… judge by their actions. Even though Thomas Paine (1791) had identified the “Rights of Man” in his treatise by the same name, the american were not really interested in applying Enlightenment philosophy to its fullest, for they still wished to deny the Negro his fair share of … in freeing slaves in states still occupied by the Rebels of the South. However, Emancipation Proclamation was still hardly the turning point in African-american relations that was needed—and Lincoln himself had been working on a plan that would see the slaves deported to a new black state … to do so to this day. However, the dominant culture of America was always one in which the White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) population had a controlling stake. It was this population’s “Manifest Destiny” as O’Sullivan put it in the 19th century to control the lands as far as the eye could see—and……
Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/compare.html
Guelzo, A. C. (2000). Lincoln and the Abolitionists. The Wilson Quarterly, 24(4), 58-70.
O’Sullivan, J. (1845). Annexation. United States Magazine and Democratic Review, 17(1), 5-10.
Paine, T. (1791). The rights of man. Retrieved from https://www.ushistory.org/Paine/rights/
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
Why american Democracy Has Failed and Why the Anti Federalists were Right
The Declaration of Independence, written in 1776, asserted that “all men are … and questionable reversals of principle, human rights were gradually protected by the US Constitution. What this shows, however, is that the ideal of american Democracy was not always in alignment with the reality of democracy in America. [2: Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript] [3: Rousseau, … same idea. The ideal of equality, of equal rights among all people, and of collective bargaining still exists in America. The ideals of american Democracy are always being pursued in some form or another. It is the reality of governance that tends to present the problems and … type of government that the Anti-Federalists envisioned for themselves.
Yet, equal respect in the context of public decisions is nonetheless a hallmark of american Democracy as far as……
Declaration of Independence. (1776). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript
Rousseau, J. (2018). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/
Van Voris, J. (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 1.
Hunt, L. (2016). "Introduction: The Revolutionary Origins of Human Rights." In The French Revolution and Human Rights: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd Edition, edited by Lynn Hunt, 1-31 (Boston: Bedford), 5.
National Assembly. “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 26 August 1789.” Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite. http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty--equality--fraternity/item/3216
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Brutus No. 1. (1787). http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus01.htm
Gun Violence Effect on African american Community
The African american community has faced the brunt of the criminal justice system in the aftermath of gun violence. For starters, the violence takes a toll ……
Armstrong, M., & Carlson, J. (2019). Speaking of trauma: The race talk, the gun violence talk, and the racialization of gun trauma. Palgrave Communications, 5(112). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0320-z
Maxson, C. L., Hennigan, K, and D. C. Sloane. (2003). For the sake of the neighborhood? Civil gang injunctions as a gang intervention tool in Southern California. In Scott H. Decker, Ed. Policing Gangs and Youth Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning
Morris, S. (2018). Mass shootings in the US: There have been 1,624 in 1,870 days. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2017/oct/02/america-mass-shootings-gun-violence
Payne, B. K. (2006). Weapon bias: split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Curr Directions Psychological Sci, 15(6), 287–291.
Roman, J. K. (2013).Race, justifiable homicide, and stand your ground laws: Analysis of FBI supplementary homicide report data. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=265405
Schopper, D., Lormand, J. D.,&Waxweiler, R (eds). (2006).Developing policies to prevent injuries and violence: guidelines for policy-makers and planners. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Tate, J., Jenkins, J., Rich, S., Muyskens, J., Elliott, K., Mellnik, T., &Williams, A. (2016).How the Washington Post is examining police shootings in the United States. The Washington Post.
Tita, G. E., Troshynski, E., & Graves, M. (2007). Strategies for reducing gun violence: The role of gangs, drugs, and firearm accessibility. Research Report: National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC). Retrieved from https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/rdcng-gn-vlnc/rdcng-gn-vlnc-eng.pdf
The Violence Policy Center (2020) notes that African american are only 13% of the US population yet they represent more than half of all american homicides; but what is worse is that 87% of African american homicides are killed by guns. It is evident from these statistics that gun violence among the African american community is a real problem. This paper will provide an overview of the problem, who it affects and why it is important for … for social workers to address it.
Overview of the Problem
Who is Affected
According to FBI data, in 2016 there were 7,756 African american homicide victims in the US. This equals to a homicide rate for African american of 20.44 per 100,000 (Violence Policy Center, 2020). 6,505 out of 7,442 victims were killed with guns. 17% of the killings were gang … community that is being destroyed by gun violence but……
Brown, J. (2005). Tupac Shakur, (2-Pac) in the Studio: The Studio Years (1989-1996). Phoenix, AZ: Colossus Books.
Carbado, D. W. (2017). From Stop and Frisk to Shoot and Kill: Terry v. Ohio's Pathway to Police Violence. UCLA L. Rev., 64, 1508.
Howard University. (2020). PHD in social work. Retrieved from https://socialwork.howard.edu/admissions/programs-study/phd-social-work
Jones, N. (2014). “The regular routine”: Proactive policing and adolescent development among young, poor black men. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2014(143), 33-54.
