… while being within the group, when one leaves the group and expresses the same phobia, people will be judgmental and recognize the irrational behavior.
It has been shown that most phobias will develop in late childhood and they might continue through adult life. If the individual … assistance. This is the only way the individual will be able to lead a normal life. Learning to eliminate the irrational thoughts and behavior is vital if one is to lead a normal and fruitful life.
Complex phobias have the same prognosis as specific phobias. However, it … noted by Samson et al. (2011) that some complex phobias like agoraphobia have a less promising prognosis. The condition is most resistant to behavioral therapy and psychotherapy. This means that a person can undergo treatment and still continue having the same phobia. While the cases are few, ……
Campos, D., Mira, A., Bretón-López, J., Castilla, D., Botella, C., Baños, R. M., & Quero, S. (2018). The acceptability of an internet-based exposure treatment for flying phobia with and without therapist guidance: patients’ expectations, satisfaction, treatment preferences, and usability. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 14, 879.
Carleton, R. N., Thibodeau, M. A., Weeks, J. W., Teale Sapach, M. J. N., McEvoy, P. M., Horswill, S. C., & Heimberg, R. G. (2014). Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Psychological assessment, 26(4), 1116-1126. doi:10.1037/a0037063
Erceg-Hurn, D. M., & McEvoy, P. M. (2018). Bigger is better: Full-length versions of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale outperform short forms at assessing treatment outcome. Psychological assessment, 30(11), 1512-1526. doi:10.1037/pas0000601
Goetter, E. M., Frumkin, M. R., Palitz, S. A., Swee, M. B., Baker, A. W., Bui, E., & Simon, N. M. (2018). Barriers to mental health treatment among individuals with social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Psychological Services, No Pagination Specified-No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1037/ser0000254
Halldorsdottir, T., & Ollendick, T. H. (2016). Long-term outcomes of brief, intensive CBT for specific phobias: The negative impact of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(5), 465-471. doi:10.1037/ccp0000088
Hirsch, J. A. (2018). Integrating Hypnosis with Other Therapies for Treating Specific Phobias: A Case Series. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 60(4), 367-377.
Leitenberg, H., Agras, W. S., Barlow, D. H., & Oliveau, D. C. (1969). Contribution of selective positive reinforcement and therapeutic instructions to systematic desensitization therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74(1), 113-118. doi:10.1037/h0027063
Probst, T., Berger, T., Meyer, B., Späth, C., Schröder, J., Hohagen, F., . . . Klein, J. P. (2019). Social phobia moderates the outcome in the EVIDENT study: A randomized controlled trial on an Internet-based psychological intervention for mild to moderate depressive symptoms [Press release]
… id diminished, and the levels of employee satisfaction and motivation, as well as their performance, can be heightened. Notably, motivation rejuvenates, and invigorates behavior, provides direction to such mannerisms, and underlines the tendency to persevere. Motivation is a significant aspect as it leads to influence another individual … the workplace setting, the factors that satisfy employees are significantly different from those that dissatisfy them (Herzberg, 1987). Imperatively, Herzberg established that human behavior is impacted by either the satisfaction factor or the dissatisfaction factor. He designated hygiene factors to be sources of social dissatisfaction, and on … individual’s motivation and determination with the expected desired results. The approach illustrates the process of how an individual opts to carry out specific behaviors or mannerisms over others and how decisions made are associated with the goals. More specifically, the theory asserts that the motivation that a … that effort, motivation, and performance……
Asim, M., 2013. Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance with effect of training: Specific to Education Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-9.
Heneman, H. G., & Schwab, D. P., 1972. Evaluation of research on expectancy theory predictions of employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 78(1), 1.
Herzberg, F., 1987. One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review, 65, 5.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B. 1959. The motivation to work. New York. John Wiley.
Hilgert, R. L., Leonard, E. C., 2001. Supervision: Concepts and practices of management. New York: South-Western College Publication.
Johnson & Johnson., 2020. Wellness 360: 9 Innovative Johnson & Johnson Employee Benefits for Mind, Body, and Budget. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from https://www.jnj.com/health-and-wellness/innovative-employee-benefits-and-wellness-programs-from-johnson-johnson
Johnson & Johnson., 2020. Careers: Healthiest Finances. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from https://www.careers.jnj.com/employee-benefits/financial-benefits .
