Using Social Media to Build Out Support Systems
Violence prevention programs focus on curtailing forms of violence in society, such as child abuse, domestic violence and sexual assault. These programs often emphasize personal responsibility, information about what constitutes violence (it is often the case that offenders do not even realize they are being abusive), why long-term solutions are better than quick-fixes, and … this topic, explain it from the theoretical perspective of strain theory, describe the present literature, and make recommendations based on the problems with violence prevention programs from a strain theory perspective and what can be done to solve those issues.
Violence Prevention Programs
Violence prevention programs are programs designed to address the needs of the community afflicted with violence issues, such as child abuse, sexual assault or domestic violence. For the programs here studied, the programs provide prevention education services that target the prevention of child……
Altafim, E. R. P., & Linhares, M. B. M. (2016). Universal violence and childmaltreatment prevention programs for parents: A systematic review. Psychosocial Intervention, 25(1), 27-38.
Alternative Paths. (2020). Violence prevention. Retrieved from https://www.alternativepaths.org/services/diversion-programs/violence-prevention-program
Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., Kung, E. M., & Sullivan, T. N. (2001). Development and evaluation of school-based violence prevention programs. Journal of clinical child psychology, 30(2), 207-220.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1995). Why violence prevention programs don't work--and what does. Educational Leadership, 52(5), 63-68.
Lee, C., & Wong, J. S. (2020). Examining the effects of teen dating violence prevention programs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1-40.
Siegel, L. (2018). Criminology, 7th Ed. Cengage Learning.
Stagg, S. J., & Sheridan, D. (2010). Effectiveness of bullying and violence prevention programs: A systematic review. Aaohn Journal, 58(10), 419-424.
Gun Violence Effect on African American Community
The African American community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of … on African American Community
The African American community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of gun violence. For starters, the violence takes a toll on these communities. The violence that emanates from the use of guns and other incidences of shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's … incidences of shooting rips families apart and tears the family and community fabric. There's often a second devastating effect that results from the violence. The police frequently have to stop members of the colored community on the streets and run inspections. The outcome is that the community … calls for reforms in the justice system owing to the disproportionate numbers of people of color……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
… on parents and other caregivers, the authors note that children aged 5 years and younger are especially vulnerable to trauma due to domestic violence. Moreover, these young people are particularly susceptible to different types of trauma due to a wide range of events and incidents involving some … particularly susceptible to different types of trauma due to a wide range of events and incidents involving some form of severe in-home domestic violence. In addition, the authors emphasize that fully 85% of all fatalities among this segment of the American population are caused by domestic violence, and this alarming figure only diminishes slightly by age 7 years. Following a detailed description of the symptoms of trauma in young people … figure only diminishes slightly by age 7 years. Following a detailed description of the symptoms of trauma in young people exposed to domestic violence and noting that there remains a……
Plumb, J. L. & Bush, K. A. (2016, April 1). Trauma-sensitive schools: An evidence-based approach. School Social Work Journal, 40(2), 37-41.
If 20 million people were infected by a virus that caused anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, sleep problems, depression, respiratory and heart problems, vulnerability to substance abuse, antisocial and criminal behavior, . . . and school failure, we would consider it an urgent public health crisis. Yet, in the United States alone, there are more than 20 million abused, neglected and traumatized children vulnerable to these problems. Our society has yet to recognize this epidemic, let alone develop an immunization strategy.
Smith, T. J. & Holmes, C. M. (2018, January 1). Assessment and treatment of brain injury in women impacted by intimate partner violence and post-traumatic stress disorder. The Professional Counselor, 8(1), 1-4.
In 1981, the U.S. Congress declared October as Domestic Violence Awareness Month, marking a celebratory hallmark for advocates and survivors nationwide (National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, 2012). Since this time, similar social and legislative initiatives have increased overall awareness of gender inequality, thus influencing a decline in women\\\\\\'s risk for intimate partner violence (IPV; Powers & Kaukinen, 2012). Recent initiatives, such as a national briefing focused on brain injury and domestic violence hosted by the Congressional Brain Injury Task Force, continue to call increased attention to the various intersections and implications of this national public health epidemic (Brain Injury Association of America, 2017). Unfortunately, despite various social advocacy movements, IPV remains an underrepresented problem in the United States (Chapman & Monk, 2015). As a result, IPV and related mental and physical health consequences continue to exist at alarmingly high rates (Chapman & Monk, 2015).
