Should Reparations be Paid to native americans and African americans?
Today, there are approximately 3.4 million native americans and 40 million African americans in the United States (U.S. people, 2019), and virtually all of these individuals have ancestors that unfairly suffered at the hands of the … years of injustice at the hands of the U.S. government. In this regard, the research question that will guide this analysis is, “Should native americans and African americans be paid reparations?” The overarching thesis that shaped the answer to this guiding research question as was follows: Historical injustices including genocide, oppression, … of millions of people (Bradford, 2004). This has also been the case with the history of the United States where slavery of African americans was enshrined in the U.S. Constitution and the subsequent Indian Removal Act of 1830 proclaimed in essence that “the only good ‘injun’ is … cheap substitute that……
Bradford, W. (2004). Beyond reparations: An American Indian theory of justice. Ohio State Law Journal.
Flavin, F. E. (2002, Winter). A pox on Amherst: Smallpox, Sir Jeffery, and a town named Amherst. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 30(1), 1-5.
Forrester, K. (2019). Reparations, history and the origins of global justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Gilmore, B. & Adams, H. (2019). The case for a reparations clinic. Michigan State Law Review.
Howard-Hassmann, R. E. (2004). Reparations to Africa and the group of eminent persons. Cahiers d’étudesafricaines.
Lenzerini, F. (2007). Reparations for indigenous peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lockhart, P. (2019, June 19). The 2020 Democratic primary debate over reparations, explained. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/3/11/18246741/ reparations-democrats-2020-inequality-warren-harris-castro.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
...Native americans Why American Democracy Has Failed and Why the Anti Federalists were Right
The Declaration of Independence, written in 1776, asserted that “all men are created equal.”[endnoteRef:2] It was an Enlightenment notion: Thomas Paine, an avid follower of the Enlightenment Movement in Europe, had written the Rights of Man to support and promote the ideas of the philosophical revolution that had gotten underway decades prior with Rousseau’s Social Contract and the latter’s pursuit of naturalism in opposition to the Old World values, virtues and order.[endnoteRef:3] The problem that occurred in America was that the Founding Fathers were not of the same mind as Thomas Paine, though they readily used his words and ideas in their Declaration of Independence. Paine truly believed in the equality of all men and he was whole-heartedly opposed to the institution of slavery. The Founding Fathers were not, and the equality they expressed in the Declaration……
Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript
Rousseau, J. (2018). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 1.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 5.
National Assembly. “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 26 August 1789.” Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/3216
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Brutus No. 1. (1787). http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm
The Indian Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 was meant to establish peace in the nation and to give the native americans their own territory where they could practice their own activities, traditions and culture without interference from the American government. However, the Act resulted … their own activities, traditions and culture without interference from the American government. However, the Act resulted in the forced migration of thousands of native americans from their traditional homelands to a region of the U.S. that did not suit their lifestyle or their culture. Many suffered and died … paper will describe the history of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and show why and how it became a disaster for the native americans.
The Origins of the Indian Removal Act
The removal of the native americans was not actually President Jackson’s idea. George Washington had proposed it, and other……
Crockett, Davy, “On the removal of the Cherokees, 1834,” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-now/spotlight-primary-source/davy-crockett-removal-cherokees-1834
“The Magnetic Telegraph.” Ladies’ Repository 10(1850): 61-62. O’Sullivan, John. “Annexation.” United States Magazine and Democratic Review, vol.17, no. 1 (July-August 1845): 5-10.
Sevier, John. Letter to the Cherokee. DPLA. https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/cherokee-removal-and-the-trail-of-tears/sources/1500
Brown-Rice, Kathleen. "Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans." Professional Counselor 3, no. 3 (2013).
Cave, Alfred A. "Abuse of power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian removal act of 1830." The Historian 65, no. 6 (2003): 1330-1353.
Cherokee Preservation Foundation. “About the Eastern Band.” Cherokee Preservation, 2010. http://cherokeepreservation.org/who-we-are/about-the-ebci/
...Native americans Book Analysis
African-American: SUMMER SUN RISIN'
W. Nikola-Lisa, Author, Don Tate, Illustrator, illus. By Don Tate. 2002.
An Afro-American lad helps his parents to work on their farm, rather leisurely as they enjoy the gradual movement of the sun to dusk. The family creates time for some fun after a long day's work on the farm, including hoeing, milking the cows, tending hedges, among other tasks in the simmering heat of the day's sun.
