… the future (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2017).
In this case study, the military end state was signified by the total surrender of the Iraqi forces, wherein they called back all their soldiers from Kuwait. Having done this, the government was in a good position to strategize the … for post-war goals. The logical goal of giving back Kuwait its independence and political stability resulted into a distinct military end state when Iraqi forces withdrew from Kuwait and the Republican Guard was destroyed. After these events, new national goals were set to facilitate the changeover from … McIntyre III & Knight, 2009).
An array of difficulties made it hard for the Schwarzkopf and Coalition forces to defeat the Iraqi army. To single out such difficulties, it is important to take into account important instructions, the status of the prevailing operating environment and … enough soldiers were brought to……
Andrews, W. F. (1998). Airpower against an Army: Challenge and Response in CENTAF\\\\\\'s Duel with the Republican Guard. DIANE Publishing.
Bame, D. J. (2001). The Exit Strategy Myth and the End State Reality. Marine Corps Command and Staff College. Quantico VA.
Builder, C. H., Bankes, S. C., & Nordin, R. (1999). Command concepts: A theory derived from the practice of command and control. RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA.
Currie Jr, J. G. (1995). Operational Logistics, War and Operations Other Than War: What Applies?. Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth Ks. School of Advanced Military Studies.
Joint Chiefs of Staff (2017). Joint Publication 5-0: Joint Planning. Washigton, DC, Aug.
Matsunaga, H. (2019). The Reconstruction of Iraq after 2003: Learning from Its Successes and Failures.
… early 2020, January 3, the U.S. launched airstrike attacks around Baghdad International Airport and killed two of the most influential leaders in Iran, Iraq, and the surrounding regions. The strike killed Qassem Soleimani, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps- Quds Force's Major General, and Abu Mahdi Al-Muhandis, the … the militia known as Kata' ib Hezbollah (Jahanbani, 2020). The strikes happened when there was an escalating conflict between the US, Iran and Iraq. This was after December 27, 2019, when a famous proxy from Iran by the name Kata' ib Hezbollah killed several pro-Iranian Militia members … is the significance of the death of Al-Muhandi that seems to have escaped people's attention. He played a central role in mobilization in Iraq, but most significantly, he is the hallmark of what the Iranian state's priorities were in Iraq. The two characters were eliminated with a single strike ordered by the U.S.……
Jahanbani, N. (2020). Beyond Soleimani: Implications for Iran\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Proxy Network in Iraq and Syria. CTC Perspectives.
Vladeck, S. I. (2004). Emergency Power and the Militia Acts. Yale LJ, 114, 149.
Brands, H. (2019). Why America Can\\\\\\\\\\\\" t Quit the Middle East. Hoover Institution, 21.
Tillman, S. P. (1982). The United States in the Middle East: Interests and Obstacles (Vol. 82). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Terry, J. P. (1986). Countering State-Sponsored Terrorism: A Law-Policy Analysis. Naval L. Rev., 36, 159.
Maogoto, J. N. (2003). War on the enemy: self-defense and state-sponsored terrorism. Melb. J. Int\\\\\\\\\\\\'l L., 4, 406.
Lillich, R. B., & Paxman, J. M. (1976). State Responsibility for Injuries to Aliens Occasioned by Terrorist Activities. Am. U.L. Rev., 26, 217.
Parker, C. & Noack, R. (2020, January 2). Iran has invested in allies and proxies across the Middle East. Here\\\\\\\\\\\\'s where they stand after Soleimani\\\\\\\\\\\\'s death. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2020/01/03/iran-has-invested-allies-proxies-across-middle-east-heres-where-they-stand-after-soleimanis-death/
… threat to wage “the mother of all battles,” including threats to use chemical weapons of mass destruction, would come to fruition. Although the Iraqi military was never able to live up to their leader’s claims, the political and social fallout from this successful prosecution of this regional … Humanities
On January 16, 1991, President George H. W. Bush launched the military intervention, Operation Desert Storm, in an effort to force occupying Iraqi troops out and restore Kuwait’s democratic institutions (Taylor, 2016). Like many other military engagements, Operation Desert Storm involved extensive planning operations and the … Desert Storm involved extensive planning operations and the coordination of hundreds of thousands of American and coalition troops which were massed along the Saudi-Iraqi border awaiting the word from military leaders to advance. When the deadline for withdrawal by January 15, 1991 that was set by the … to advance. When the deadline……
Curtis, J. (2015, November). Reflecting on strategic results of Operation Desert Storm. Army, 65(11), 24-27.
Khan, H. (2011, July 1). An unbiased estimate of present American competitiveness from deontological and teleological perspectives of utilitarianism. Competition Forum, 9(2), 348-352.
Klotzer, C. L. (2002, October). A lesson for Americans: Desert Storm operation reports were full of lies and distortions. St. Louis Journalism Review, 32(250), 34-39.
Lindsey, J. M. & Smith, C. (2003, Summer). Rally 'round the flag: Opinion in the United States before and after the Iraq War. Brookings Review, 21(3), 20-24.
