… may also infect alpacas and llamas. Transmission between equines occurs via respiration, venereal contact or congenitally (Timoney, 2019). It is not a Foreign animal Disease but does occur globally among equines throughout the world. EVA is a reportable disease in Virginia (Virginia Department of Health, 2016).
Clinical … received and used, and what donors or recipients were recently at the farm (Timoney et al., 2008).
The disease is diagnosed by lab testing (Timoney et al., 2008). The……
Center for Food Security and Public Health. (2009). Equine viral arteritis. Retrieved from http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/equine_viral_arteritis.pdf
Price, S. D., Rentsch, G., Burn, B., & Spector, D. A. (1998). The Whole Horse Catalog: The Complete Guide to Buying, Stabling and Stable Management, Equine Health, Tack, Rider Apparel, Equestrian Activities and Organizations... and Everything Else a Horse Owner and Rider Will Ever Need. Simon and Schuster.
Timoney, P. (2019). Overview of Equine Viral Arteritis. Retrieved from https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/equine-viral-arteritis/overview-of-equine-viral-arteritis?query=Equine%20Viral%20Arteritis
Timoney, P. J., Creekmore, L., Meade, B., Fly, D., Rogers, E., & King, B. (2008). 2006 Multi-State Occurrence of EVA. https://www.animalagriculture.org/resources/Documents/Conf%20-%20Symp/Symposiums/2016%20Equine/EDF%20Resources/EVA/USDA%20EVA_2006_Multistate_USAHA.pdf
Virginia Department of Health. (2016). One health notes, 1(1). Retrieved from
...Animal testing Abstract
Today, there are dozens of deadly diseases in the world, but the Ebola virus disease (alternatively “EVD” or “Ebola”) is among the most virulent and lethal. Although intensive research is underway, there is no cure currently available for Ebola and the death toll attributable to this disease continues to increase. To date, there have been nearly 30,000 cases of Ebola infections that caused more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in West Africa, but the disease has the potential to spread worldwide unless first responders, emergency management managers and the health care community take aggressive steps to identify infections and contain outbreaks. The main purpose of this study is to provide a systematic and critical review of the relevant juried, scholarly and governmental literature about the Ebola virus disease to create an awareness manual that is targeted at educating Nigerian citizens concerning this disease. A secondary purpose of this study is……
Allam, M. F. (2014, September). Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Case fatality rate 90%? Central European Journal of Public Health 22(3), 207-210.
Allam, M. F. & Vonka, V. (2015, March). Ebola virus disease: Temperature checks for travelers? Central European Journal of Public Health, 23(1), 84.
Brand, J. E. & Stela, D. (2014, October). Ebola is here: Knowledge, identification, and appropriate infection control are key. American Nurse Today, 9(10), 37-39.
Brown, G. (2015, Winter). Ebola in America: An epidemic or a pandemic? ABNF Journal, 26(1), 3-5.
Ebola. (2019). Doctors without Borders. Retrieved from https://www.doctorswithout borders.org/what-we-do/medical-issues/ebola.
Ebola outbreak. (2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html .
Ebola virus disease. (2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html .
Hancock, M. (2019, September). After Ebola. African Business, 422, 56-58.
The coronavirus is not actually a single disease, instead the term refers to a variety of different zoonotic viruses that cause illnesses in animal and can jump from animal to humans. The majority of coronaviruses have been relatively mild, simply causing cold-like symptoms in humans. However, there have been other coronavirus variations … coronavirus variations such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). There are also coronaviruses currently in the animal population that have not yet infected humans and may cause serious problems. Most coronaviruses impact the respiratory system and produce a range of … a vaccine.
Where Did COVID-19 Originate?
Because the original cases of COVID-19 were observed in Wuhan, China, the current belief is that the animal-to-human transmission of the disease occurred in a “wet market” in Wuhan, China. Wet markets sell both live and dead animal for human consumption. While……
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Key Facts.” CDC. 12 March 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/share-facts.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fabout%2Fshare-facts.html . Accessed 16 March 2020.
Newey, S. and Gulland, A. “What Is Coronavirus, How Did It Start and Could the Outbreak Grow Bigger?” The Telegraph. 16 March 2020. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/03/16/what-coronavirus-how-start-outbreak-pandemic-covid-19/ . Accessed 16 March 2020.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Frequently Asked Questions.” FDA. 2020. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-issues/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-frequently-asked-questions . Accessed 16 March 2020.
World Health Organization. “Coronavirus.” WHO. 2020. https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus . Accessed 16 March 2020.
… a bioweapons lab in Wuhan, China, near the wet market where the virus was first alleged to have been contracted by human from animal species. There is still no confirmation one way or another on the matter, and Chinese leaders have speculated that the outbreak was a … unleashed on the global public—even though numerous nations are engaged in the development of such biological weapons. If the virus came from an animal to human transmission, China has shown itself unwilling to accept blame for not acting quickly enough to stop the spread, and the World … along with the death toll, though the actual rate of infection and the mortality rate is unknown due to a lack of randomized testing in the US. The media is playing a big part in spreading fear, and those who distrust the media and see it as ……
Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., ... & Yu, T. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223), 507-513.
Kekatos, M. (2020). Ventilating too soon. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-8201783/Some-doctors-moving-away-ventilators-virus-patients.html
Myers, S. L. (2020). China Spins Tale That the U.S. Army Started the Coronavirus Epidemic. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/13/world/asia/coronavirus-china-conspiracy-theory.html
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Improving diagnosis in health care. National Academies Press.
Oliver, D. (2020). Coronavirus genetic material stayed on surfaces for up to 17 days on Diamond Princess cruise, CDC says. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/cruises/2020/03/24/coronavirus-diamond-princess-cabin-surfaces-contaminated-cdc-report/2905924001/
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