Llewellyn, J. J., Archibald, B. P., Clairmont, D., & Crocker, D. (2013). Imagining success for a restorative approach to justice: Implications for measurement and evaluation. Dalhousie LJ, 36, 281.
Spergel, I., Wa, K., & Sosa, R. (2005). Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago.
Violence Policy Center. (2020). Black homicide victimization. Retrieved from http://vpc.org/revealing-the-impacts-of-gun-violence/black-homicide-victimization/
Effects of Domestic Violence on African- american Women: Opinion Paper
Issue and History of the Issue
Young women are primary victims of domestic violence and it has been estimated that … violence in the U.S. (NCADV, 2017). This issue is therefore one that is quite serious, but it is one that particularly impacts the African-american community. African-american women struggle particularly because the African-american family has suffered for decades in the U.S. because of a number of issues—from the incarceration of black men to such an extent … number of issues—from the incarceration of black men to such an extent that black disproportionately make up a greater percentage of the prison population than any other group to the fact that black culture has been abused by the pushing of drugs culture and liberalism into the … when black women were used and abused by their Masters on plantations (Franklin, 2000). That……
Adorno, T., & Horkheimer, M. (2007). The culture industry: Enlightenment as mass deception. Stardom and celebrity: A reader, 34.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Bent-Goodley, T.B. (2001). Eradicating domestic violence in the African American community: A literature review and action agenda. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse: A Review Journal, 2,316-330.
Franklin, D.L. (2000). What\\\\\\'s love got to do with it? Understanding and healing the rift Between Black men and women. New York: Simon and Schuster
NCADV. (2017). Statistics. Retrieved from https://ncadv.org/statistics
Institute for Women’s Policy Research. (2017). Violence Against Black Women – Many Types, Far-reaching Effects. Retrieved from https://iwpr.org/violence-black-women-many-types-far-reaching-effects/
Jones, F. (2014). Why Black Women Struggle More With Domestic Violence. Retrieved from https://time.com/3313343/ray-rice-black-women-domestic-violence/
Lee, C. (2017). Inside Whitney Houston’s Violent Marriage to Bobby Brown. Retrieved from https://www.thedailybeast.com/inside-whitney-houstons-violent-marriage-to-bobby-brown
Health Disparities and Homeless population
The causes of homelessness are complex but its tragic consequences are very clear. Homelessness is a huge problem in many rural areas, towns, … problem in many rural areas, towns, and cities across the world. It is also a public health problem. The homeless are a vulnerable population. They not only live a poor quality of life on the streets but they also face hunger and are at a high risk … with social determinants is building physical and social environments that bring about good health (Fajardo-Bullón et al, 2019).
Identifying Health Disparities in Homeless population
Homelessness is linked to great health disparities including higher morbidity, reduced life expectancy, and greater use of emergency hospital services. When viewed via …
In the city of Philadelphia, the age –adjusted death rate of the homeless is nearly four times higher than that of Philadelphia’s general population. While……
Andaya, A. (2016). Understanding the Causes Health Disparities among the Homeless. UC Merced Undergraduate Research Journal, 9(1).
Fajardo-Bullón, F., Esnaola, I., Anderson, I., & Benjaminsen, L. (2019). Homelessness and self-rated health: evidence from a national survey of homeless people in Spain. BMC public health, 19(1), 1081.
Koh, H. K., & O’Connell, J. J. (2016). Improving health care for homeless people. Jama, 316(24), 2586-2587.
Plumb J. D. (2000). Homelessness: reducing health disparities. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l\\\\\\'Association medicale canadienne, 163(2), 172–173.
The elderly population, like every other population in the world today, can benefit from changes that have occurred in the world thanks to technological revolutions. The Internet, for instance, has … than at any point in human history. Technology can thus be used to address some of the changes and challenges within the elderly population today. Those changes and challenges include changes in environment as the population moves into assisted living and combating isolation and depression, which can occur in this population. Likewise, because of the nature of the globalized world it is more likely that this population will be more diverse than it has been in the past, which means there will be a greater need for understanding among the … cope with these changes in an effective manner.
Future Changes and Challenges
A New Environment
One of the biggest changes that the elderly population will face as……
Aging and Disability Services. (2013). Promote Healthy Aging. Retrieved from http://www.agingkingcounty.org/healthy_aging.htm
Baker, T. A. (2014). The importance of aging studies: Understanding the influence of diversity and culture. Age Culture Humanities: An Interdisciplinary Journal (1). Retrieved from http://ageculturehumanities.org/WP/the-importance-of-aging-studies-understanding-the-influence-of-diversity-and-culture/
Banks, M. R., Willoughby, L. M., & Banks, W. A. (2008). Animal-assisted therapy and loneliness in nursing homes: use of robotic versus living dogs. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 9(3), 173-177.
Brojeni, S. A., Ilali, E. S., Taraghi, Z., & Mousavinasab, N. (2019). Lifestyle and its related factors in elderly. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, 6(1), 32.
