… Haiti, and Haitian slaves ended up leading the world’s first successful large-scale slave rebellion. British rule in Jamaica would also eventually dissolve, as slavery became an untenable model for the global labor market. Spanish-ruled Puerto Rico likewise capitalized on the slave trade and the free labor extracted … model for the global labor market. Spanish-ruled Puerto Rico likewise capitalized on the slave trade and the free labor extracted from it, but slavery in Puerto Rico was less linked to race as it was in either Haiti or Jamaica. This is not to say that Puerto … to race as it was in either Haiti or Jamaica. This is not to say that Puerto Rico is not as marred by slavery as were Jamaica or Haiti, but the colonial system did ensure a lingering social stratification based on class status. This paper compares and … a lingering social stratification based……
Dubois, Laurent. “Fire in the Cane,” in Avengers of the New World, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Geggus, David. “The Caribbean in the Age of Revolution.”
Godreau, Isar P., Cruz, Mariolga Reyes, Ortiz, Mariluz, et al. “The Lessons of Slavery: Discourses of Slavery, Mestizaje, and Blanqueamiento in an Elementary School in Puerto Rico.” American Ethnologist, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2008, pp. 115-135.
Laguerre, Michael. “The Place of Voodoo in the Social Structure of Haiti.” Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1973, pp. 36-50.
Mintz, Sidney Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations, Harvard University Press, 2012.
Safa, Helen. “The Matrifocal Family and Patriarchal Ideology in Cuba and the Caribbean,” Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol. 10, No.2, 2005.
Stinchcombe, Arthur. “Planter power, Freedom, and Oppression of Slaves in 18th century Caribbean”, from Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, pp. 125-158.
Stinchcombe, Arthur. “Race as a Social Boundary: Free Colored versus Slaves and Blacks,” from Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, pp. 159-172.
… thought that his father was the white owner of his mother (Lee, 13-30). Douglass is most famous for escaping from the shackles of slavery in the year 1838 and becoming one of the key leaders and advocates for the abolition of Slavery in the United States. He revered by the African American community and Americans in general for his fight against slavery. Long after his death, U.S. Civil Rights Movement leaders referred to him in their speeches and used his fight to inspire Americans to … abolition movement
Fredrick Douglass published many books and letters in support of the abolitionist movement. His works and speeches were primarily arguments against slavery. They highlighted the ills of slavery and why slavery was wrong. The main objective of his works and speeches was to show that slavery is unjust, immoral, ungodly, unnatural, and cruel. He made his arguments very in his speeches……
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The Civil Rights Case.\\\\\\\\\\\\" speech at Lincoln Hall, Washington, DC 22 (1883): 1950-75.
Douglass, Frederick. \\\\\\\\\\\\"The meaning of July Fourth for the Negro.\\\\\\\\\\\\" Frederick Douglass: Selected speeches and writings (1852): 188-206.
DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women\\\\\\\\\\\\'s movement in America, 1848-1869. Cornell University Press, 1978.
Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A short history. Princeton University Press, 2002.
Gooding-Williams, Robert. In the shadow of Du Bois: Afro-modern political thought in America. Harvard University Press, 2009.
Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Penguin, 1999.
Lee, Maurice S., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
McCarthy, Thomas. Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
… the fallout was.
The Reason for the Raid
John Brown was a fervent abolitionist who believed pacifism would never be sufficient to end slavery. He was a man who insisted on action—violent action if necessary (McGlone). During the Bleeding Kansas crisis, Brown had been in the thick … (McGlone). During the Bleeding Kansas crisis, Brown had been in the thick of the violence, leading men in several battles and massacring five pro-slavery men at Pottawatomie Creek. Brown conducted the massacre along with his sons and others. The killing of the five pro-slavery individuals during the Bleeding Kansas crisis showed how serious Brown was about his mission to free the slaves (Furnas).
The entire nation was … the nation. Even in the U.S. Senate violence had broken out when in 1856 the Republican Senator Charles Sumner had viciously ridiculed the pro-slavery South Carolina Democratic Senator Andrew Butler. Butler’s cousin in……
Barney, William L. "Brown, John". The Civil War and Reconstruction: A Student Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2001.
Furnas, J. C. The Road to Harpers Ferry. New York, William Sloane Associates, 1959.
Hoffer, Williamjames Hull. The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
Horwitz, Tony. Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War. Henry Holt and Company, 2011.
McGlone, Robert E. John Brown's War against Slavery. Cambridge, CUP, 2009.
Smith, Ted A., Weird John Brown: Divine Violence and the Limits of Ethics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2015.
