analysis of a ‘Latina space’at a predominantly White campus. Race Ethnicity and Education, 12(2), 155-172.
McCabe, J. (2009). Racial and gender microaggressions on a predominantly-White campus: Experiences of Black, Latina/o and White undergraduates. Race, Gender & Class, 133-151.
Zamudio, M. M., & Lichter, M. I. (2008). Bad attitudes and good soldiers: Soft skills as a code for tractability in the hiring of immigrant Latina/os over native Blacks in the hotel industry. Social Problems, 55(4), 573-589.
Warren, C. S. (2014). Body area dissatisfaction in white, black and Latina female college students in the USA: an examination of racially salient appearance areas and ethnic identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(3), 537-556.
… to be the ultimate proof of veracity, including of the construct of race. But what if sight were actually an impediment to true racial understanding? This is underlined in Osagie Obasogie’s book Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind which challenges the notion … This is underlined in Osagie Obasogie’s book Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind which challenges the notion that racial identity exists outside of social constructs and that race can be identified visually. The book encourages a reevaluation of the concept of colorblindness … these redemptive efforts” writes the author, highlighting how the concrete reality of blindness highlights the absurdity of what can appear concrete due to racial prejudices and constructions (Obasogie 176).
One example of both the pervasiveness and the ridiculousness of racism cited by Obasogie is that which was … as much similarity as there……
Obasogie, Osagie. Blinded by Sight: Seeing Race Through the Eyes of the Blind. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014.
… as well as disadvantaged groups and my relation to them. Additionally, it highlights the significance of the self-identity concept. The Multidimensional Model of racial Identity (MMRI), put forward by Smith, Sellers, Shelton and colleagues (1998), has been utilized to address all of the above aspects. The paper … understanding of one's cultural identity, characteristics, prejudices, principles, and views (Pamela, 2008). In the society that I am a part of, my African-American cultural/racial community is regarded as a minority community. With regard to age, I am a part of the dominant age group of adults. Further, … group of adults. Further, I have no disabilities. With regard to spirituality and my religious background, my community is neutral. With regard to racial/ethnic identity, I belong to a non-dominant population, namely, people of color. If one looks at my social class, one will see that I … a part of is not……
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Babbitt, N. (2013). Identities: Markers of power and privilege. Retrieved from https://justdessertsblog.wordpress.com/2013/09/15/identities-markers-of-power-and-privilege/
Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15, 177-194.
Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto. New York: Harper & Row.
Cross, W. E. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Horowitz, R. (1939). Racial aspects of self-identification in nursery school children. Journal of Psychology, 7, 91-99.
Kambon, K. (I 992). The African personality in America: An Aitricancentered framework. Tallahassee, FL: Nubian Nation Publications
Kardiner, A., & Ovesey, L. (1951). The mark of oppression. New York: Norton.
… reparations?” The overarching thesis that shaped the answer to this guiding research question as was follows: Historical injustices including genocide, oppression, slavery, and racial discrimination in the United States have caused current economic disparities between racial groups so the call for reparations is quite justified and the various arguments in support and against reparations are examined further below.
Review … arguments in support and against reparations are examined further below.
Review and Analysis
Type of historical injustices that have caused economic disparities between racial groups today
The historical record is replete with instances of genocide, oppression, slavery, forced relocations, invasions and racial discrimination that have adversely affected or ended the lives of tens of millions of people (Bradford, 2004). This has also been the case with … is a dead injun.’” While it is not possible to precisely calculate the human suffering that has been caused by these and……
Bradford, W. (2004). Beyond reparations: An American Indian theory of justice. Ohio State Law Journal.
Flavin, F. E. (2002, Winter). A pox on Amherst: Smallpox, Sir Jeffery, and a town named Amherst. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 30(1), 1-5.
Forrester, K. (2019). Reparations, history and the origins of global justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Gilmore, B. & Adams, H. (2019). The case for a reparations clinic. Michigan State Law Review.
Howard-Hassmann, R. E. (2004). Reparations to Africa and the group of eminent persons. Cahiers d’étudesafricaines.
Lenzerini, F. (2007). Reparations for indigenous peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lockhart, P. (2019, June 19). The 2020 Democratic primary debate over reparations, explained. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/3/11/18246741/ reparations-democrats-2020-inequality-warren-harris-castro.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
… in the idea that educating Black Americans was instrumental to elevating their status. In his opinion, this would help put an end to discrimination on the part of White Americans, in addition to safeguarding them against the “contamination and death” that Blacks wreaked upon their own community … members. For thus educating Blacks, the strategy proposed was to first identify the most gifted ten percent of members of the African American racial group, followed by nurturing them in America's top colleges in every field of study. The aforementioned privileged subgroup would subsequently perform the role … pursuing the black community’s agenda was shaped by his earlier dealings with whites.
However, Dubois never experienced slavery, and his first experience of racial discrimination only came during his young adulthood. Moreover, being exceptionally bright decreased the amount of inequality he experienced. Hence, he felt education was of ……
Blatty, D. (2015, February 22). W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from Biography: https://www.biography.com/news/web-dubois-vs-booker-t-washington
Dubois, W. (1903). he Talented Tenth. In The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative Negroes of To-day (pp. 36-43). New York.
Dunn, F. (1993). The Educational Philosophies of Washington, Dubois, and Houston: Laying the Foundations for Afrocentrism and Multiculturalism. Journal of Negro Education, 62(1), 23-24.
Hancock, A.-M. (n.d.). Socialism/Communism. In p. Young.
Washington, B. T. (1895). Speech at the Atlanta Exposition. Atlanta.
...Racial discrimination The Future of Juvenile Justice
1. Do you think the United States will be better or worse in terms of the number of juvenile offenders and the severity of the offenses in the next 20 years? Why?