Representations of Black Culture in the Media
Culture theory is one theory that can be used to explain domestic violence. As Serrat (2017) notes, culture is the set of “distinctive ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge” that define the way people behave and think … grow up signals to them that treating people in an inhumane way is acceptable, then those individuals are likely to engage in domestic violence acts as they feel or believe that it is an acceptable mode of behavior, sanctioned by the culture in which they live. The … in which they live. The culture of media, friends, family, schools, churches and other organizations may all play a part in explaining domestic violence situations. The African American culture has been affected by a number of different issues, such as low socio-economic status, stereotypical media representations that … how the number of people in prison is disproportionately……
Adorno, T. & Horkheimer, M. (2007). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34, 2007.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617699280
Breger, M. L. (2017). Reforming by re-norming: How the legal system has the potential to change a toxic culture of domestic violence. J. Legis., 44, 170.
Cashmore, E. (2006). The Black culture industry. Routledge.
Coleman, L. (1974). Carl Van Vechten Presents the New Negro. Studies in the Literary Imagination, 7(2), 85.
Cramer, E. P., Choi, Y. J., & Ross, A. I. (2017). Race, Culture, and Abuse of Persons with Disabilities. In Religion, Disability, and Interpersonal Violence (pp. 89-110). Champaign, IL: Springer.
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Decker, J. L. (1993). The state of rap: Time and place in hip hop nationalism. Social Text, (34), 53-84.
The Violence Policy Center (2020) notes that African Americans are only 13% of the US population yet they represent more than half of all American … but what is worse is that 87% of African American homicides are killed by guns. It is evident from these statistics that gun violence among the African American community is a real problem. This paper will provide an overview of the problem, who it affects and why … there were 7,756 African American homicide victims in the US. This equals to a homicide rate for African Americans of 20.44 per 100,000 (Violence Policy Center, 2020). 6,505 out of 7,442 victims were killed with guns. 17% of the killings were gang related. Nearly half of the … result of an argument between the victim and the offender. 71% of the killings were totally unrelated to any other crime being committed (Violence Policy Center, 2020).……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
Effects of Domestic Violence on African- American Women: Opinion Paper
Issue and History of the Issue
Young women are primary victims of domestic violence and it has been estimated that every minute, 20 people suffer from domestic violence in the U.S. (NCADV, 2017). This issue is therefore one that is quite serious, but it is one that particularly impacts the African-American … the days of slavery when black women were used and abused by their Masters on plantations (Franklin, 2000). That tradition of neglect and violence has continued in American culture to this day.
According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2017), 40% of black women experience … has continued in American culture to this day.
According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2017), 40% of black women experience violence from a partner. According to Rennison and Welchans (2000) the numbers are even higher: some 90%……
Adorno, T., & Horkheimer, M. (2007). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Bent-Goodley, T.B. (2001). Eradicating domestic violence in the African American community: A literature review and action agenda. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse: A Review Journal, 2,316-330.
Franklin, D.L. (2000). What\\\\\\'s love got to do with it? Understanding and healing the rift Between Black men and women. New York: Simon and Schuster
NCADV. (2017). Statistics. Retrieved from https://ncadv.org/statistic s" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… in anger and indignation like the town and the mob always calling for blood. She chooses to follow her father, but even still violence……
Executive Order 10925. Thecre. https://www.thecre.com/fedlaw/legal6/eo10925.htm
Abusive Relationships, Patterns of Violence, the Future of the Family
Some women remain in abusive relationships for different reasons. Some are scared to leave. Others feel … Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2017), African American women are the most likely to suffer from abuse, as 40% of black women experience violence from a partner. The characteristics of these women who are most likely to be abused is that they come from single-parent homes, broken … most likely to be abused is that they come from single-parent homes, broken homes, bad communities, poor socio-economic backgrounds, and drugs, alcohol and violence are part of their lives, so it is almost like it is expected: they may have had abusive childhoods, so they do not ……
Grossu, A. (2014). Margaret Sanger, racist eugenicist extraordinaire. Retrieved from https://www.frc.org/op-eds/margaret-sanger-racist-eugenicist-extraordinaire
Institute for Women’s Policy Research. (2017). Violence Against Black Women – Many Types, Far-reaching Effects. Retrieved from https://iwpr.org/violence-black-women-many-types-far-reaching-effects/
National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. (2019). Appropriate Sanctioning of Domestic Violence Crimes. Retrieved from http://www.ncdsv.org/images/KCSDV_AppropriateSanctioningDVCrimes.pdf
North, A. (2019). What’s next for #MeToo? This college might have the answer. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/10/10/20885824/me-too-movement-sexual-assault-college-campus
Reilly, K. (2016). Read Hillary Clinton's 'Basket of Deplorables' Remarks About Donald
Trump Supporters. Retrieved from https://time.com/4486502/hillary-clinton-basket-of-deplorables-transcript/
Understanding Elder Abuse. (2019). A guide for Ohioans. Retrieved from http://www.odjfs.state.oh.us/forms/num/JFS08098/pdf/
… the left via groups like Antifa, and proudly promoting their support for Trump and his policies while denouncing the leftist movement and its violence (DeCook, 2018). Proud Boys founder Gavin McInnes attempted to dissociate the organization from neo-nazism and white nationalism, yet the group attracted people like … it perceives as a rising tide of Fascism in society (Doyle, 2018).
