...Animals Poor Children, the Problem of Drug Therapy and Possible Alternatives
Foster children are more likely than children in the general population to have mental health issues (Polihronakis, 2008). Part of the reason for this is that foster children are in foster care because they have been neglected in their own homes, their parents are incapable of providing food, love, shelter and nourishment, and they are in need of a nurturing environment. Many of them will have experienced a traumatic event, or the transition from one home to another will be traumatic—and so they end up suffering from mental health problems. It is estimated that approximately 8 out of every 10 children in foster care have mental health issues, as opposed to 2 out of 10 children in the rest of the population (NCSL, 2019). For that reason, youths in foster homes and/or those who grow up in poverty are……
Broaddus, M. E. (2017). A Demonstration Project to Address Juvenile Drug Addiction.
Graduate Thesis, Bellarmine.
Korry, E. (2015). California Moves To Stop Misuse Of Psychiatric Meds In Foster Care.
Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/09/02/436350334/california-moves-to-stop-misuse-of-psychiatric-meds-in-foster-care " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
...Animals Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
Part 1: Define and Refine
Evidence-based programs are defined as a prevention or treatment practice, that is based on consistent scientific evidence providing proof that the practice improves client/patient outcomes. The practice should be supported by sufficient documentation and peer-reviewed research that shows its effectiveness (Operational Definition for Evidence-Based Practices Addictions and Mental Health Division, 2017).
Programs draw from theory in that the theoretical framework developed by researchers and professionals serve as a set of parameters or guidelines for how to interpret evidence and how to implement the recommendations based on the evidence into one’s practice. Theories serve as the lens through which to look at the evidence. Just as a microscope has a lens and a focus so that one can see all the details of the subject, the theory allows the data to be put into perspective, and that perspective is defined……
Asen, E. & Fonagy, P (2012) Handbook of Mentalizing in Mental Health Practice. Washington DC.
Kern-Godal, A., Arnevik, E. A., Walderhaug, E., &Ravndal, E. (2015). Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) for young adults. Addiction science & clinical practice, 10(1), 21.
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-Centered Therapy. MA: Riverside Press. Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. (2006). American Psychologist, May-June, 271-285.
Muela, A., Balluerka, N., Amiano, N., Caldentey, M. A., &Aliri, J. (2017). Animal-assisted psychotherapy for young people with behavioural problems in residential care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 24(6), O1485 O1494. doi: http://fir.tesu.edu:2074/10.1002/cpp.2112 " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
...Animals Horse Virus Detection and Treatment
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is defined by Timoney (2019) in the Merck Veterinary Manual as “an acute, contagious, viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV).” EAV is also known as Epizootic cellulitis-pinkeye, Equine typhoid, and Rotlaufseuche (Timoney, 2019). The virus can cause symptoms of fever, conjunctivitis, depression, anorexia, nasal discharge, skin rash, subfertility in stallions, and death on young foals and abortion in mares (Price, Rentsch, Burn & Spector, 1998).
The etiology of EVA starts with respiratory exposure: the virus invades the respiratory tract, where it then proceeds to duplicate itself in the tonsillar tissue and nasopharyngeal epithelium, as well as in bronchial macrophages (Timoney, 2019). Cells infected by EVA then transmit the virus to the lymph nodes, resulting in further multiplication of the virus and ultimate release into the carrier’s blood stream. Within one week, EVA will localize in small blood……
Center for Food Security and Public Health. (2009). Equine viral arteritis. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/equine_viral_arteritis.pdf
Price, S. D., Rentsch, G., Burn, B., & Spector, D. A. (1998). The Whole Horse Catalog: The Complete Guide to Buying, Stabling and Stable Management, Equine Health, Tack, Rider Apparel, Equestrian Activities and Organizations... and Everything Else a Horse Owner and Rider Will Ever Need. Simon and Schuster.
