… counterterrorism operation in Afghanistan? Numerous negative consequences of the mission followed: the liberation of the poppy fields and the spike in the heroin trade around the world that decimated communities, including American ones back home (Felbab-Brown, 2017); the rise of the Islamic State throughout the Middle East (Barton, 2016); two … Recruitment focuses on ensuring that there is a population there to provide support through funding, shelter, material and human and intellectual capital; the organization should be able to provide support for members both physically and psychologically. Targets refers to the choice of locations that, when attacked, will … acts like that which occurred on 9/11. Al-Qaeda was identified by the US as the international terrorist group behind the attacks on the world trade Center. The Taliban rather more appropriately fit the definition of an insurgent group in Afghanistan, a group whose purpose was focused on the … Bush……
Almukhtar, S. & Nordland, R. (2019). What Did the U.S. Get for $2 Trillion in Afghanistan? Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/09/world/middleeast/afghanistan-war-cost.html
Barno, D. (2007). The Other War: Counterinsurgency Strategy in Afghanistan 2003– 20. Military Review, 87(5), 32–44.
Barton, G. (2016). Out of the ashes of Afghanistan and Iraq: the rise and rise of Islamic State. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/out-of-the-ashes-of-afghanistan-and-iraq-the-rise-and-rise-of-islamic-state-55437
Felbab-Brown, V. (2017). Afghanistan’s opium production is through the roof—why Washington shouldn’t overreact. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2017/11/21/afghanistans-opium-production-is-through-the-roof-why-washington-shouldnt-overreact/
FM 3-24. (2014). Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf
Hitz, F. P. (1999). Obscuring Propriety: The CIA and Drugs. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 12(4), 448-462.
IrishTimes. (2001). Britain freezes £61m of suspected Taliban assets. Retrieved from https://www.irishtimes.com/news/britain-freezes-61m-of-suspected-taliban-assets-1.398565
Kiras, J. D. (2002). Terrorism and Irregular Warfare, in John Baylis, James Wirtz, Eliot Cohen and Colin Gray eds., Strategy in the Contemporary World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 208–232.
… the state that most influences contemporary international security. The globalization of the Communist superpower projects brings employment and economic growth. Since joining the world trade Organization, China has become an increasingly influential participant in the global economy, and has used this increase in wealth to finance its other ambitions, … China’s economy, but did so without opening up much else in Chinese society (“The Internationalization of China’s Economy). By 2001, China joined the world trade Organization, and at that time it was already growing its economy rapidly. Since that point, China has become an economic powerhouse, and this in … global power.
Great Power Competition
Great powers often engage in competition for power and influence, both in their respective regions and in the world at large. The competition of ideas, practices and norms may not be overtly confrontational but does reveal significant strategic divergence between great powers … with……
Chatzky, A. & McBride, J. (2019) China’s massive Belt and Road Initiative. Council on Foreign Relations. In possession of the author.
“China as a Trading State” (n.d.) In possession of the author. s
“Foreign Direct Investment” (n.d.) In possession of the author.
Global Times (2018) Best strategic opportunity since the Cold War. Global Times. In possession of the author.
Hoffman, S. (2002) Clash of globalizations. Foreign Affairs. July/August 2002. 105-115.
Morrison, W. (2017) China’s economic rise: History, trends, challenges, and implications for the United States. Congressional Research Service. September 15, 2017. In possession of the author.
NIC (2017) Paradox of progress. National Intelligence Council. In possession of the author.
Pollack, J. (no date). Competing visions: China, America and the Asia-Pacific Security Order. In possession of the author.
1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Interrelationships between Organizational Functions and Impact on Organisational Structure
The functions of an organization take into account the different aspects undertaken by the business including production or manufacturing, marketing, sales, accounting as well as research and development. … the business including production or manufacturing, marketing, sales, accounting as well as research and development. In accordance to Sherman and Thompson (2019), the organizational structure delineates the relationship and interrelations between the functions of a business and ascertains the manner in which the chain of command operates … the functions of a business and ascertains the manner in which the chain of command operates through the various levels. The interrelationship between organizational functions and organizational structure is akin to a flow chart. This is in the sense that an entity can set up its business structure around the … structure is akin to a flow……
Air India. (2019). Board of Directors. Retrieved from: http://www.airindia.in/board-of-directors.htm
Aquinas, P. G. (2008). Organization structure and design. India: Excel Books India.
Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (2005). Mechanistic and organic systems. Organizational Behavior, 2, 214-25.
Choo, S., & Bowley, C. (2007). Emerald Article: Using training and development to affect job satisfaction. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(2),339 - 352.
Cichocki, P., & Irwin, C. (2014). Organization design: A guide to building effective organizations. Kogan Page Publishers.
Civil Aviation. (2019). About Us: Organizational Setup. Retrieved from: http://www.civilaviation.gov.in/en/aboutus/orgsetup
Cunliffe, A. L. (2008). Organization theory. New York: Sage.
Cunliffe, A. L., & Luhman, J. T. (2012). Key concepts in organization theory. New York: Sage.
… help to answer that question, including covert operations that the FBI has engaged in to help prevent the proliferation of WMDs throughout the world. [2: Joseph Chinyong Liow, "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004), 242.]
… more work to be done in developing a strategy to address counterproliferation needs is that because of globalization it is increasingly a dangerous world in which rogue nations can obtain WMDs and threaten or hold hostage the rest of the civilized world.[footnoteRef:6] The covert mission of rogue nations to possess WMDs is a threat to the international community, which means that there must be a … one. The problem that the current strategy faces is a political one: with the rising tide of populism and nationalism all over the world, more and more nations that should be allied in the international……
Arnold, Aaron and Daniel Salisbury, “The Long Arm,” Belfer Center, 2019. https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/long-arm
Carter, Ashton B. "Overhauling counterproliferation." Technology in Society 26, no. 2-3 (2004): 257-269.
The Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. “Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Washington, D.C., 1999.
FBI. “COINTELPRO.” https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro
FBI Counterproliferation Center. “About.” https://www.fbi.gov/about/leadership-and-structure/national-security-branch/fbi-counterproliferation-center
Fischer, Rowena Rege. “Guide to the Study of Intelligence: Counterproliferation,” Journal of U.S. Intelligence Studies 21, no. 1 (Winter 2014-15), 78-82.
Liow, Joseph Chinyong. "The Mahathir administration's war against Islamic militancy: operational and ideological challenges." Australian Journal of International Affairs 58, no. 2 (2004): 241-256.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Jaya Sanapati, Ramsin M. Benyamin, Sairam Atluri, Alan D. Kaye, and Joshua A. Hirsch. "Reframing the prevention strategies of the opioid crisis: focusing on prescription opioids, fentanyl, and heroin epidemic." Pain physician 21, no. 4 (2018): 309-326.
… their property. Over 286,000 individuals are employed in this sector, which can be segregated into the following two key segments: commercial and governmental organizations. Federal, regional, state, and local level governmental public safety organizations agencies have outnumbered commercial ones all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental … agencies have outnumbered commercial ones all through the course of the past decade. Most individuals working in this sector are hired by governmental organizations, including the fire department, police department, and sheriff's department. Some federal level public safety institutions include the CIA, FBI, Department of Homeland Security, … the Purpose: New York City Police Department (NYPD) - A Risk Analysis
The NYPD constitutes one among America's biggest and earliest municipal police organizations, employing roughly 36,000 officers in addition to 19,000 civilian workers. Instituted in the year 1845, the department is currently……
Achim, A. C. (2014). Risk management issues in policing: from safety risks faced by law enforcement agents to occupational health. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, 1671-1676.
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing perspectives on a complex process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52-61. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/44127004?seq=1
Buyantseva, L. V., Tulchinsky, M., Kapalka, G. M., Chinchilli, V. M., Qian, Z., Gillio, R., et al. (2007). Evolution of lower respiratory symptoms in New York police officers after 9/11: A prospective longitudinal study. J Occup Environ Med, 49, 310–17.
Homeland Security. (2005). Grand reform: The faster and smarter funding for first responders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Lippmann, M., Cohen, M. D., & Chen, L-C. (2015). Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management. Crit Rev Toxicol, 45(6), 492-530. DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2015.1044601
NYPD. (2020). About NYPD. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page
OHS. (2008). Occupational Health and Safety Code of Practice. Australian Government.
Vault. (2020). Overview. Retrieved from https://www.vault.com/industries-professions/industries/public-safety
… meanings behind formal institutions; the expressive dimension, communicative properties and interaction of these elements have made up the dramaturgic, and the actors and organizations themselves have manifested the institutional. An example of this can be seen in Nigeria.