Johnson & Johnson. , 2018. 2018 Health for Humanity Report: Creating Unique Career Opportunities. Retrieved 25 February 2020 from https://healthforhumanityreport.jnj.com/our-people/creating-unique-career-opportunities
… to evaluate possible cognitive processing prejudices in health conditions like chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome together with health behaviors like smoking, eating, and alcohol abuse. Experimental studies in these fields could inform hypothetical development by allowing access to types and levels of … hypothetical development by allowing access to types and levels of information and data processing that might underpin unhelpful disease representation and manipulate health behaviors. Therefore, this paper is a study that aims to review evidence-based practices and programs within psychological health via literature review on various studies … and management of depressive disorders, psychological interventions play a key role as an alternative treatment. Several treatments have been developed mainly founded on cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, or interpersonal approaches. According to one latest huge network meta-analysis involving 198 random trials conducted on patients suffering from depression, even … is important to understand how……
Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Evidence?based psychological interventions in the treatment of mental disorders: A literature review. Victoria: Australian Psychological Association.
Barth, J., Munder, T., Gerger, H., Nüesch, E., Trelle, S., Znoj, H., ... & Cuijpers, P. (2016). Comparative efficacy of seven psychotherapeutic interventions for patients with depression: a network meta-analysis. Focus, 14(2), 229-243.
Castelnuovo, G. (2017). New and old adventures of clinical health psychology in the twenty-first century: standing on the shoulders of giants. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1214.
Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), 427-440.
Hughes, A. M., Gordon, R., Chalder, T., Hirsch, C. R., & Moss?Morris, R. (2016). Maximizing the potential impact of experimental research into cognitive processes in health psychology: A systematic approach to material development. British journal of health psychology, 21(4), 764-780.
Kirkham, J. G., Choi, N., & Seitz, D. P. (2016). Meta?analysis of problem solving therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(5), 526-535.
Lenz, A. S., Hall, J., & Bailey Smith, L. (2016). Meta-analysis of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for decreasing symptoms of acute depression. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 41(1), 44-70.
Linde, K., Rücker, G., Sigterman, K., Jamil, S., Meissner, K., Schneider, A., & Kriston, L. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of psychological treatments for depressive disorders in primary care: network meta-analysis. BMC family practice, 16(1), 103.
SECTION II –THEORY/THEORIST(S), CONCEPTS OF HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
1. Choose any two theories/theorists on the effect of the social environment on human behavior and one theory/theorist on, Person-In-Environment (PIE).
Social Learning Theory
According to Bandura, a crititcal element of human learning occurs through imitation. Of course, … members to operate in socially acceptable ways. The socializing process is so important that it has a major effect on all kinds of behavior, including skills of technical nature. Most of the boys of teenage age in the U.S. feel that they won't be compatible with their … ways; girls are also taught to behave in ways expected of girls and women. People, though, as they grow older, keep adjusting their behavior as they depend less and less on external influence. In other words, adults build their internal standards to punish and reward what they ……
Alexander Jr, R. (2010). The Impact of Poverty on African American Children in the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems. In Forum on Public Policy Online (Vol. 2010, No. 4). Oxford Round Table. 406 West Florida Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801.
Belgrave, F. Z., & Allison, K. W. (2009). African American psychology: From Africa to America. Los Angeles: Sage.
Brittian A. S. (2012). Understanding African American Adolescents\\\\\\' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective. The Journal of black psychology, 38(2), 172–200. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798411414570
Chávez, R. (2016). Psychosocial development factors associated with occupational and vocational identity between infancy and adolescence. Adolescent Research Review, 1(4), 307-327.
Crain, W. C. (2014). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.
Fernandes-Alcantara, A. L. (2018). Vulnerable Youth: Background and policies.Congressional Research Service
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2015). Theories of human development. Psychology Press.
Reubins, B. M., &Reubins, M. S. (2014). Pioneers of child psychoanalysis: Influential theories and practices in healthy child development. London: Karnac.