Timoney, P. (2019). Overview of Equine Viral Arteritis. Retrieved from https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/equine-viral-arteritis/overview-of-equine-viral-arteritis?query=Equine%20Viral%20Arteritis
Timoney, P. J., Creekmore, L., Meade, B., Fly, D., Rogers, E., & King, B. (2008). 2006 Multi-State Occurrence of EVA. https://www.animalagriculture.org/resources/Documents/Conf%20-%20Symp/Symposiums/2016%20Equine/EDF%20Resources/EVA/USDA%20EVA_2006_Multistate_USAHA.pdf
Virginia Department of Health. (2016). One health notes, 1(1). Retrieved from
… taking the lessons they learn from the goal-oriented animal-assisted therapy and applying them to their own lives. They learn how to care for animals and how to control them, and this gives them both a sense of empowerment and a sense of knowledge of what it takes … this gives them both a sense of empowerment and a sense of knowledge of what it takes to be disciplined not only with animals but also with themselves. By taking a share of ownership over another living thing, they assume an air of responsibility that translates into ……
Birtel, M. D., Wood, L., & Kempa, N. J. (2017). Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being. Psychiatry Research, 252, 1-8.
Contalbrigo, L., De Santis, M., Toson, M., Montanaro, M., Farina, L., Costa, A., & Nava,F. (2017). The efficacy of dog assisted therapy in detained drug users: A pilot study in an Italian attenuated custody institute. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(7), 683.
Hauge, H., Kvalem, I. L., Berget, B., Enders-Slegers, M. J., & Braastad, B. O. (2014). Equine-assisted activities and the impact on perceived social support, self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents–an intervention study. International journal of adolescence and youth, 19(1), 1-21.
Kelly, M. A., & Cozzolino, C. A. (2015). Helping at-risk youth overcome trauma and substance abuse through animal-assisted therapy. Contemporary Justice Review, 18(4), 421-434.
Kern-Godal, A., Arnevik, E. A., Walderhaug, E., & Ravndal, E. (2015). Substance use disorder treatment retention and completion: a prospective study of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) for young adults. Addiction science & clinical practice, 10(1), 21.
Klemetsen, M. G., & Lindstrom, T. C. (2017). Animal-assisted therapy in the treatment of substance use disorders: A systematic mixed methods review. Human-Animal Interaction Bull, 5, 90-117.
Masini, A., PhD. (2010). Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(10), 30-34. doi: http://fir.tesu.edu:2074/10.3928/02793695-20100831-08
Muela, A., Balluerka, N., Amiano, N., Caldentey, M. A., & Aliri, J. (2017). Animal-assisted psychotherapy for young people with behavioural problems in residential care. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 24(6), O1485-O1494. doi: http://fir.tesu.edu:2074/10.1002/cpp.2112 " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
… environment where a new mother is feeling overwhelmed by a new baby can be a way to help the new mother. Emotional support animals require no training but they can help to alter the brain chemistry of a woman going through postpartum depression. Spending time with an … depression. Spending time with an emotional support animal can increase levels of serotonin in the brain, as well as oxytocin and prolactin. Some animals can know when the new mother is feeling down and can try to engage with the person to get them feeling more active … the new mother is feeling down and can try to engage with the person to get them feeling more active and engaged. These animals can also help the new mother to feel not so alone. A new baby can be very demanding and without another sympathetic creature ……
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Badr, H. A., & Zauszniewski, J. A. (2017). Kangaroo care and postpartum depression: The role of oxytocin. International journal of nursing sciences, 4(2), 179-183.
Baka, J., Csakvari, E., Huzian, O., Dobos, N., Siklos, L., Leranth, C., ... & Hajszan, T. (2017). Stress induces equivalent remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses in a simulated postpartum environment and in a female rat model of major depression. Neuroscience, 343, 384-397.
Firman, D. (2009). Stepping up: Strategies for the new counselor. Counseling with confidence: From pre-service to professional practice, 15-28.
Jones, J. & Lyddon, W. (2000). Cognitive Therapy and Empirically Validated Treatments. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 14(3): 337-345.
Ko, J. Y., Rockhill, K. M., Tong, V. T., Morrow, B., & Farr, S. L. (2017). Trends in postpartum depressive symptoms—27 states, 2004, 2008, and 2012. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 66(6), 153.