Operation Desert Storm. (2020). U.S. History. Retrieved from https://www.ushistory.org/ us/60a.asp.
Stilwell, B. (2015, September 12). 21 facts about the first Gulf War. Military.com. Retrieved from https://www.military.com/undertheradar/2015/09/21-facts-about-the-first-gulf-war .
Taylor, A. (2016, January 14). Operation Desert Storm: 25 years since the first Gulf War. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2016/01/operation-desert-storm-25-years-since-the-first-gulf-war/424191/ .
Tilford, K. H., Jr. (1993, Summer). Review: The meaning of victory in Operation Desert Storm: A review essay. Political Science Quarterly, 108(2), 327-331.
… be aligned with the policies and platforms of the administrations under which they are operating. This was seen in the lead-up to the Iraq War when in the aftermath of 9/11 there was a push by an inner “cabal,” as Seymour Hersh (2003) called it in his … Special Plans (OSP), which engaged in a clandestine operation of its own to create the intelligence used to launch a full-scale invasion of Iraq. Just to give an example of the conflict that can arise among the various clandestine operations that might occur at any one moment … arise among the various clandestine operations that might occur at any one moment under any one administration, the events leading up to the Iraq War provide a fertile ground for understanding: As Hersh (2003) shows, Bush’s policy advisors in the OSP were involved in their own clandestine … (OSP)” and their clandestine operation……
Arnold, A. and D. Salisbury. The Long Arm, 2019. Retrieved from https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Barker, Michael J. \\\\\\"Democracy or polyarchy? US-funded media developments in Afghanistan and Iraq post 9/11.\\\\\\" Media, Culture & Society 30, no. 1 (2008): 109-130.
Best, Richard A. Intelligence to Counter Terrorism: Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service: CRS Report for Congress, 2002.
Carter, Ashton B. \\\\\\"Overhauling counterproliferation.\\\\\\" Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3
Crumpton, Henry A. The art of intelligence: lessons from a life in the CIA\\\\\\'s clandestine service. Penguin, 2013.
Hersh, Seymour. Selective Intelligence. The New Yorker, 2003. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2003/05/12/selective-intelligence
McCormick, G. H., & Owen, G. “Security and coordination in a clandestine organization.” Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 31, no. 6-7 (2000), 175-192.
… Mental Health Care for Military Veterans
Various studies have now emerged which prove that military veterans who have served in conflict seas like Iraq and Afghanistan need special mental health care. The reason for this being that they suffer from severe mental impacts of the war circumstances … noted (Duggal et al., 2010).
This was due to the reason that the military veterans who returned from war zones like Afghanistan and Iraq were under trauma equally and needed identical mental health care. It could be deducted that mental care is crucial for both genders fairly ……
Adams, R.E., Urosevich, T.G., Hoffman, S.N., Kirchner, H.L., Figley, C.R., Withey, C.A., Boscarino, J.J., Dugan, R.J. & Boscarino, J.A. (2019). Social and psychological risk and protective factors for veteran well-being: The role of veteran identity and its implications for intervention. Military Behavioral Health, 7(3), 304-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/21635781.2019.1580642
Allore, H.G., Ning, Y., Brandt, C.A., & Goulet, J.L. (2013). Accounting for the hierarchical structure in veterans’ health administration data: Differences in healthcare utilization between men and women veterans. International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, 2(2), 94-103. DOI: 10.6000/1929-6029.2013.02.02.03
Brooks, C. & Chopik, W. (2010, June 17). Research finds deployment affects mental health of veterans differently. Michigan State University. https://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2020/research-finds-deployment-affects-mental-health-of-veterans-differently/
Duggal, M., Goulet, J.L., Womack, J., Gordon, K., Mattocks, K., Haskell, S.G., Justice, A.C. & Brandt, C.A. (2010). Comparison of outpatient health care utilization among returning women and men veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq. BMS Health Services Research, 10 (175). https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-10-175
Harpaz-Rotem, I. & Rosenheck, R.A. (2011). Serving those who served: Retention of newly returning veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan in mental health treatment. Psychiatric Services, 62(1), 22-27. DOI: 10.1176/ps.62.1.pss6201_0022.
Haskel, S.G., Brandt, C.A., Krebs, E.E., Skanderson, M., Kerns, R.D., & Goulet, J.L. (2009). Pain among veterans of operations enduring freedom and Iraqi freedom: Do women and men differ? Pain Medicine, 10(7), 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526- 4637.2009.00714.x
Kaur, S., Stechuchak, K.M., Coffman, C.J., Allen, K.D., & Bastain, L.A. (2007). Gender differences in health care utilization among veterans with chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 228-233. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-006-0048-5
Koo, K.H., Madden, E. & Maguen, S. (2015). Race, ethnicity, and gender differences in V.A. health care service utilization among U.S. veterans of recent conflicts. Psychiatric Services, 66(5), 507-513. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201300498
Successes since 9/11 include the death of Bin Laden and Al-Zarqawi. Numerous other high-profile terrorists have been killed including thousands of insurgents in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan (Nordland & Mashal, 2019).
