… applicable. This law calls on the district to address all language barriers so that ELLs can have significant access to every curricular and extracurricular program. Meaningful access means that ELLs are provided with opportunities to participate in curricular and extracurricular activities, just like native English speakers.
Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974
The Equal Educational Opportunities Act states that each district should “take appropriate ……
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Díaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
Sutton, L. C., Cornelius, L., & McDonald-Gordon, R. (2012). English language learners and judicial oversight: Progeny of Castaneda. Educational Considerations, 39(2). https://doi.org/10.4148/0146-9282.1111
U.S. Department of Education. (2012, May). Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature. https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/title-iii/language-instruction-ed-programs-report.pdf
U.S. Department of Justice. (2019, October 15). Types of educational opportunities discrimination. https://www.justice.gov/crt/types-educational-opportunities-discrimination
… to quality medical care, a robust social network, or social services safety nets. For adolescents, resources could also include school programs, sports, and extracurricular activities. Creative leveraging of resources builds hardiness within the system. Individuals and organizations can be taught to recognize resources they might have ignored or ……
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… interact with teachers, heads, classmates, and other staff around the school, in their native language. The schools have also been made to offer extracurricular activities with mentors who are also deaf. The latter is yet another important way of nurturing and transmitting the culture of the deaf.
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...Extracurricular activities Abstract
This paper provides an extensive review of literature on deaf students and deafness. The purpose of the literature review is to obtain an understanding of what deafness is, what causes deafness, how it occurs, and what deaf culture is like for deaf people. The review identifies schools and programs that are used to help the deaf community and it also examines the outcomes of deaf students in general education. It discusses whether deaf students are better served in an inclusive environment or whether they are better served in a deaf community based learning environment. It examines the characteristics of hearing loss and how there are different tools and ways to treat hearing loss when it occurs in cases where reversing the hearing loss is possible. In some cases, reversal is not possible but surgical solutions may exist.
One of the more remarkable qualities of deaf culture is that……
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/language.html
Curhan, G., & Curhan, S. (2016). Epidemiology of hearing impairment. In Hearing Aids (pp. 21-58). Springer, Cham.
Gallaudet University. (2019). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/info-to-go/national-resources-and-directories/schools-and-programs.html
Hill, M. (2019). Embryology Sensory - Hearing Abnormalities. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Sensory_-_Hearing_Abnormalities
Hyde, M., Nikolaraizi, M., Powell, D., & Stinson, M. (2016). Critical factors toward the Inclusion of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in higher education. Diversity in deaf education, 441-472.
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Padden, C. A. & Humphries, T. (2005). Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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