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Organizational Situations Essay

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The Situation

Workers at the company of Kroger do not appear motivated since the outbreak of COVID-19 has increased their workload. They are grumbling about not getting paid more even though more is now expected of them. They are stocking shelves more, cleaning the store more, disinfecting carts, and generally working non-stop from start time to finish, whereas they are used to having some down time and things being more leisurely at work. Management is beginning to notice that employee morale is sinking and workers are beginning to slack. Management wonders what it can do to motivate employees.

Two Lenses

Maslow’s (1943) theory of human motivation and the hierarchy of needs stipulates that people are motivated and become self-actualizing when all their needs are met. These needs include the basic human needs of food, shelter, safety, love and affection, a sense of belonging and esteem, and at the top of the pyramid is self-actualization wherein all lower level needs are satisfied and the person is self-motivated out of a sense of self-worth and a desire to do good and be successful.

Rogers’ (1951) theory of congruence is based on the idea that there is a self-image and an ideal self conception that people have. Rogers (1951) states that congruence occurs when the self-image (how one sees oneself) is brought into alignment with one’s self-ideal (what one wants to be). This in turn creates a fulfilled, motivated individual. To reach that point requires some exploration: Rogers (1951) states that “psychological maladjustment…[is the result of a person] denying awareness of significant sensory and visceral experiences” and that “the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual” (p. 495). Thus one has to get inside the head of the individual to understand how they see themselves and what their ideal self looks like.

Practical Implementation of the Intervention

The best way to understand the needs of the workers is for managers to get engaged by interviewing and surveying them. Requesting feedback from workers will always deliver positive results because it makes workers feel like they are engaged and that their views are valued (Kotter, 2012). The responses will also give managers a better idea of what the workers’ needs are and how to satisfy them. Once basic and lower level needs are satisfied, it will be easier for workers to reach the level of self-actualization where they want to pitch in for the common good.


Pros and Cons

The pros of the intervention are that it provides managers with greater ability to connect with workers, understand them and create a bond, which is good for transforming the workers into a motivated force and for improving morale. Workers will feel valued and dignified because managers are showing concern for them. The cons are that this is an intensive intervention and requires a great deal of engagement on the part of managers. However, the benefits are that if managers get engaged with their workers to this high degree the rewards can be great because managers are showing the love to workers and workers will in turn pay it forward to co-workers and to consumers who…

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…making sure that all employees are getting enough paid leave time, are using vacation time (which should be mandated) and having opportunities to do events with their families. Having family functions is a good way to help bring family and work together in a fun way, such as employee appreciation picnics that workers can bring their families to. Employees should also have access to a family counselor on staff who can help them with family issues if they are occurring.

Evaluate Employee Performance

Murphy’s Law is that anything that can go wrong will go wrong, so one way to conduct an employee assessment is to have face-to-face interviews in which the managers get to know their employees and assess their performance. There is also an opportunity in this way to gauge temperament, which can be a good indicator of whether the employee will make a good leader. The Five Factor theory classifies the personality types as:

1. Extraverted

2. Agreeable

3. Open

4. Conscientious, and

5. Neurotic (Canadas-De la Fuente et al., 2015)

This theory allows the manager to see what the strengths and weaknesses of the personalities of the workers are and whether they would be conducive to leadership roles within the company.

Organizational Constraints that Lead to Counterproductive Behaviors

Organizational constraints that can lead to counterproductive behaviors include leadership struggles and environmental issues, such as lack of access to recreational rooms such as gyms for getting exercise during the workday, poor lighting, too much noise distraction, too little airflow, not enough greenery in the workplace, or too much…

Sample Source(s) Used


Cañadas-De la Fuente, G. A., Vargas, C., San Luis, C., García, I., Cañadas, G. R., &

Emilia, I. (2015). Risk factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome in the nursing profession. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 240-249.

Meacham, W. (2017). History of industrial and organizational psychology. Retrieved from

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