The war in Afghanistan has not been a success. The Taliban is still in … negotiate a withdrawal though this goes against recommendations from the Pentagon (Nordland & Mashal, 2019).
Saddam Hussein was captured, tried and executed in Iraq as a result of the U.S. invasion, based on reports that Hussein had mobile weapons labs and was in possession of WMDs—none of … mobile weapons labs and was in possession of WMDs—none of which were ever found. The intelligence was later shown to be faulty and Iraq has been destabilized and is on the verge of joining Libya as a failed state. Much of the Middle East has suffered destruction … Syria to Yemen to Africa,……
Bipartisan Policy Center. (2017). Defeating terrorists, not terrorism. Retrieved from https://bipartisanpolicy.org/report/counterterrorism-policy-from-911-to-isis/
Englehardt, T. (2018). America’s war on terror. Retrieved from https://www.thenation.com/article/americas-war-on-terror-has-cost-taxpayers-5-6-trillion/
Freeman, M. (2018). ISIS Is a US-Israeli Creation. Top Ten “Indications.” Retrieved from https://www.globalresearch.ca/isis-is-a-us-israeli-creation-top-ten-indications/5518627
Malzahn, S. M. (2002). State Sponsorship and Support of International Terrorism: Customary Norms of State Responsibility. Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., 26, 83.
Nordland, R. & Mashal, M. (2019). U.S. and Taliban Edge Toward Deal to End America’s Longest War. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/26/world/asia/afghanistan-taliban-peace-deal.html
White House. (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030214-7.html
...Iraq Evaluating a Counterterrorism Strategy
One of the problems with the “war on terror” as first conceived in the wake of 9/11 was that it lacked objectivity and realism (Taddeo, 2010). The mission calculus was unclear, the operation involved lacking in all the variables of iSTART (ideology, strategy, tactics, accounting/financing, recruitment, targets). What was the aim of the counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan? Numerous negative consequences of the mission followed: the liberation of the poppy fields and the spike in the heroin trade around the world that decimated communities, including American ones back home (Felbab-Brown, 2017); the rise of the Islamic State throughout the Middle East (Barton, 2016); two trillion dollars in costs in addition to the loss of 2,400 US soldiers and the deaths of nearly 40,000 Afghani civilians (Almukhtar & Nordland, 2019). Because the US lacked an adequate iSTART framework going into its counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan, the result……
Almukhtar, S. & Nordland, R. (2019). What Did the U.S. Get for $2 Trillion in Afghanistan? Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/09/world/middleeast/afghanistan-war-cost.html
Barno, D. (2007). The Other War: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan 2003– 20. Military Review, 87(5), 32–44.
Barton, G. (2016). Out of the ashes of Afghanistan and Iraq: the rise and rise of Islamic State. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/out-of-the-ashes-of-afghanistan-and-iraq-the-rise-and-rise-of-islamic-state-55437
Felbab-Brown, V. (2017). Afghanistan’s opium production is through the roof—why Washington shouldn’t overreact. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/11/21/afghanistans-opium-production-is-through-the-roof-why-washington-shouldnt-overreact/
FM 3-24. (2014). Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf
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IrishTimes. (2001). Britain freezes £61m of suspected Taliban assets. Retrieved from https://www.irishtimes.com/news/britain-freezes-61m-of-suspected-taliban-assets-1.398565
Kiras, J. D. (2002). Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and Colin Gray eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 208–232.
… the U.S. has itself changed over time, meaning that allies are more and more hesitant to work with the U.S. after the disastrous Iraq War and the bungling of the Libyan regime change and the Syrian intervention. The Muslim population is divided in its stance towards the … nation’s military power, the struggle to achieve political objectives remains—for one cannot simply make war and expect one’s desired outcomes to come about. Iraq, Libya and Syria have shown that to be the case. The U.S. has waged war in the Middle East for years, and yet ……
Builder, Carl H. “The Masks of War: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis.”
Gray, Colin S. “Why Strategy is Difficult,” JFQ.
Habeck, Mary. “Why They Did It,” Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror.”
Walt, Stephen. “Why Alliances Endure or Collapse,” Survival, vol. 39, no. 1 (Spring 1997), 156-179.
… around the world, with many hundreds of thousands of Americans negatively impacted by it as well. So while no WMDs were found in Iraq, a massive WMD in the form of the heroin trade escaped Afghanistan and ran riot through the streets of the U.S. The FBI ……
Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019. https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.
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Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.
… funs, and endowment funds. The U.S. also provides assistance to Poland in helping it meets its NATO obligations and to sustain operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The U.S. has also provided financial assistance to the Polish military (U.S. Department of State, 2019). The U.S. has provided equipment ……
CIA (2019). The World Factbook: Poland. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pl.html
IntoPoland. (n.d.). Geography of Poland. Retrieved from http://www.intopoland.com/poland-info/geography-of-poland.html
Peszke, M. (2017). Polish Armed Forces, 1918-present. Oxford Bibliographies. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199791279/obo-9780199791279-0150.xml
U.S. Department of State. (2019, June 10). U.S. Relations with Poland. Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/u-s-relations-with-poland/
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