… be paid reparations?” The overarching thesis that shaped the answer to this guiding research question as was follows: Historical injustices including genocide, oppression, slavery, and racial discrimination in the United States have caused current economic disparities between racial groups so the call for reparations is quite justified …
Type of historical injustices that have caused economic disparities between racial groups today
The historical record is replete with instances of genocide, oppression, slavery, forced relocations, invasions and racial discrimination that have adversely affected or ended the lives of tens of millions of people (Bradford, 2004). This … lives of tens of millions of people (Bradford, 2004). This has also been the case with the history of the United States where slavery of African Americans was enshrined in the U.S. Constitution and the subsequent Indian Removal Act of 1830 proclaimed in essence that “the only … assign a dollar amount.
Bradford, W. (2004). Beyond reparations: An American Indian theory of justice. Ohio State Law Journal.
Flavin, F. E. (2002, Winter). A pox on Amherst: Smallpox, Sir Jeffery, and a town named Amherst. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 30(1), 1-5.
Forrester, K. (2019). Reparations, history and the origins of global justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Gilmore, B. & Adams, H. (2019). The case for a reparations clinic. Michigan State Law Review.
Howard-Hassmann, R. E. (2004). Reparations to Africa and the group of eminent persons. Cahiers d’étudesafricaines.
Lenzerini, F. (2007). Reparations for indigenous peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lockhart, P. (2019, June 19). The 2020 Democratic primary debate over reparations, explained. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/3/11/18246741/ reparations-democrats-2020-inequality-warren-harris-castro.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
… empowers law enforcement to investigate cases of sex trafficking, holding perpetrators culpable for their actions, and also precluding human sex trafficking and modern slavery from occurring in the first place.
Approximately 17,000 individuals are trafficked into the United States yearly. Even worse, the numbers for sex trafficking ……
Alliance to End Slavery and Trafficking. (2017). Summary of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and Reauthorizations FY 2017. Retrieved from: https://endslaveryandtrafficking.org/summary-trafficking-victims-protection-act-tvpa-reauthorizations-fy-2017-2/
Benoit, C., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2019). “The prostitution problem”: Claims, evidence, and policy outcomes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1905-1923.
Brooks, A., & Heaslip, V. (2019). Sex trafficking and sex tourism in a globalized world. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 74(5), 1104-1115. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-02-2017-001
Bruckert, C., & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking in human beings and organized crime: A literature review (pp. 1-35).
Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Human and Health Services. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
Greenbaum, V. J. (2017). Child sex trafficking in the United States: Challenges for the healthcare provider. PLoS medicine, 14(11).
International Labour Organization. (2017). Global Estimates of Modern Slavery. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_575479.pdf
Kelly, C. (July 30, 2019). 13 sex trafficking statistics that explain the enormity of the global sex trade. USA Today. Retrieved from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/investigations/2019/07/29/12-trafficking-statistics-enormity-global-sex-trade/1755192001/
… were becoming more outspoken and many women like Sojourner Truth and Angelina Weld were traveling around and speaking out on the evils of slavery and so on. The Women’s Movement would continue on through the latter half of the 19th century into the 20th century. Women’s suffrage … War in the 19th century also played a part, as it set the stage for transformation in society and put an end to slavery, which was a major focus of many progressive women at the time. That victory gave them confidence to keep going and to keep … of leaders like Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott. The main focus…[break]…like Angelina Weld and Sojourner Truth would tour the country speaking out against slavery. After slavery ended, women took up the crusade for moral reform and the right to vote. Campaigning for women’s suffrage took up many decades of ……
Blackwell, E. (1850). Elizabeth Blackwell on the 1850 Women\\\\\\'s Rights Convention. Retrieved from http://www.wwhp.org/Resources/WomansRights/blackwell_comments.html
Griffith, E. (1984). In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. New York: Oxford University Press.
History. (2019). Women’s suffrage. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/the-fight-for-womens-suffrage
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Siegel, R. B. (1994). Home as Work: The First Woman\\\\\\'s Rights Claims Concerning
Wives\\\\\\' Household Labor, 1850-1880. The Yale Law Journal, 103(5), 1073-1217.
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
...Slavery Racial injustice is a part of American history. In spite of legislation like the Civil Rights Act of 1964, racial injustice remains rampant in the United States. Police brutality is one of the most visible areas in which racial injustice manifests itself. The murder of George Floyd was only one of many similar instances, the majority of which go unreported due to the “blue wall of silence” in police culture. Even if poor leadership in policing is more to blame than racism itself, the fact that black males experience a disproportionate number of such instances and are also stopped and arrested more often than their white counterparts, shows that racial bias is endemic in American society.