LoFrisco, B. (2012). How to build rapport with clients. Retrieved from https://www.mastersincounseling.org/counseling/client-rapport/
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
...Animals The Social Issue
Depression is a significant social issue of interest to me as I have seen it affect numerous people in my own life and have even struggled with it at times myself. Depression has caused people to take their lives: Chester Bennington, lead singer of the group Linkin Park took his life following the suicide of his friend, and numerous other people who are less famous end up in similar situations—lost, without hope, unable to break a cycle of depression that has them gripped as though in a vice. Depression is an issue that can be treated, however, but in order for the right intervention to be applied, awareness about depression has to be raised so that the stigma and taboo of depression can be alleviated, allowing those who suffer from it to come forward. In recent years, major public figures, especially athletes, have come into the light……
Anderson, M. & Jiang, J. (2018). Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media-technology-2018/
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Chester, J., & Montgomery, K. (2008). No escape: Marketing to kids in the digital age. Multinational Monitor, 29(1), 11.
Greenberg, P. (2015). The Growing Economic Burden of Depression in the U.S. Retrieved from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/mind-guest-blog/the-growing-economic-burden-of-depression-in-the-u-s/
Grover, S., Raju, V. V., Sharma, A., & Shah, R. (2019). Depression in children and adolescents: a review of Indian studies. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 41(3), 216.
Korry, E. (2015). California Moves To Stop Misuse Of Psychiatric Meds In Foster Care. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/09/02/436350334/california-moves-to-stop-misuse-of-psychiatric-meds-in-foster-care " target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
The coronavirus is not actually a single disease, instead the term refers to a variety of different zoonotic viruses that cause illnesses in animals and can jump from animals to humans. The majority of coronaviruses have been relatively mild, simply causing cold-like symptoms in humans. However, there have been other coronavirus variations … is that the animal-to-human transmission of the disease occurred in a “wet market” in Wuhan, China. Wet markets sell both live and dead animals for human consumption. While that idea may sound exotic to people who are used to purchasing dead and butchered meat for consumption, foods … sound exotic to people who are used to purchasing dead and butchered meat for consumption, foods at a wet market include traditionally consumed animals like fish and poultry, as well as some more exotic food. Wet markets are more likely to be a source of disease transmission ………
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Key Facts.” CDC. 12 March 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/share-facts.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fabout%2Fshare-facts.html . Accessed 16 March 2020.
Newey, S. and Gulland, A. “What Is Coronavirus, How Did It Start and Could the Outbreak Grow Bigger?” The Telegraph. 16 March 2020. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/16/what-coronavirus-how-start-outbreak-pandemic-covid-19/ . Accessed 16 March 2020.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions.” FDA. 2020. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-issues/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frequently-asked-questions . Accessed 16 March 2020.
World Health Organization. “Coronavirus.” WHO. 2020. https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus . Accessed 16 March 2020.
Today, there are dozens of deadly diseases in the world, but the Ebola virus disease (alternatively “EVD” or “Ebola”) is among the most virulent and lethal. Although intensive research is underway, there is no cure currently available for Ebola and the death toll attributable to this disease continues to increase. To date, there have been nearly 30,000 cases of Ebola infections that caused more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in West Africa, but the disease has the potential to spread worldwide unless first responders, emergency management managers and the health care community take aggressive steps to identify infections and contain outbreaks. The main purpose of this study is to provide a systematic and critical review of the relevant juried, scholarly and governmental literature about the Ebola virus disease to create an awareness manual that is targeted at educating Nigerian citizens concerning this disease. A secondary purpose of this study is……
Allam, M. F. (2014, September). Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Case fatality rate 90%? Central European Journal of Public Health 22(3), 207-210.
Allam, M. F. & Vonka, V. (2015, March). Ebola virus disease: Temperature checks for travelers? Central European Journal of Public Health, 23(1), 84.
Brand, J. E. & Stela, D. (2014, October). Ebola is here: Knowledge, identification, and appropriate infection control are key. American Nurse Today, 9(10), 37-39.
Brown, G. (2015, Winter). Ebola in America: An epidemic or a pandemic? ABNF Journal, 26(1), 3-5.
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Ebola virus disease. (2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html .
Hancock, M. (2019, September). After Ebola. African Business, 422, 56-58.
… in speaking about the past and listening to and connecting with others in the group.