The themes associated with the literature on domestic terrorism, extremism and violence focus three important categories: 1) how culture makes extremism socially acceptable; 2) how culture fosters violent attitudes and beliefs; and 3) how laws … nation’s laws should not reflect any bias or prejudice in society, but if they do not disallow a toxic culture of extremism and violence then they are ultimately responsible for the violence that ensues, which is largely what has happened in American society. Culture has to be addressed at the legislative level because……
Breger, M. L. (2017). Reforming by re-norming: How the legal system has the potential to change a toxic culture of domestic violence. J. Legis., 44, 170.
Beinart, P. (2017). The rise of the violent left. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/09/the-rise-of-the-violent-left/534192/
Brockhoff, S., Krieger, T. & Meierrieks, D. (2014). Great expectations and hard times: the (nontrivial) impact of education on domestic terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59(7), 1186-1215.
Brown, D. (2017). Proud boys founder. Retrieved from https://www.portlandmercury.com/blogtown/2017/12/12/19540403/proud-boys-founder-wants-to-trigger-the-entire-state-of-oregon-by-helping-patriot-prayers-joey-gibson-win-the-oregon-person-of-the-year- p
Cramer, E. P., Choi, Y. J., & Ross, A. I. (2017). Race, Culture, and Abuse of Persons with Disabilities. In Religion, Disability, and Interpersonal Violence (pp. 89-110). Springer, Cham.
Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2016). Countering violent extremism with governance networks. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(6), 135-139.
DeCook, J. R. (2018). Memes and symbolic violence:# proudboys and the use of memes for propaganda and the construction of collective identity. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 485-504.
Doyle, E. (Ed.). (2018). Antifa and the Radical Left. Greenhaven Publishing LLC.
… in 2015, more than 31,500 adults and children flew from their homes to seek refuse in homeless shelters and others because of domestic violence (Family & Youth Services Bureau, 2016). 80% of these adults fleeing their homes were mothers with children. Domestic violence accounts for 30% of contributing factors to homelessness among women and children. Bendix (2019) states that homeless populations have increased in more than … in the size and composition of homeless populations. As shown in this analysis, women and children are the mostly affected populations while domestic violence and drugs and alcohol abuse are the major contributing factors. Homeless women and children have continued to be targets of street crime victimization … drugs and alcohol abuse are the major contributing factors. Homeless women and children have continued to be targets of street crime victimization and violence that results in adverse health events. The high rates street……
Bachega, H. (2018, October 8). Homeless in US: A Deepening Crisis on the Streets of America. BBC. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-45442596
Bendix, A. (2019, November 18). The 9 States with the Worst Homelessness Crises Reveal How Bad the Housing Crunch Has Gotten in US Cities. Business Insider. Retrieved November 22, 2019, https://www.businessinsider.com/photos-homelessness-states-worst-crises-2018-11?IR=T
Ellsworth, J.T. (2018, December 3). Street Crime Victimization Among Homeless Adults: A Review of the Literature. Victims & Offenders: An International Journal of Evidence-based Research, Policy and Practice, 14(1), 96-118.
Family & Youth Services Bureau. (2016, June 24). Domestic Violence and Homelessness: Statistics (2016). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/fysb/resource/dv-homelessness-stats-2016
Norris, S. (2019, September 9). Women Fleeing Abuse Are Being ‘re-traumatized’ by the Housing System. City Metric. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.citymetric.com/politics/women-fleeing-abuse-are-being-re-traumatised-housing-system-4769
Stanley, J.L., Jansson, A.V., Akinyemi, A.A. & Mitchell, C.S. (2016, November). Characteristics of Violent Deaths Among Homeless People in Maryland, 2003-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), S260-S266.
Turner, M.M., Funge, S.P. & Gabbard, W.J. (2018). Victimization of the Homeless: Perceptions, Policies, and Implications for Social Work Practice. Journal of Social Work in the Global Community, 3(1), 1-12.
Tyler, K.A. & Beal, M.R. (2010). The High-risk Environment of Homeless Young Adults: Consequences for Physical and Sexual Victimization. Violence and Victims, 25(1), 101-115.
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