This sample essay provides an example of how to write about racial equality and justice in America. Several topics will be discussed in this essay, including George Floyd and the riots in Minneapolis. A……
Black Lives Matter (2020). Retrieved from: https://blacklivesmatter.com/about/
Cole, B. (2020). Minnesota asks Trump to declare ‘major disaster’ over riots damage. Newsweek. 3 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.newsweek.com/minnesota-riots-tim-walz-clean-george-floyd-1515335
Glover, S., Richards, C., Devine, C., et al. (2020). A key miscalculation by officers contributed to the tragic death of Breonna Taylor. CNN. 23 July, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/23/us/breonna-taylor-police-shooting-invs/index.html
“History of Juneteenth,” (2020). juneteenth.com. Retrieved from: https://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
Ray, R. (2020). What does ‘defund the police’ mean and does it have merit? Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2020/06/19/what-does-defund-the-police-mean-and-does-it-have-merit/
“Seven Things You Need to Know About Antifa,” (2020). BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/X56rQkDgd0qqB7R68t6t7C/seven-things-you-need-to-know-about-antifa
“Who Are Antifa?” (2020). ADL. Retrieved from : https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/who-are-antifa
… had little status in colonial America. It was not until the 19th century that a Women’s Movement began to emerge in opposition to slavery. Women advocates like Angelina Grimke Weld and Sojourner Truth, traveled about the country prior to the Civil War speaking about both women’s rights … Grimke Weld and Sojourner Truth, traveled about the country prior to the Civil War speaking about both women’s rights and the evils of slavery. They couched their rhetoric in religious doctrines, though each used different methods of speaking. Weld was an educated white southern woman of status—i.e., … merely tolerated her presence at conventions while others saw her as a pest. Both she and Truth, however, advocated for the abolishment of slavery and helped to lay the foundation for social change that would come about following the Civil War.
In conclusion, religion affected the social ……
Fantel, Hans. William Penn: Apostle of Dissent. NY: William Morrow & Co., 1974.
Graham, Michael. "Posish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689." The Catholic historical review 79.2 (1993): 197-216.
Holton, W. Forced Founders: Indians, Debtors, Slaves, and the Making of the American Revolution in Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Laux, John. Church History. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1933.
Melville, Herman. Clarel. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015005201424&view=1up&seq=9
Milder, R. Herman Melville. New York: Columbia University Press,1988.
Pyle, Ralph E., and James D. Davidson. "The origins of religious stratification in colonial America." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42.1 (2003): 57-75.
… This not only liberated all slaves in Confederate held states so long as they agreed to fight for the Union, it also made slavery one of the primary issues of the war from that point on. This was especially important for the South’s hope of foreign assistance … the war from that point on. This was especially important for the South’s hope of foreign assistance from England. England had already banned slavery and so now that Lincoln had made slavery the main issue of the war through his Proclamation, England could not very well lend support to the South—because then it would essentially … the war through his Proclamation, England could not very well lend support to the South—because then it would essentially be lending support to slavery.
Another vital factor in the Union Victory was Gen. Grant’s military leadership in the war. Grant succeeded where other Union generals……
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
The whites preferred Washington's strategy, especially as they weren’t prepared to actually discuss black political and social equality so soon after ending slavery (Blatty, 2015). The method worked to their (i.e., whites') advantage and was thus met with tremendous enthusiasm on the part of whites, who … Washington, a former slave, understood how to achieve goals by working within limitations. He was able to free himself from a position of slavery all on his own. Therefore, his approach to continue working and momentarily appeasing the whites whilst covertly pursuing the black community’s agenda was … momentarily appeasing the whites whilst covertly pursuing the black community’s agenda was shaped by his earlier dealings with whites.
However, Dubois never experienced slavery, and his first experience of racial discrimination only came during his young adulthood. Moreover, being exceptionally bright decreased the amount of inequality he ……
Blatty, D. (2015, February 22). W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from Biography: https://www.biography.com/news/web-dubois-vs-booker-t-washington
Dubois, W. (1903). he Talented Tenth. In The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative Negroes of To-day (pp. 36-43). New York.
Dunn, F. (1993). The Educational Philosophies of Washington, Dubois, and Houston: Laying the Foundations for Afrocentrism and Multiculturalism. Journal of Negro Education, 62(1), 23-24.
Hancock, A.-M. (n.d.). Socialism/Communism. In p. Young.
Washington, B. T. (1895). Speech at the Atlanta Exposition. Atlanta.
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