Animal-assisted therapy programs can be provided as well. Animals typically bring people great joy and can enhance in the well-being and stave off depression or withdrawal. When animals are brought to see people, a connection is made between the elderly and nature in a way that is not frequently possible because … elderly and nature in a way that is not frequently possible because of the age of the elderly and their lack of mobility. Animals bring a vital spirit and energy to the environment that can pique the interest of the population and uplift their own spirits (Banks, ……
Aging and Disability Services. (2013). Promote Healthy Aging. Retrieved from http://www.agingkingcounty.org/healthy_aging.htm
Baker, T. A. (2014). The importance of aging studies: Understanding the influence of diversity and culture. Age Culture Humanities: An Interdisciplinary Journal (1). Retrieved from http://ageculturehumanities.org/WP/the-importance-of-aging-studies-understanding-the-influence-of-diversity-and-culture/
Banks, M. R., Willoughby, L. M., & Banks, W. A. (2008). Animal-assisted therapy and loneliness in nursing homes: use of robotic versus living dogs. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9(3), 173-177.
Brojeni, S. A., Ilali, E. S., Taraghi, Z., & Mousavinasab, N. (2019). Lifestyle and its related factors in elderly. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, 6(1), 32.
Cornwell, E. Y., & Waite, L. J. (2009). Measuring social isolation among older adults using multiple indicators from the NSHAP study. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64(suppl_1), i38-i46.
Landeiro, F., Barrows, P., Musson, E. N., Gray, A. M., & Leal, J. (2017). Reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open, 7(5), e013778.
Liu, S. J., Lin, C. J., Chen, Y. M., & Huang, X. Y. (2007). The effects of reminiscence group therapy on self-esteem, depression, loneliness and life satisfaction of elderly people living alone. Mid-Taiwan Journal of Medicine, 12(3), 133-142.
Moore, E. G., & Rosenberg, M. W. (2001). Canada's elderly population: the challenges of diversity. Canadian Geographer, 45(1), 145.
Phobias are a kind of anxiety disorder that can make an individual to experience extreme irrational fear regarding a situation, object, or living creature. Phobias should not be confused with normal fears since phobias are linked to a particular situation or object and they are persistent for 6 or more months. In this paper, we will describe what a phobia is and offer the differentiation of phobias from normal fear. We will then provide the diagnosis criteria for phobias as indicated in the DSM-5 manual. The 4Ds will be analyzed as they relate to phobia and the models of abnormality will be discussed. Treatment, history, culture, and prognosis will form the later part of the paper.
According to Sutherland, Middleton, Ornstein, Lawson, and Vickers (2016) a phobia is defined as a type of anxiety disorder that makes an individual experience extreme irrational fear about a living creature, situation,……
Campos, D., Mira, A., Bretón-López, J., Castilla, D., Botella, C., Baños, R. M., & Quero, S. (2018). The acceptability of an internet-based exposure treatment for flying phobia with and without therapist guidance: patients’ expectations, satisfaction, treatment preferences, and usability. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 14, 879.
Carleton, R. N., Thibodeau, M. A., Weeks, J. W., Teale Sapach, M. J. N., McEvoy, P. M., Horswill, S. C., & Heimberg, R. G. (2014). Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Psychological assessment, 26(4), 1116-1126. doi:10.1037/a0037063
Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & McEvoy, P. M. (2018). Bigger is better: Full-length versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale outperform short forms at assessing treatment outcome. Psychological assessment, 30(11), 1512-1526. doi:10.1037/pas0000601
Goetter, E. M., Frumkin, M. R., Palitz, S. A., Swee, M. B., Baker, A. W., Bui, E., & Simon, N. M. (2018). Barriers to mental health treatment among individuals with social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological Services, No Pagination Specified-No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1037/ser0000254
Halldorsdottir, T., & Ollendick, T. H. (2016). Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(5), 465-471. doi:10.1037/ccp0000088
Hirsch, J. A. (2018). Integrating Hypnosis with Other Therapies for Treating Specific Phobias: A Case Series. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 60(4), 367-377.
Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., Barlow, D. H., & Oliveau, D. C. (1969). Contribution of selective positive reinforcement and therapeutic instructions to systematic desensitization therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74(1), 113-118. doi:10.1037/h0027063
Probst, T., Berger, T., Meyer, B., Späth, C., Schröder, J., Hohagen, F., . . . Klein, J. P. (2019). Social phobia moderates the outcome in the EVIDENT study: A randomized controlled trial on an Internet-based psychological intervention for mild to moderate depressive symptoms [Press release]
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