A summer day is captured by the artistic expression of verses in colloquial and paintings on paper texture. The expression on the characters' faces depicts contentment and confidence. The manipulation of the views may be rather disturbing, but the images will surely capture the audience. The full-bleed works of Tate portrayed advantageously in the horizontal view of the book's format, stretch the expanse of the plains one bit more by portraying the horizon as an unmistakable……
Aziz-Raina, Seemi. \\\\\\\\\\\\"We are Grateful: Otsaliheliga.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Language Arts 97.2 (2019): 116-121.
Greene, Catherine. \\\\\\\\\\\\"My Papi Has a Motorcycle.\\\\\\\\\\\\" The Catholic Library World 90.2 (2019): 151-151.
Nikola-Lisa, W., and Don Tate. Summer sun risin\\\\\\\\\\\\'. Lee & Low Books, 2002.
Park, Linda Sue. Bee-bim bop!. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008.
Schiffer, Miriam B. Stella brings the family. Chronicle Books, 2015.
Seeger, Pete, and Paul DuBois Jacobs. The deaf musicians. GP Putnam\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Sons Books for Young Readers, 2006.
Soetoro-Ng, Maya. Ladder to the Moon. Candlewick Press, 2017.
… and the duties expected of them as Quakers and pacifists. For example, the Quakers initially wanted to respect the human rights of the native americans, but as the American colonies were not united in this view. The Virginia House of Burgesses, dominated by Anglicans, wanted to abjure the … not united in this view. The Virginia House of Burgesses, dominated by Anglicans, wanted to abjure the treaty between the Crown and the native americans: Virginia land owners wanted to push further West and expand their territory (Holton). Thus, there was a clear distinction between what the Anglican … everyone else as beneath them. The Catholics promoted equality and religious tolerance but were not tolerated in turn by Protestants. Women, blacks and native were all given a back seat, socially speaking, to the male WASPs who grabbed control of the social,……
Fantel, Hans. William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co., 1974.
Graham, Michael. "Posish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689." The Catholic historical review 79.2 (1993): 197-216.
Holton, W. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Laux, John. Church History. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1933.
Melville, Herman. Clarel. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015005201424&view=1up&seq=9
Milder, R. Herman Melville. New York: Columbia University Press,1988.
Pyle, Ralph E., and James D. Davidson. "The origins of religious stratification in colonial America." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42.1 (2003): 57-75.
… with differences in approaches and choices of language being taught. A part of US schooling history is its rich history and practice of native language teaching and bilingual education. Ovando (2003), in his study, found that it was about two hundred years ago that American communities first … had different demographics, came from different backgrounds and spoke different languages. This unique philosophy was manifested through public policy that facilitated teaching in native languages and bilingual education, multilingual theatrical productions, and newspaper printing and circulation in several languages. But, Ovando (2003) found that the aforementioned linguistic … in several languages. But, Ovando (2003) found that the aforementioned linguistic pluralism didn't imply equal acceptance of every language. Several Mexican, Asian, and native American languages underwent systemic segregation and devaluation in this period. Over a hundred years ago, the concept of the English language as a … development of this linguistic ideology……
Banks, J. A. (1995). Multicultural Education: Its Effects on Students\\\\\\\\\\\\' Racial and Gender Role Attitudes. Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 617-627). New York: Macmillan.
Gándara, P., & Escamilla, K. (2017). Bilingual education in the United States. Bilingual and multilingual education, 1-14.
Ovando, C. J. (2003). Bilingual education in the United States: Historical development and current issues. Bilingual research journal, 27(1), 1-24.
Saravia-Shore, M., & Arvizu, S. F. (2017). Cross-cultural literacy: An anthropological approach to dealing with diversity. In Cross-cultural Literacy (pp. xv-xxxviii). Routledge.
Wei, L. (2013). Integration of Multicultural Education into English Teaching and Learning: A Case Study in Liaoning Police Academy. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 3(4).
… nature, it would be prudent to first supply a concise definition of the terms mother tongue. In basic terms, mother tongue is ones native language or first language. It should, however, be noted that mother tongue as a term is not only limited to its linguistic aspects. ……
Awopetu, A.V. (2016). Impact of Mother Tongue on Children’s Learning Abilities in Early Childhood Classroom. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 23, 58-63.