The Applicability of Learning Theory
Learning is a complex process by which an individual acquires and modifies their knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and skills through study, instruction or experience. Theories provide a framework for understanding how learning occurs and the factors that influence its … 2017). They acknowledge that human beings learn differently and attempt to contextualize the learning process. Four of the most common learning theories are behaviorism, constructivism, cognitivism, and humanism. This text analyzes the learning process as portrayed by these four theories, the ideologies within each theory, and evidence-based … the learning process as portrayed by these four theories, the ideologies within each theory, and evidence-based application of learning theory to enhance learning.
Behaviorism theory emphasizes the role of external factors/stimuli in shaping an individual’s behavior (Rosser-Majors, 2017). Behaviorists argue that all behavior is an association between an environmental stimulus and the individual’s response to the……
Al-Rawahi, N., & Al-Balushi, M. (2015). The Effect of Reflective Science Journal Writing on Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(3), 367-79.
Dotson, R. (2016). Goal-Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance. Journal of School Administration Research and Development, 1(1), 44-46.
Harasim, L. (2017). Learning Theory and Online Technologies. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of Learning: an Exploration. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
Wan, Z., Compeau, D., & Haggerty, N. (2014). The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Processes on E-Learning Outcomes in Organizational Settings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(1), 307-40.
… paradigm for the field of psychology. Reacting against the reductionist tendencies of his colleagues, Wertheimer postulated that the best way to understand human behavior, the human psyche, and the human condition was to zoom out, viewing it as a whole instead of merely a sum of discrete … sciences (Woldt & Toman, 2005). While reductionism and structuralism remain important lenses through which to view some aspects of human perception, cognition, and behavior, the Gestalt tradition reminds researchers not to surrender appreciation for the forest when examining an individual tree.
Framework and Concepts
The concept of … 2016, p. 203). Perhaps quite appropriately, Gestalt psychology has dissipated rather than remaining a distinct segment of psychology.
Therapeutic Practices and Techniques
Unlike cognitive-behavioral psychology or psychodynamics, Gestalt psychology never bequeathed a prominent method of therapeutic intervention used in clinical settings (Corey, 2016, p. 201). This is …
Regarding the general strengths and……
Corey, G. (2016). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Levine, T. B. Y. (2012). Gestalt Therapy: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Woldt, A. L., & Toman, S. M. (2005). Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
… ever in deep thoughts and worries, and she felt as if everyone was looking at her. She denied having any suicidal thoughts or behavior. She stated that running away from her issues would be great, but she knew that that she could not take her life.
She … of actor-observer bias in social science. This bias refers to the propensity to stress internal causes (traits) when describing or explaining an individual’s behavior but at the same time regarding one’s own behavior to be a result of situational or external factors e.g. stress. Studies have shown that cognitive beliefs among observers could be their motivation ……
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. BMC Med, 17, 133-137.
Buntrock, C., Ebert, D. D., Lehr, D., Smit, F., Riper, H., Berking, M., & Cuijpers, P. (2016). Effect of a web-based guided self-help intervention for prevention of major depression in adults with subthreshold depression: a randomized clinical trial. Jama, 315(17), 1854-1863.
Davaasambuu, S., Aira, T., Hamid, P., Wainberg, M., & Witte, S. (2017). Risk and resilience factors for depression and suicidal ideation in Mongolian college students. Mental health & prevention, 5, 33.
Gilbert, P. (2016). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Routledge.
Hammen, C. (2018). Risk factors for depression: An autobiographical review. Annual review of clinical psychology, 14, 1-28.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Macmillan.
Khoury, B., Langer, E. J., & Pagnini, F. (2014). The DSM: mindful science or mindless power? A critical review. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 602.
MacGill, M. (2017). What is depression and what can I do about it? Medical News Today. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/kc/depression-causes-symptoms-treatments-8933.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Postpartum Depression
Becoming a new mother can be a very overwhelming experience for some women and the symptoms of postpartum … think about their own problems or sort through their emotions and thoughts in an objective enough way to identify the problem areas. Cognitive behavioral therapy requires an ability on the client’s part to be able to take a good, hard, objective and honest look at oneself. Not … increase and impair the mother’s ability to care for the infant or last longer than two weeks, an intervention may be needed. Cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and animal assisted therapy can all be useful interventions, but at……
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060-1073.
Badr, H. A., & Zauszniewski, J. A. (2017). Kangaroo care and postpartum depression: The role of oxytocin. International journal of nursing sciences, 4(2), 179-183.