Structurally, dramaturgically and institutionally, Africa has undoubtedly been impacted … expected and anticipated (Shuaib et al., 2014). Community cost-sharing is a different story. Cost-sharing initiatives have been implemented in the past—particularly by the world Health Organization in sub-Saharan Africa—but they have not been particularly successful and many are not longer continued practices (Burnham et al., 2004; Shaw &…[break]…available in … things. This kind of support is nowadays yearned for in many societies. If this knowledge of African collectivism was to be applied to organizations and adopted as the ethos, it could lead to communities supporting each other, reduced conflicts, and nations recording higher productivity (Wasilwa, 2017). The … each other, reduced……
Afro-centric Alliance, A. (2001). Indigenisingorganizational change: Localisation in Tanzania and Malawi. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(1), 59-78.
Asiseh, F., Owusu, A., & Quaicoe, O. (2017). An analysis of family dynamics on high school adolescent risky behaviors in Ghana. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 26(5), 425-431.
Austin, G. (2010). African economic development and colonial legacies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-32). Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement.
Brager, G., Specht, H., Torczyner, J. L., &Torczyner, J. (1987). Community organizing. Columbia University Press.
Bratton, M., & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge university press.
Burnham, G. M., Pariyo, G., Galiwango, E., & Wabwire-Mangen, F. (2004). Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 187-195.
Dillard, C., Duncan, K. L., & Johnson, L. (2017). Black History Full Circle: Lessons from a Ghana Study Abroad in Education Program. Social Education, 81(1), 50-53.
Ehui, S. (2020). Protecting food security in Africa. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2020/05/14/protecting-food-security-in-africa-during-covid-19/
… its guard down. The maritime industry has played down any of the legitimate fears of a potential cybersecurity attack, despite 90% of the world trade being facilitated by the maritime industry (Hoffmann, 2018). Expectations, competition, and tensions are at highest as different entities within the maritime sector to … already filled in surveys. In the same vein, some government and nongovernment agencies store information which this project can retrieve and use. Many organizations are likely to implement the findings of this project to ensure that their networks, data, and systems are safe from cyber-attacks. The researcher … project to ensure that their networks, data, and systems are safe from cyber-attacks. The researcher will provide the results to all institutions and organizations to allow them to practice by the proposed recommendations.
Cybersecurity concerns have largely been centered around technical protection measures, which largely dictate ……
Bowen, B.M. (2011). Measuring the Human Factor of Cyber Security. Rerieved from http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~bmbowen/papers/metrics_hst.pdf
Bueger, C. (2015). What is Maritime Security? Maritime Policy, 53, 159-164.
Fitton, O. P. (2015). The Future of Maritime Cyber Security. Retrieved from https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/72696/1/Cyber_Operations_in_the_Maritime_Environment_v2.0.pdf
Hadlington, L. (2018). The \\\\\\"Human Factor\\\\\\" in cybersecurity: Exploring the accidental insider. Psychological and Behavioral Examinations in Cyber Security, 4(6), 46-63.
Hareide, O. S. (2018). Enhancing Navigator Competence By Demonstrating Maritime Cyber Security. The Journal of Navigation, 71(5), 1025-1039.
Hayes, C. R. (2016). Maritime Cybersecurity: The Future of National Security. Monterey, California: Naval Post Graduate School.
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(2), 49-60.
Hoffmann, J. (2018). Review of Maritime Transport. New York: UNCTAD.
… of Crisis, focus on health pandemic
Background of the Study
Centuries before missionaries and colonialists arrived in Africa and centuries before the slave trade commenced, Africans in Africa had cultural and social practices and mechanisms to sustain their societies and to prevent the loss of lives during … societies met and discussed crises and suggested ways to handle them based on historical knowledge.
Traditional African societies had their understanding of the world and the different things in it. Most African societies across the continent believed that there is the seen world and the unseen world. The seen world includes everything that can be seen, while the unseen world includes the spirit world, spirits, magic, and so on. Many African societies believed that diseases were part of the unseen world (White, 2015). As per the WHO (world Health Organization), despite the introduction of new health care practices, procedures, and systems……
Abel-Smith, B., & Rawal, P. (1992). Can the poor afford ‘free’ health services? A case study of Tanzania. Health Policy and Planning, 7(4), 329-341.