Busse, V., Cenoz, J., Dalmann, N. & Rogge, F. (2019). Addressing Linguistic Diversity in the Language Classroom in a Resource?Oriented Way: An Intervention Study with Primary School Children. Language Learning.
Bingol, A.S. (2012). Mother tongue instruction policies towards Turkish migrant children in Europe. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1016-1023.
Mcmahon, T., Griese, E.R. & Kenyon, D.B. (2019). Cultivating Native American scientists: An application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 14, 77-110.
Ozfidan, B. (2017). Right of Knowing and Using Mother Tongue: A Mixed Method Study. English Language Teaching; 10(12), 15-23.
Peyton, J.K. (2015). Language of Instruction: Research Findings and Program and Instructional Implications. Reconsidering Development, 4(1), 71-79.
Philips, J.S. (2015). The rights of indigenous peoples under international law. Global Bioethics, 26(2), 75-82.
Sahin, I. (2018). A look at mother tongue education in the context of the right to education. Educational Research and Reviews, 13(9), 343-353.
...Native americans Introduction
Every traditional culture has its norms, which ultimately affect what is considered right or wrong. A clear distinction of this is best illustrated in the Middle East as compared to Western culture, where in the Middle East certain behaviors, e.g., kissing in public, in public is illegal as compared to in the west. This is basically as a result of the differences in the traditional cultures of these two regions, bearing in mind that religion is a core part of any culture. To this effect, it would be argued that culture affects law and identity, and to ensure that there is fairness and justice in any given society, then the cultural context of the people cannot be ignored. In her book, The Cultural Defense, Alison Dundes Renteln argues that \"Culture shapes individual identity in crucial ways. The failure of the law to recognize this has resulted in injustices\" (Renteln……
Renteln, A. D. (2004). The cultural defense. Oxford University Press.
...Native americans Alternate Titles:
Rise of the Oligarchs in Russia and Ukraine
How Boris Berezovsky Fled Russia and Supported a Coup in Ukraine
The “expulsion” of Boris Berezovsky from Russia under the Putin Regime sparked a chain of events that led to Ukraine’s upheaval. Though considered an “expulsion” by the Russian billionaire, Berezovsky was actually summoned to appear for questioning by the Prosecutor General but chose to remain in exile in UK and obtain political asylum there (BBC, 2012). The story is worth telling because what followed in the geopolitical spat between Berezovsky and Putin impacted Ukraine and millions of lives there, and the telling reveals the fragile nature of the democracies of Eastern Europe in general in the post-Soviet era. For it was Berezovsky who vowed revenge against Putin and immediately began meddling in Ukraine politics as a way of getting back at the new head of Russia—with the help……
Alexievich, S. (2007). Secondhand Time: The Last of the Soviets. NY: Random House.
Alexievich, S. (2017). The Unwomanly Face of War: An Oral History of Women in World War II. NY: Random House.
BBC. (2012). Russian godfathers. Retrieved from https://www.documentary24.com/russian-godfathers-putin-and-the-oligarchs--848/
Forbes. (2020). Ihor Kolomoyskyy. Retrieved from https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/how-russian-oligarchs-changed-country%E2%80%94and-not-better-97472
Klebnikov, P. (2000). Godfather of the Kremlin. New York, NY: Harcourt.
IMF. (2007). Report for Ukraine. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=1992&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=926&s=PPPGDP&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=41&pr1.y=2
Mezrich, B. (2015). Once upon a time in Russia. New York, NY: Atria.
Risen, J. (2019). I Wrote About the Bidens and Ukraine Years Ago. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2019/09/25/i-wrote-about-the-bidens-and-ukraine-years-ago-then-the-right-wing-spin-machine-turned-the-story-upside-down/
… of the key leaders and advocates for the abolition of Slavery in the United States. He revered by the African American community and americans in general for his fight against slavery. Long after his death, U.S. Civil Rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and … against slavery. Long after his death, U.S. Civil Rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and used his fight to inspire americans to fight for the rights of African americans. This paper looks at the life of Fredrick Douglass and his massive contributions to the abolitionist movement and women's suffrage in the U.S. … 131-165). This is one of the reasons why some argue; he was relatively silent on the destructive actions of the United States on native American tribes and groups. However, these arguments do not remove from the fact that Fredrick Douglass was a leader of the……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
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