Baka, J., Csakvari, E., Huzian, O., Dobos, N., Siklos, L., Leranth, C., ... & Hajszan, T. (2017). Stress induces equivalent remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses in a simulated postpartum environment and in a female rat model of major depression. Neuroscience, 343, 384-397.
Firman, D. (2009). Stepping up: Strategies for the new counselor. Counseling with confidence: From pre-service to professional practice, 15-28.
Jones, J. & Lyddon, W. (2000). Cognitive Therapy and Empirically Validated Treatments. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 14(3): 337-345.
Ko, J. Y., Rockhill, K. M., Tong, V. T., Morrow, B., & Farr, S. L. (2017). Trends in postpartum depressive symptoms—27 states, 2004, 2008, and 2012. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 66(6), 153.
LoFrisco, B. (2012). How to build rapport with clients. Retrieved from https://www.mastersincounseling.org/counseling/client-rapport/
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.
… “psychological maladjustment…[is the result of a person] denying awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences” and that “the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual” (p. 495). Thus one has to get inside the head of the individual … personalities of the workers are and whether they would be conducive to leadership roles within the company.
Organizational Constraints that Lead to Counterproductive Behaviors
Organizational constraints that can lead to counterproductive behaviors include leadership struggles and environmental issues, such as lack of access to recreational rooms such as gyms for getting exercise during the workday, ……
Cañadas-De la Fuente, G. A., Vargas, C., San Luis, C., García, I., Cañadas, G. R., &
Emilia, I. (2015). Risk factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome in the nursing profession. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 240-249.
Meacham, W. (2017). History of industrial and organizational psychology. Retrieved from https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/History-of-Industrial-and-Organizational-Psychology
… socialization in an organization is associated with four major benefits i.e. reduced turnover, transfer and maintenance of organizational culture, positive employee attitudes and behaviors, and learning organizational political and social norms. Despite these benefits, many organizations face challenges in integrating new employees. Existing socialization practices for new … focus on the traditional view of learning, which is ineffective. As a result, many new employees experience difficulties in acquiring knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are necessary to engage effectively in an organization. Formal practices are not entirely effective in enhancing socialization and integration of new employees … about their specific duties and roles in the workplace were established. These processes focused on promoting acquisition of the required knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Informal socialization opportunities like team-building exercises and daily fun routines were also adopted.
Pros and Cons of the Intervention
The advantages of the ……
Bhui, K., Dinos, S., Galant-Miecznikowska, M., de Jongh, B. & Stanfeld, S. (2016, December). Perceptions of Work Stress Causes and Effective Interventions in Employees Working in Public, Private and Non-governmental Organizations: A Qualitative Study. BJPsych Bulletin, 40(6), 318-325.
Kelly, E.L., Moen, P. & Tranby, E. (2011, April). Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization. American Sociological Review, 76(2), 265-290.
Khan, N. & Khurshid, S. (2017, February). Workplace Stress and Employee Wellbeing: Case of Health Care Staff in UAE. European Scientific Journal, 13(5), 217-226.
Korte, R.F. (2007). The Socialization of Newcomers into Organizations: Integrating Learning and Social Exchange Processes. Retrieved from Institute of Education Sciences website: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED504550.pdf
Kossek, E.E. & Lee, K. (2017, October). Work-Family Conflict and Work-Life Conflict. Retrieved March 24, 2020, from https://oxfordre.com/business/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190224851.001.0001/acrefore-9780190224851-e-52?print=pdf
Njegovan, B.R. & Kostic, B. (2014). Impact of Organizational Socialization Towards Employees’ Social Adaptation. Journal of Engineering Management and Competitiveness, 4(1), 34-40.
Van Kleef, D., Steen, T. & Schott, C. (2017, October 26). Informal Socialization in Public Organizations: Exploring the Impact of Informal Socialization on Enforcement Behavior of Dutch Veterinary Inspectors. Public Administration, 97(1), 81-96.
Zhou, S., Da, S., Guo, H. & Zhang, X. (2018, April 17). Work-Family Conflict and Mental Health Among Female Employees: A Sequential Mediation Model via Negative Affect and Perceived Stress. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(544), doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00544
We have over 150,000+ study documents to help you.Sign Up for FREE