… Policy Center (2020) notes that African Americans are only 13% of the US population yet they represent more than half of all American homicides; but what is worse is that 87% of African American homicides are killed by guns. It is evident from these statistics that gun violence among the African American community is a real problem. This … social workers to address it.
Overview of the Problem
Who is Affected
According to FBI data, in 2016 there were 7,756 African American homicide victims in the US. This equals to a homicide rate for African Americans of 20.44 per 100,000 (Violence Policy Center, 2020). 6,505 out of 7,442 victims were killed with guns. 17% of ……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work
Jones, N. (2014). “The regular routine”: Proactive policing and adolescent development among young, poor black men. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2014(143), 33-54.
Llewellyn, J. J., Archibald, B. P., Clairmont, D., & Crocker, D. (2013). Imagining success for a restorative approach to justice: Implications for measurement and evaluation. Dalhousie LJ, 36, 281.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
Violence Policy Center. (2020). Black homicide victimization. Retrieved from http://vpc.org/revealing-the-impacts-of-gun-violence/black-homicide-victimization/
Every traditional culture has its norms, which ultimately affect what is considered right or wrong. A clear distinction of this is best illustrated in the Middle East as compared to Western culture, where in the Middle East certain behaviors, e.g., kissing in public, in public is illegal as compared to in the west. This is basically as a result of the differences in the traditional cultures of these two regions, bearing in mind that religion is a core part of any culture. To this effect, it would be argued that culture affects law and identity, and to ensure that there is fairness and justice in any given society, then the cultural context of the people cannot be ignored. In her book, The Cultural Defense, Alison Dundes Renteln argues that \"Culture shapes individual identity in crucial ways. The failure of the law to recognize this has resulted in injustices\" (Renteln……
Renteln, A. D. (2004). The cultural defense. Oxford University Press.
… points out, it was also found that any move to disconnect the respirator would in this particular case be in contravention of the homicide statuses of New Jersey State.
The loss of the petition did not deter Quinlan’s parents from their resolve to end what in their … of existing natural consequences. This is to say that under such circumstances, the course of action adopted by the doctors would not be homicide and,…[break]…happens to be in a permanent vegetative state, a physician or an ethical committee could be the designated decision maker. This could be ……
Drane, J.F. (1994). Clinical Bioethics: Theory and Practice in Medical Ethical Decision-making. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.
Holland, S., Kitzinger, C. & Kitzinger, J. (2014). Death, treatment decisions and the permanent vegetative state: evidence from families and experts. Med Health Care Philos., 17(3), 413-423.
Karen Ann Quinlan Hospice (2019). The Story of Karen Ann Quinlan Made Headlines! Retrieved from https://www.karenannquinlanhospice.org/about/history/
Mizzoni, J. (2011). Ethics: The Basics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Rosenthal, M.S. (2018). Clinical Ethics on Film: A Guide for Medical Educators. New York, NY: Springer.
Singer, P. (2013). A Companion to Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
...Homicide Gun Violence Effect on African American Community
The African American community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of gun violence. For starters, the violence takes a toll on these communities. The violence that emanates from the use of guns and other incidences of shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop members of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community becomes suspicious of the law enforcement authorities. Indeed, any government departments, including but not limited to the police, are under thorough scrutiny regarding the treatment of people of color. There are calls for reforms in the justice system owing to the disproportionate numbers of people of color in incarceration. Also, the increase in gun violence……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
… consolidated structure or organization for the commission of their activities. Frequently, they engage in spur-of-the-moment reactions to attacks on the part of rival gangs…[break]…homicides, drug trade, human trafficking, arms trade, and other such offenses linked to organized criminal activities.
The issues that I faced when applying ……
California Department of Justice. (1993). Gangs 2000: A call to action. Sacramento, California: Department of Justice.
Department of Public Security. (2007). Definition and classification of gangs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Organization of American States.
Sanchez-Jankowski, M. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7(2), 191-216. DOI: 10.1177/1362480603007002413.
A. History of drugs, cross-cultural perspective
1. Opium wars (ACLU, 2020)
2. Since Nixon, the modern “war on drugs” (Pearl, 2018)
3. History of drug use in different societies (ACLU, 2020)
B. History of government intervention in the private lives of individuals via drug policy (ACLU, 2020); Baumbauer, 2012).
C. Effects of the war on drugs
1. Is it effective? Quantify the deaths related to the WOD, as well as the social entropy in communities, families, and within individuals (London, 2005; Pearl, 2018)
2. Criminalization distracting attention from more central concerns linked to capitalism, psychological wellbeing, and healthcare (ACLU, 2020; Coyne & Hall, 2017; London, 2005).