Cornwell, E. Y., & Waite, L. J. (2009). Measuring social isolation among older adults using multiple indicators from the NSHAP study. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64(suppl_1), i38-i46.
Landeiro, F., Barrows, P., Musson, E. N., Gray, A. M., & Leal, J. (2017). Reducing social isolation and loneliness in older people: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open, 7(5), e013778.
Liu, S. J., Lin, C. J., Chen, Y. M., & Huang, X. Y. (2007). The effects of reminiscence group therapy on self-esteem, depression, loneliness and life satisfaction of elderly people living alone. Mid-Taiwan Journal of Medicine, 12(3), 133-142.
Moore, E. G., & Rosenberg, M. W. (2001). Canada's elderly population: the challenges of diversity. Canadian Geographer, 45(1), 145.
Should Reparations be Paid to Native american and African american?
Today, there are approximately 3.4 million Native american and 40 million African american in the United States (U.S. people, 2019), and virtually all of these individuals have ancestors that unfairly suffered at the hands of the … governments at some point in the nation’s history. The research topic of interest to this paper concerns the issue of reparations for certain american minority groups that have suffered hundreds of years of injustice at the hands of the U.S. government. In this regard, the research question … of injustice at the hands of the U.S. government. In this regard, the research question that will guide this analysis is, “Should Native american and African american be paid reparations?” The overarching thesis that shaped the answer to this guiding research question as was follows: Historical injustices including genocide, oppression, … of millions of people……
Bradford, W. (2004). Beyond reparations: An American Indian theory of justice. Ohio State Law Journal.
Flavin, F. E. (2002, Winter). A pox on Amherst: Smallpox, Sir Jeffery, and a town named Amherst. Historical Journal of Massachusetts, 30(1), 1-5.
Forrester, K. (2019). Reparations, history and the origins of global justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.
Gilmore, B. & Adams, H. (2019). The case for a reparations clinic. Michigan State Law Review.
Howard-Hassmann, R. E. (2004). Reparations to Africa and the group of eminent persons. Cahiers d’étudesafricaines.
Lenzerini, F. (2007). Reparations for indigenous peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lockhart, P. (2019, June 19). The 2020 Democratic primary debate over reparations, explained. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/3/11/18246741/ reparations-democrats-2020-inequality-warren-harris-castro.
Loewen, J. W. (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York: The New Press.
The Indian Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 was meant to establish peace in the nation and to give the Native american their own territory where they could practice their own activities, traditions and culture without interference from the american government. However, the Act resulted in the forced migration of thousands of Native american from their traditional homelands to a region of the U.S. that did not suit their lifestyle or their culture. Many suffered and died … the Southern states to Oregon. Though Jackson may have had good intentions at the time, the removal can now be viewed as an american tragedy that might have been prevented. In fact, it was just one example of an exercise in human rights abuses in a long … it was just one example of an exercise in human rights abuses in a long history of human rights abuses committed……
Crockett, Davy, “On the removal of the Cherokees, 1834,” Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-now/spotlight-primary-source/davy-crockett-removal-cherokees-1834
“The Magnetic Telegraph.” Ladies’ Repository 10(1850): 61-62. O’Sullivan, John. “Annexation.” United States Magazine and Democratic Review, vol.17, no. 1 (July-August 1845): 5-10.
Sevier, John. Letter to the Cherokee. DPLA. https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/cherokee-removal-and-the-trail-of-tears/sources/1500
Brown-Rice, Kathleen. "Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans." Professional Counselor 3, no. 3 (2013).
Cave, Alfred A. "Abuse of power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian removal act of 1830." The Historian 65, no. 6 (2003): 1330-1353.
Cherokee Preservation Foundation. “About the Eastern Band.” Cherokee Preservation, 2010. http://cherokeepreservation.org/who-we-are/about-the-ebci/
… encompasses understanding of one's cultural identity, characteristics, prejudices, principles, and views (Pamela, 2008). In the society that I am a part of, my African-american cultural/racial community is regarded as a minority community. With regard to age, I am a part of the dominant age group of adults. … disabilities. With regard to spirituality and my religious background, my community is neutral. With regard to racial/ethnic identity, I belong to a non-dominant population, namely, people of color. If one looks at my social class, one will see that I belong to the dominant population of upper middle class persons. My gender orientation is also dominant in society (I am a heterosexual person). With regard to indigenous background-related … indigenous background-related cultural identity, my own is neutral. As I was born in America, my nationality coincides with that of the society's dominant population. Furthermore, my gender expression as well as gender……
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Babbitt, N. (2013). Identities: Markers of power and privilege. Retrieved from https://justdessertsblog.wordpress.com/2013/09/15/identities-markers-of-power-and-privilege/
Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15, 177-194.
Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto. New York: Harper & Row.
Cross, W. E. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Horowitz, R. (1939). Racial aspects of self-identification in nursery school children. Journal of Psychology, 7, 91-99.
Kambon, K. (I 992). The African personality in America: An Aitricancentered framework. Tallahassee, FL: Nubian Nation Publications
Kardiner, A., & Ovesey, L. (1951). The mark of oppression. New York: Norton.
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