Study Document

Using an Epidemiological Approach to Critically Analyze a Population Health Problem Essay

Pages:7 (2136 words)



Topic:Health Issues

Document Type:Essay



Psychosocial Factors. A feeling of workplace well- being serves as a key component of employee strategy. Of late, there has been considerable focus on this element, particularly in the healthcare sector and with healthcare workers. In western countries, the combination of an unappealing workplace atmosphere, work-linked stress, a shortage of practitioners, and an increasingly elderly population underscores the necessity of updated studies in this area. The concept of well- being is a summative one, encompassing physical, societal, and emotional facets within as well as external to the organization (i.e., workplace). Further, it is a key factor determining productivity – psychosocial, organizational climate, which encompasses work climate, social support, and works recognition is believed to have a significant influence on the workplace well- being. Psychosocial elements make up elements like job satisfaction, physical workload, and social support on the job (Goetz, Berger, Gavartina, Zaroti & Szecsenyi, 2015).

Psychosocial elements denote interactions between workplace conditions, atmosphere, and content, as well as employee capability, requirements, culture, and extra- work-related personal aspects that might, based on experience and perception, have an impact on personnel health, workplace performance, and satisfaction. Thus, evaluating these facets might prove vital to preventing occupational ailments and fostering employee health.

Psychosocial elements and health problems. "Psychosocial" elements like stress, job control, resentment, depression, and despair appear to be linked to physical wellbeing, especially heart ailment. Adverse risk profiles about psychosocial facets group with generic social disadvantage. Owing to the above, the "psychosocial hypothesis" puts forward the idea that psychosocial components constitute a major source of inequities in the domain of health. Such components include several psychological characteristics, states, or social-environmental components with negative connotations (Macleod & Smith, 2003).

One point worth taking into account is the way "psychosocial adversity" may end up contributing to a physical ailment. It probably has the potential to promote unhealthy behaviors like smoking, or potentially directly result in neuroendocrine perturbations which impact illness risk. Here, it would be prudent to introduce the difference between basic and contingent sources (which are termed, elsewhere, as sufficient and probabilistic grounds respectively). The relationship between a contingent source and a healthcare outcome is dependent on the association of the former with any fundamental source. Hence, psychosocial adversity may end up, resulting in greater illness risks in scenarios wherein psychosocial adversity proved to be linked positively to smoking. All these relationships aren't automatic (Macleod & Smith, 2003).

Karasek model. Karasek created a model influencing Demand-Control, which scrutinizes factors associated with psychosocial workplace attributes. Moreover, it regards occupational stress to be the product of differences between work conditions and reaction capability of employees carrying out workplace tasks, and control available for fulfilling their demands (Fernandes & Rocha, 2009).

Karasek's (1981) model stresses the following psychosocial work dimensions: control of work and mental demands of developed vocational tasks. Control relates to skill development and application, for instance, the need for learning new practices, innovativeness, level of repetition, special unique skill development, and diversified tasks. Psychological demands encompass conditions employees are bound by during their activities, including variables measuring volume, pace, task performance time, and the presence of contradictory demands.

A blend of lower- and higher-level experiences about the two dimensions leads to diverse work characteristics as represented by the several four groups. These groups include low demand (i.e., a great degree of control over work at low mental demand), high work demand (low control but high demand), active work (i.e., high control as well as demand), and passive work (i.e., low control as well as demand). Some such scenarios may be deemed to be risk factors likely contributing to the development of physical and psychological pathology in working-class members (Fernandes & Rocha, 2009).

Section 1

The Problem

My chosen work environment is educational institutions, with teachers/educators being the target population. Educators are increasingly present with major occupational health issues. They are routinely allocated, increasing tasks that surpass those allotted traditionally to their role. Such tasks largely decide student…

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…group members, will be systematically chosen. The latter encompasses educators suffering from hypertension. Educators teaching at diverse schools will be considered and approached for the study. The former group will encompass educators not suffering from hypertension. The informed consent of study subjects will be acquired. Additionally, subjects will receive assurance that they are free to quit the study whenever they desire during the study, and their information will remain highly confidential. Information gleaned from participants will only be utilized for study purposes.

Demographic information and work characteristics of participants: Data collection will be performed using a structured questionnaire, with revised WHO STEPS protocol applied (World Health Organization, 2019). A researcher-created socio-demographic questionnaire will be administered to gather demographic data (such as age, sex, marital status, etc.), informational problems, and work specificities (School Type, Scientific Area, Number of Years Worked, Contract Type, Work Schedule Type, Work Hour Percentage, Greater Overload Function, and Number of cumulative tasks carried out).

Measures/Tools: The measures described below will be utilized in the research.

Interview comprising of close-ended questions: Answers to some questions linked to familial and personal history, and eating, salt consumption, and smoking habits will be gathered via a short interview. Height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and hip circumference will be accordingly measured in case of control as well as case groups.

Kessler psychological distress scale (K10): This ten-item scale (Kessler et al., 2002) represents a small though highly reliable tool for the evaluation of general psychological distress. Founded on psychological distress self- reporting over the past one month, symptoms are measured based on a five-step Likert scale ("no day," "few days," "some days," "most days," "every day"), with the overall score lying between 10 and 50.

Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (COPSOQ): This highly dependable (Kristensen et al., 2005) scale aims at appraising PRs at work. COPSOQ is a valuable instrument that collects global consensus on adequacy for the assessment of several salient psychosocial dimensions. It is different from other similar scales in that…

Sample Source(s) Used


Cladellas, R., & Castelló, A. (2011). University Professors' Stress and Perceived State of Health in Relation to Teaching Schedules. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(23), 217–240.

Eatough, E., Way, J., & Chang, C. (2012). Understanding the link between psychosocial work stressors and work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Appl Egron, 43(3), 554-63. Retrieved from

Fernandes, M., & Rocha, M. (2009). Impact of the psychosocial aspects of work on the quality of life of teachers. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 31(1). Retrieved from

Goetz, K., Berger, S., Gavartina, A., Zaroti, S., & Szecsenyi, J. (2015). How psychosocial factors affect wellbeing of practice assistants at work in general medical care? – a questionnaire survey. BMC Fam Pract, 16, 166. DOI: 10.1186/s12875-015-0366-y

Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library. (2019). Case-control study. Retrieved from

Jardim, J., & Pereira, A. (2016). Perceived impact of lifelong training in teachers. Interacções, 31(42), 22–31.

Karasek, R., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahlbom, A., & Theorell, T. (1981). Job decision latitude, job demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men. Am J Public Health, 71(7), 694-705.

Kessler, R. C., Andrews, G., Colpe, L. J., Hiripi, E., Mroczek, D. K., Normand, S. L. T., … Zaslavsky, A. M. (2002). Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32(6), 959–976. Retrieved from

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