3. National sovereignty issues and global perspective (Coomber, Moyle, Belackova, et al., 2018; Von Hoffman, 2016).
II. Theoretical Discussion
A. Race, class, power perspectives (Netherland & Hansen, 2017; Putt, Payne & Milner 2005; Taylor, Buchanan & Aynes, 2016).
B. Government, public……
ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… drug policy reform are harnessed and used to prevent real crimes against humanity, from domestic violence and abuse to acts of terror to homicide. Taking the drug market out from under the chokehold of the black market would also weaken those syndicates and cartels, allowing federal law ……
ACLU (2020). Against drug prohibition. Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/other/against-drug-prohibition " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
...Homicide Types of Criminal Profiling
According to Bartol & Bartol (2017), there are five broad categories of criminal profiling, but they are not mutually exclusive and are frequently used in tandem with one another to aid investigations. The first type of criminal profiling covered in the text is commonly referred to as psychological profiling: the profiling of known individuals like suspects. The goal of psychological profiling is risk or threat assessment: to determine how serious a person may be if they have threatened violence. Similarly, psychological profiling can be used on persons who have been flagged for violating social norms or who have acted out. As helpful as psychological profiling can be to investigators, it is important to note that the process can be misleading and even harmful to investigations (Sample, 2010). Psychological profiling methods are not necessarily grounded in research, and can lead to spurious results and prejudicial data.
Bartol, C. R., & Bartol, A. M. (2017). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach (11th ed.). Retrieved from https://redshelf.com/
Kocsis, R. N., & Palermo, G. B. (2015). Disentangling Criminal Profiling: Accuracy, Homology, and the Myth of Trait-Based Profiling. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 59(3), 313-332. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13513429
Sample, I. (2010). Psychological profiling ‘worse than useless.’ The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/sep/14/psychological-profile-behavioural-psychology
… for them. Between the middle of the ‘70s decade and the early ‘90s, violent offense rates continued to be steadily high; the national homicide rate peaked, in the year 1980, and reached 10.2 for every…[break]…rate. Figures reveal that a dramatic growth in imprisonment rates, particularly imprisonment of ……
Raymond Derrial Madden, Petitioner-appellant, v. United States of America, Respondent-appellee, 64 F.3d 669 (10th Cir. 1995)
Sepulveda v. United States, 69 F. Supp. 2d 633 (D.N.J. 1999)
United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Joanne Kwi Ye Estes, Defendant-appellant, 166 F.3d 1218 (9th Cir. 1998)
United States v. Madden, No. 92-6206 (10th Cir. Apr. 20, 1993), WL 332262 Books and article
Moore, R. (2017). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.
United States Congress. (1994). Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. Public law, (103-322).
The Establishment. (2016, April 12). About That Controversial 1994 Crime Bill. A Medium Corporation. Retrieved from https://medium.com/the-establishment/about-that-controversial-1994-crime-bill-c17ccfcc25fa
...Homicide Treatment Versus Punishment: That Is the Question!
When it comes to the question of whether treatment or punishment should be used for juvenile offenders, it is important to remember that juveniles are still developing into adults: their minds, bodies, impulses and cognitive processes are still in formation phases and they do not have the kind of control that one might expect or assume of an adult. Juveniles are children, in other words, and if a child is ever thrown into a cage society is more than likely to label it child abuse. Yet every year children are tried and punished for crimes as though they were adults. While sometimes punitive approaches to juvenile justice may be necessary in order to teach a lesson, they should not be on the scale of what they are for adults. The focus of juvenile justice should be on rehabilitation—not punishment. This paper will……
Agnew, R. (2008). Strain Theory. In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
Cramer, M. (2014). Parole Board releases 2nd man convicted of murder as juvenile. Retrieved from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/08/06/parole-board-releases-man-convicted-murder-while-juvenile/REwVVe3aR9leuRVMpZsN6O/story.html
Diskin, M. (2018). New law will put limits. Retrieved from https://www.vcstar.com/story/news/local/2018/10/11/new-california-law-means-teen-suspect-oxnard-murders-cannot-tried-adult/1535518002/
Fritz, J. K. (2015). Diverting young offenders from prison is ‘smart justice.’ Education Digest, 81(2), 53-55.
Jannetta, J., & Okeke, C. (2017). Strategies for Reducing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Involvement. Building Ladders of Opportunity for Young People in the Great Lakes States, brief, 4. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/94516/strategies-for-reducing-criminal-and-juvenile-justice-involvement_2.pdf
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Meli, L. (2014). Hate Crime and Punishment: Why Typical Punishment Does Not Fit the Crime. U. Ill. L. Rev., 921.
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