Airhihenbuwa, C. O. (1995). Health and culture: Beyond the Western paradigm. Sage.
Fairhead, J. (2014). The significance of death, funerals, and the after-life in Ebola-hit Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia: Anthropological insights into infection and social resistance.
Handler, J. S. (2016). Custom and law: The status of enslaved Africans in seventeenth-Century Barbados. Slavery & Abolition, 37(2), 233-255.
Iganus, R. B., & Haruna, A. (2017). The Strength of African Culture in Managing Family Crisis in a Globalized World. Anthropol, 5(197), 2332-0915.
Manguvo, A., & Mafuvadze, B. (2015). The impact of traditional and religious practices on the spread of Ebola in West Africa: time for a strategic shift. The Pan African Medical Journal, 22(Suppl 1).
Marsland, R. (2006). Community participation the Tanzanian way: Conceptual contiguity or power struggle? Oxford Development Studies, 34(1).
Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Sage publications.
… foreign companies have grown in the insurance industry thanks to the globalization of insurance but also to the spread of wealth throughout the world. Insurance companies and finance go together as the former depends upon the latter for return on investment (ROI). Part of the problem with … the problem with the globalization of insurance is that everything has been globalized—right down to investable markets. Since 2008, central banks around the world have lowered rates to the point that it is impossible for insurance funds to obtain a targeted ROI without investing in risk assets. … impossible for insurance funds to obtain a targeted ROI without investing in risk assets. Likewise, regulatory bodies have gone global as well with organizations like the Common Framework for the Supervision of Internationally Active Insurance Groups (IAIGs) also known as ComFrame. Many companies view it as an … tend to thrive—until the risk……
Egan, M. (2018). Tax cut triggers $437 billion explosion of stock buybacks. Retrieved from https://money.cnn.com/2018/07/10/investing/stock-buybacks-record-tax-cuts/index.html
Flegm, E. H. (2008). The Need for Reliability in Accounting. Why historical cost is more reliable than fair value. Journal of Accountancy, 205(5), 34.
Healy, P. M., Palepu, K., & Serafeim, G. (2009). Subprime Crisis and Fair-Value Accounting. HBS Case, (109-031).
Laux, C., & Leuz, C. (2010). Did fair-value accounting contribute to the financial crisis?. Journal of economic perspectives, 24(1), 93-118.
Light, L. (2019). More than Half of All Stock Buybacks are Now Financed by Debt. Here’s Why That’s a Problem. Retrieved from https://fortune.com/2019/08/20/stock-buybacks-debt-financed/
Reda, J. (2018). How Stock Buybacks Can Affect Executive Compensation. Retrieved from http://clsbluesky.law.columbia.edu/2018/08/03/how-stock-buybacks-can-affect-executive-compensation/
Young, M. R., (2008). Both sides make good points. Journal of Accountancy, 205(5), 34.
Vaughan, E. J., & Vaughan T. M., (2013). Fundamentals of Risk and Insurance, 11th Edition.
… the authority of the Empire. Stability was the end goal, not assimilation. Economically, the Empire was able to keep it together thanks to trade routes that obliged the East and West to go through Empire’s territory all along the coast of the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, … this time by respecting customs and engaging in favorable construction that improved the lives of the inhabitants. To maintain influence in the Arabic world, the Turks relied on the Sharif of Mecca—and when that balance was upset, the Empire came crashing down. With the support of the ……
Anderson, Scott. 2014. Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East. Atlantic Books.
Faroqhi, Suraiya. 1994. Pilgrims and Sultans: The Hajj under the Ottomans 1517–1683. London: I. B. Tauris.
Faroqhi, Suraiya. 2004. The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It. London: IB Tauris.
Khaled Fahmy. 2009. Mehmed Ali: From Ottoman Governor to Ruler of Egypt (Oxford:Oneworld Publications.
Murphy, David. 2008. The Arab Revolt 1916–18 Lawrence sets Arabia Ablaze. Osprey: London.
Wilson, Mary C. 'The Hashemites, the Arab Revolt, and Arab Nationalism' in The Origins of Arab Nationalism (1991), ed. Rashid Khalidi, pp. 204–24. Columbia University Press.
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