I think that the United States will be considerably better in regard to the number of juvenile offenders in tandem with the severity of the offenses committed in the next two decades. Since the onset of the 2000s, endeavors by legislators, non-profit organizations in addition to private citizens comparable have pressed for more rehabilitative endeavors to be employed in juvenile justice cases. What is definite, at least, is that the juvenile crime rate has declined substantially from the onset of the 2000s and most of them still continue to decline on an annual basis. Sustained and unrelenting efforts on the part of all persons involved within the juvenile justice system will help in……
Baysinger Law. (2018). Factors Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency. Retrieved from: https://baysingerlaw.com/2018/03/factors-contributing-juvenile-delinquency/
Howell, J. C. (2003). Preventing and reducing juvenile delinquency: A comprehensive framework. New York: Sage.
International Juvenile Justice Obervatory. (2019). United Nations guidelines for the prevention of juvenile delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines). Retrieved from: http://www.oijj.org/en/preguntas-frecuentes#152481-0
Johns, B. (2018). Juvenile Justice in the United States: Juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@bjohns81/juvenile-justice-the-american-justice-system-vs-other-countries-3dc6860c77ad
MST Services. (2018). Trends in Juvenile Crime. Retrieved from: http://info.mstservices.com/blog/trends-in-juvenile-crime
National Research Council. (2013). Reforming juvenile justice: A developmental approach. National Academies Press.
Smith, H. Problems and Solutions in Juvenile Justice. Resource Center Partnership.
… persistent depressive symptoms starting from adolescence into adulthood as compared to females. The cause of depression is considered to be an economic strain, racial discrimination, and interpersonal conflicts. Despite the fact that men have higher experiences of depressive episodes, they seek professional help less frequently as compared to ……
Buzi, R. S., Smith, P. B., & Weinman, M. L. (2014). Screening for depression among minority young males attending a family planning clinic. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 15(1), 116.
Gissane, C. (2013). What kind of data do I have? Physiotherapy Practice and Research, 34(2), 123-125.
McHugh, M. L. (2013). The chi-square test of independence. Biochemia medica: Biochemia medica, 23(2), 143-149.
… ages, and backgrounds come to pursue their common goals (Harvard.edu, 2019). Harvard works towards providing an environment that promotes inclusiveness of culture and racial diversity. The assistant to the Harvard University President has an office whose mission is to deliver a sustained and wholesome effort towards the … opportunity notwithstanding their race or gender. Labor organizations, employment agencies, educational institutions, local governments, and private employers’ applicants and employees get protection against discrimination from federal laws.
The mission of the office of the Harvard University’s assistant president is to deliver sustained equality and diversity initiatives, policies, ……
Harvard.edu (2019). Diversity and Inclusion. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://hr.harvard.edu/diversity-inclusion
Harvard University (2019). Mission Statement, Office of the Assistant to the President Institutional Diversity and Equity. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://diversity.harvard.edu/pages/about
Harvard University (2016). Pursuing Excellence on a Foundation of Inclusion, Harvard University Presidential Task Force on Inclusion and Belonging. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://inclusionandbelongingtaskforce.harvard.edu/files/inclusion/files/harvard_inclusion belonging_task_force_final_report_full_web_180327.pdf
The Guardian (2019). Cambridge University\\\\'s poor diversity record highlighted by report. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jun/03/cambridge-colleges-poor-record-on- diversity-highlighted-by-report
University of Cambridge (2019). Equality, diversity and inclusion, Student wellbeing. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from https://www.studentwellbeing.admin.cam.ac.uk/equality-diversity- and-inclusion
University of Oxford (2018). University of Oxford Strategic Plan. Retrieved 19 March, 2019 from http://www.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxford/field/field_document/Strategic%20Plan%202018- 23.pdf
Walpole, M. B. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and College: How SES Affects College Experiences and Outcomes. The Review of Higher Education, 27, 1, 45-73. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2003.0044
...Racial discrimination Adolescent Psychosocial Assessment
SECTION I – SOCIAL HISTORY
In list format, cover the following:
1. Name: John Mathew
2. Age: 18
3. Sex: Male
4. Race/Ethnic: Black, African-American
5. Education/Occupation: Student
6. Health: Okay
John's family lives in an apartment situated in the middle of a range of complexes. The residence is right in the middle of communities in Washington, DC. The household is always abuzz with activity. There are two boys named Zebulon and David. The boys still call for their mother's attention. Ervin, my father, does not have a job. He is grounded in a wheelchair, following health challenges he has faced in the past couple of years. My mother is a part-time writer. Her name is Monique. The main poverty indicator about my family is the challenge we face in paying bills and lack of money to travel around (Sherman, 2012). Several aspects of culture……
Alexander Jr, R. (2010). The Impact of Poverty on African American Children in the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems. In Forum on Public Policy Online (Vol. 2010, No. 4). Oxford Round Table. 406 West Florida Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801.
Belgrave, F. Z., & Allison, K. W. (2009). African American psychology: From Africa to America. Los Angeles: Sage.
Brittian A. S. (2012). Understanding African American Adolescents\\\\\\' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective. The Journal of black psychology, 38(2), 172–200. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798411414570
Chávez, R. (2016). Psychosocial development factors associated with occupational and vocational identity between infancy and adolescence. Adolescent Research Review, 1(4), 307-327.
Crain, W. C. (2014). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.
Fernandes-Alcantara, A. L. (2018). Vulnerable Youth: Background and policies.Congressional Research Service
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2015). Theories of human development. Psychology Press.
Reubins, B. M., &Reubins, M. S. (2014). Pioneers of child psychoanalysis: Influential theories and practices in healthy child development. London: Karnac.
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